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Paediatrics & Child Health

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833824/knowledge-and-practice-of-harm-reduction-behaviours-for-alcohol-and-other-illicit-substance-use-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Kathryn Potter, Heidi Virtanen, Paola Luca, Danièle Pacaud, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Laura Kaminsky, Josephine Ho
Objective: To survey adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) about their knowledge and application of harm-reduction recommendations when they engage in alcohol and other illicit substance use. Methods: Cross-sectional survey and chart review of adolescents with T1DM aged 13 to 18 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients were approached and 164 were included in the analysis. Mean age was 15.6 years (standard deviation [SD]=1...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833823/timing-of-introduction-of-allergenic-solids-for-infants-at-high-risk
#2
REVIEW
Elissa Abrams, Kyla Hildebrand, Becky Blair, Edmond S Chan
Food allergy affects an estimated 2 to 10% of the population, with evidence of increasing prevalence over time. Preventing food allergy has become an important public health goal. Health Canada currently recommends breastfeeding infants exclusively until they are 6 months old, while acknowledging that in individual practice, signs of infant readiness may guide the introduction of complementary foods a few weeks earlier. There is emerging evidence that early food introduction, between 4 and 6 months of age, may have a role in preventing food allergy, particularly for egg and peanut, in high-risk infants...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833822/diagnosis-and-management-of-typical-newly-diagnosed-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-itp-of-childhood
#3
REVIEW
Jeremy N Friedman, Carolyn E Beck
This practice point applies to children aged 90 days through 17 years who have typical, newly diagnosed primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Current recommendations on management and information from recent studies are summarized with the goal of decreasing variable practice among providers and improving patient-centred care. Options for initially managing young patients with ITP who experience bruising, petechiae, or occasional mild epistaxis not interfering with daily living include observation without pharmacotherapy as a first-line option...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833821/approaches-to-detecting-tuberculosis-in-children-and-youth
#4
REVIEW
Nicole Le Saux
This practice point provides a framework for initiating investigation in children suspected of having infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Some areas in Canada have a high burden of tubercular disease, with Indigenous populations being most at risk. Tuberculosis (TB) can present either as an acute or subacute illness and both primary or reactivation infection can cause pulmonary or multisystem disease. Tuberculin skin tests and interferon-γ release assays can be used to support a suspected diagnosis...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833820/salmonella-infections-in-canadian-children
#5
REVIEW
Joan L Robinson
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are primarily transmitted by contaminated food or water or contact with carrier animals (particularly reptiles), and present with diarrhea. Antibiotics do not decrease the severity or duration of diarrhea and may increase the incidence of NTS carriage, so they should only be used with suspected or proven bacteremia or invasive infection. Typhoid/paratyphoid fever manifests as bacteremia within 60 days of travel to resource-poor countries and presents with fever and variable abdominal complaints...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30833819/hiv-in-pregnancy-identification-of-intrapartum-and-perinatal-hiv-exposures
#6
REVIEW
Dorothy L Moore, Upton D Allen
The benefits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in pregnancy, when combined with appropriate maternal antiretroviral therapy and intrapartum and postnatal prophylaxis, are well established. The vertical rate of transmission of HIV in North America is now well below 2%. Efforts must continue to ensure that these benefits are sustained. Women who have received little or no prenatal care and those who present for delivery with unknown HIV status need immediate testing. As more infants are exposed to antiretroviral agents, strategies need to be implemented to ensure adequate follow-up of these infants...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804695/five-steps-to-paediatric-vision-screening
#7
Elizabeth Y Lee, Nirojini Sivachandran, Gloria Isaza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30793710/erratum-effect-of-music-brahms-lullaby-and-non-nutritive-sucking-on-heel-lance-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#8
Hiroko Uematsu, Ikuko Sobue
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/pch/pxy072.].
