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Pathogens and Global Health

Balaji Veeraraghavan, Jobin John Jacob, John Antony Jude Prakash, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Vignesh Narasimman, Shalini Anandan
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens that are responsible for self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans. The present study aims at the molecular characterisation and comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg strain P5558 isolated from the pus samples of a patient suffering from stump infection. The isolate was subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility test to understand the phenotypical characteristics. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out and comparative genomics using computational tools showed the antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profile of the isolates from the genome sequence data...
February 6, 2019: Pathogens and Global Health
André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Patrick Gérardin, Luiza Kassar, Maria Rita Donalisio
Although traditionally chikungunya virus is considered non-fatal, recent studies suggest that there may be in fact underreporting of deaths in some situations. A major chikungunya epidemic hit Jamaica in 2014 but no chikungunya-associated deaths were reported. We assessed the excess of all-cause deaths during this epidemic. Excess deaths were estimated by difference between observed and expected mortality based on the average age-specific mortality rate of 2012-2013, using the 99% confidence interval. There was an excess of 2,499 deaths during the epidemic (91...
February 4, 2019: Pathogens and Global Health
Mehdi Kalani, Maral Choopanizadeh, Manoochehr Rasouli
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening disease in which a variety of cytokines regulating the immune responses can determine its outcome. As based on their region in the gene, some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) can influence the expression of their corresponding proteins, this study aimed to investigate the association between SNP in the IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ genes and susceptibility to VL. The study was carried out on 120 patients with VL, 67 patients' families (family group), and 102 healthy individuals with positive leishmanin skin test as positive control group...
January 15, 2019: Pathogens and Global Health
Mayara S Rodrigues, Caio F R de Oliveira, Luís H O Almeida, Simone M Neto, Ana Paula A Boleti, Edson L Dos Santos, Marlon H Cardoso, Suzana M Ribeiro, Octávio L Franco, Fernando S Rodrigues, Alexandre J Macedo, Flávia R Brust, Maria Lígia R Macedo
The biological activities and the structural arrangement of adevonin, a novel antimicrobial peptide, were investigated. The trypsin inhibitor ApTI, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds, was used as a template for screening 18-amino acid peptides with predicted antimicrobial activity. Adevonin presented antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.86 to 7.35 µM against both Gram-positive and - negative bacterial strains. Moreover, adevonin exerted time-kill effects within 10 min and both susceptible and drug-resistant bacterial strains were affected by the peptide...
December 20, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Kathy Belk, Mark P Connolly, Lisa Schlesinger, Ruben R Ben-Harari
Toxoplasmosis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States (US). Clinical manifestations to toxoplasmosis vary and there is limited information on incidence or treatment patterns in the US. Treatment pathways for pyrimethamine-based regimens and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for toxoplasmosis hospitalizations were investigated using the Vizient Health Systems inpatient and outpatient data. Between January 1st , 2011 and December 31st , 2017, 10,273 hospital visits from 4,736 unique patients received a primary or secondary ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnosis for toxoplasmosis...
December 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Olaf Horstick, Ross Boyce, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger
This review discusses biological and chemical methods for dengue vector control, using recently emerging summary evidence, meta-analyses and systematic reviews to conclude on practical public health recommendations for Aedes control, which is increasingly relevant in an era of widespread Chikungunya, yellow feer and Zika outbreaks. The analysis follows an a priori framework of systematic reviews by the authors on vector control methods, distinguishing vector control methods into biological, chemical and environmental methods...
December 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Senaka Rajapakse, Milanka Wattegama, Praveen Weeratunga, P Chathurani Sigera, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando
Dengue infection classically presents with fever, thrombocytopaenia, and varying degrees of plasma leakage, giving rise to shock. However, a myriad of other manifestations, involving the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the gut and the haematological system have been reported in dengue. This review summarizes these varied presentations.
December 3, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Olubusuyi Moses Adewumi, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Christopher Olaoluwa Okeowo, Akintunde Michael Oladapo, Joyce Oyathelemhi, Olawumi A Olaniyi, Oluwatoyosi Catherine Isola, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji
We previously attempted to identify 96 nonpolio enteroviruses (EVs) recovered in RD cell culture from children <15 years with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria. We succeeded in identifying 69 of the isolates. Here, we describe an attempt to identify the remaining 27 isolates. Twenty-six (the 27th isolate was exhausted) isolates/samples that could not be typed previously were further analyzed. All were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, enterovirus 5'-UTR-VP2 PCR assay and a modified VP1 snPCR assay...
November 26, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Kamgang Basile, Williams Tchapga, Carine Ngoagouni, Claire Sangbakembi-Ngounou, Murielle Wondji, Jacob M Riveron, Charles S Wondji
Malaria remains the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the Central African Republic. However, the main malaria vectors remain poorly characterised, preventing the design of suitable control strategies. Here, we characterised the patterns and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in three important vectors from Bangui. Mosquitoes were collected indoors, using electrical aspirators in July 2016 in two neighborhoods at Bangui. WHO bioassays performed, using F2 An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), revealed a high level of resistance to type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin) pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (< 3% mortality)...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Gloria Luz Paniagua-Contreras, Eric Monroy-Pérez, Areli Bautista, Rogelio Reyes, Andrea Vicente, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Clara Estela Díaz, Stephanía Martínez, Pablo Domínguez, Luis Rey García, Alina Uribe-García, Sergio Vaca
Virulence and antibiotic resistance properties related to different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups have not been studied in detail in Mexico. We aimed to identify patterns of virulence genes and multidrug resistance in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic strains (UPEC). Strains of E. coli were isolated from outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), who went to unit of the public health sector in the State of Mexico. E. coli virulence markers and phylogenetic groups were identified by PCR. Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials was determined by Kirby-Bauer...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sinem Uğur, Nefise Akçelik, Fatma Neslihan Yüksel, Neslihan Taşkale Karatuğ, Mustafa Akçelik
In this study, the effects of dam and seqA genes on the formation of pellicle and biofilm was determined using five different Salmonella serovars S. Group C1 (DMC2 encoded), S. Typhimurium (DMC4 encoded), S. Virchow (DMC11 encoded), S. Enteritidis (DMC22 encoded), and S. Montevideo (DMC89 encoded). dam and seqA mutants in Salmonella serovars were performed by the single step lambda red recombination method. The mutants obtained were examined according to the properties of biofilm on the polystyrene surfaces and the pellicle formation on the liquid medium...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sineenart Oota, Kriangsak Chaiwong, Soisaang Pikulsod, Rachanee Khuenkaew, Siriluk Pheakkhuntod, Pornthip Rattajak, Patcharakorn Kramkratok, Carlum Shiu, Sonu Bhatnagar, Tasanee Sakuldamrongpanich
Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I and II (HTLV-I/II) are closely related but distinct retroviruses that can infect humans. Both the viruses can be transmitted via transfusion of contaminated blood components. HTLV pre-transfusion screening is not mandatory in Thailand until now. Current epidemiological data for HTLV prevalence is still lacking since the past surveys were done more than a decade ago. The main objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among voluntary blood donors in Thailand...
November 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Ye Mun Low, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Lay Ching Chai, Stuart C Clarke, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant pathogens poses a serious threat to global health. However, less emphasis has been placed to co-relate the gene expression and metabolism of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study aims to elucidate gene expression and variations in metabolism of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to antibiotics. Phenotypic responses of three genotypically distinct carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains untreated and treated with sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem were investigated via phenotype microarrays (PM)...
October 31, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
W M K T De A W Gunasekera, R G Premaratne, O V D S J Weerasena, W S Premawansa, S M Handunnetti, S D Fernando
The utility of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/PAN (HRP2/pLDH) Ag Combo Test, in detecting non-endemic clinical malaria cases was evaluated in Sri Lanka, a country in prevention of re-establishment of malaria following elimination. RDT, microscopy and nested PCR were performed for 350 suspected malaria patients recruited prospectively. There were 173 PCR confirmed malaria patients and 177 PCR negative subjects. Plasmodium falciparum amounted to 48% of infections with 44% P. vivax, 6% P. ovale and 2% P. malariae. Performance characteristics of RDTs and microscopy were compared with nested PCR...
October 24, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Adel Mirza Alizadeh, Sahar Jazaeri, Bahar Shemshadi, Fataneh Hashempour-Baltork, Zahra Sarlak, Zahra Pilevar, Hedayat Hosseini
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread zoonotic protozoan which poses a great threat to human health and economic well-being worldwide. It is usually acquired by ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats or by the ingestion of raw or undercooked foodstuff containing tissue cysts. The oocyst can contaminate irrigation water and fresh edible produce. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the human population worldwide harbor this parasite...
October 22, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Min Han Lew, Rahmah Noordin, Mohammed Monsur Alam Khan, Gee Jun Tye
Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease in human and animals, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Our previous study has led to the discovery of a novel RAP domain binding protein antigen (TgRA15), an apparent in-vivo induced antigen recognised by antibodies in acutely infected individuals. This study is aimed to evaluate the humoral response and cytokine release elicited by recombinant TgRA15 protein in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating its potential as a candidate vaccine for Toxoplasma gondii infection. In this study, the recombinant TgRA15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded into soluble form...
October 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Shahira A Ahmed, Milena Guerrero Flórez, Panagiotis Karanis
Waterborne protozoa (WBP) are important cause of several outbreaks all over the world. The report system of WBP in Africa is weak. More than one third of African countries (21/54) reported WBP with absent reports in the remaining countries (33/54). The top reported WBP were Cryptosporidium, Giardia, FLA and Entamoeba contaminating different African water resources. Other protozoa were less documented even though it is abundant and robust. More than one protozoa were detected in contaminated African water including drinking sources, a prediction index to popular epidemics and real presence of undocumented WBP outbreaks...
October 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Gary Kim Kuan Low, Seng-Chiew Gan, Norsafina Zainal, Komala Devi Naidu, Syafinaz Amin-Nordin, Ching-Soong Khoo, Mohd Isa Ridzuan, Rosaida Mohd Said, Melor Mohd Mansor, Mohd Hanif Zailani, Hui-Yee Chee, Sheng Jye Lim, Jeyanthi Suppiah, Santhi Appu, Izani Ismail, Thaw Zin, Kian Keong Te, Nadia Mohd Hatta
This study aimed to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pentraxin 3 (PTX-3) as predictive and diagnostic markers in differentiating severe dengue from non-severe dengue. The study was conducted in Ampang Health Clinic, Ampang Hospital and Serdang Hospital. The plasma levels of VEGF and PTX-3 were compared between severe dengue and non-severe dengue by ELISA from the day of presentation until discharged. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop predictive and diagnostic models by incorporating other clinical parameters...
September 22, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sandra Bos, Gilles Gadea, Philippe Despres
Dengue disease is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. At least one half of the global population is estimated at risk of infection and an estimated 390 million people are infected each year. Over the past few years, dengue burden continued to increase, mainly impacting developing countries. Alarming changes in dengue epidemiology were observed highlighting a spread from tropical to subtropical regions as well as urban to rural areas. An increase in the co-infections with the four serotypes has also been noticed, involving a shift in the targeted population from pediatric to adult...
September 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Kaustubh Bora, Dulmoni Das, Bhupen Barman, Probodh Borah
BACKGROUND: Internet-videos, though popular sources of public health information, are often unverified and anecdotal. We critically evaluated YouTube videos about Zika virus available during the recent Zika pandemic. METHODS: Hundred-and-one videos were retrieved from YouTube (search term: zika virus). Based upon content, they were classified as: informative, misleading or personal experience videos. Quality and reliability of these videos were evaluated using standardized tools...
August 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
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