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792609/oral-morphine-protocol-evaluation-for-the-treatment-of-vaso-occlusive-crisis-in-paediatric-sickle-cell-patients
#9
Hugo Paquin, Evelyne D Trottier, Nancy Robitaille, Yves Pastore, Marie-Joelle Dore Bergeron, Benoit Bailey
Background: Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is one of the most frequent causes of emergency visit and admission in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate whether the implementation of a protocol promoting the use of oral morphine as a primary intervention has led to improved care of SCD. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with SCD who presented to the emergency department (ED) and hematology outpatient clinic (HOC) with VOC, in the year pre and postimplementation of the protocol...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792608/tooth-aches-injuries-related-to-toothbrush-use
#10
Deepa P Rao, Steven McFaull
Objectives: A toothbrush is a medical device that is widely used for oral hygiene practices at almost all ages. Descriptive studies of toothbrush-related injuries (TRI) are fairly limited, with existing studies mainly focusing on case reports. The present study sought to describe TRIs in Canada, including the contexts within which they occur. Methods: The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database, years 1990 to 2016, was queried for cases of TRI...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792607/effect-of-music-brahms-lullaby-and-non-nutritive-sucking-on-heel-lance-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#11
Hiroko Uematsu, Ikuko Sobue
Objectives: This study examined a more effective pain management method, without sucrose, on heel lance in preterm infants using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Design: In a nonblinded, randomized controlled, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial, 25 infants were randomly allocated to intervention (a Brahms lullaby with non-nutritive sucking, facilitated tucking and holding) or standard care (facilitated tucking and holding). Setting: Local Perinatal Medical Centre's NICU in Japan, July 2014 until June 2015...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792606/understanding-paediatric-patients-attitudes-toward-obesity-and-expectations-prior-to-entering-a-weight-management-program
#12
Karen Bailey, Bethany Easterbrook, Henrietta Blinder, Jen Hoogenes, Katherine Morrison
Objective: This qualitative study explored attitudes toward weight management and knowledge of healthy, active living among paediatric patients referred to a weight management program. The objective of this study was to determine the emotional state and attitudes of patients entering into a paediatric weight management program. Methods: Study participants (aged 7 to 17 years old) were recruited during clinic orientation. Semistructured interviews were conducted, audiotaped and transcribed verbatim...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792605/the-ups-and-downs-of-trampolines-injuries-associated-with-backyard-trampolines-and-trampoline-parks
#13
Deepa P Rao, Steven R McFaull, James Cheesman, Minh T Do, Laura K Purcell, Wendy Thompson
Objective: To compare characteristics associated with backyard trampoline injuries (BTI) and trampoline park injuries (TPI) using records from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (eCHIRPP). Methods: eCHIRPP records for trampoline injuries (2012 to 2016) were extracted using variable codes and narratives, and injuries were examined among individuals 17 years and younger. Descriptive estimates for BTI and TPI, as well as age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the mechanism, source, body part and type of injury associated with TPIs relative to BTIs, are presented...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792604/all-terrain-vehicle-serious-injuries-and-death-in-children-and-youth-a-national-survey-of-canadian-paediatricians
#14
Peter J Gill, Thomas McLaughlin, Daniel Rosenfield, Charlotte Moore Hepburn, Natalie L Yanchar, Suzanne Beno
Background: All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) are a leading cause of serious injury in children and youth. Certain Canadian regions have implemented legislation to promote safety, including age restrictions, mandatory training and helmet use. Jurisdictions with more stringent ATV safety legislation have been shown to have reduced injury rates in the short term. Objectives: To estimate the burden of ATV-related serious injury and death in Canada and to identify Canadian physicians' knowledge of ATV-related legislation, safety and health promotion practices...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792603/children-need-privacy-too-respecting-confidentiality-in-paediatric-practice
#15
Justine Noiseux, Harold Rich, Nathalie Bouchard, Crystal Noronha, Franco A Carnevale
There is a paucity of published research and normative standards to guide health care providers in managing issues related to children's confidentiality. In this article, we examine challenges regarding the respect for confidentiality with children and youth in health care and offer guiding principles for clinical practice. We present an ethical framework and practice recommendations for: (a) respecting confidentiality for children who have decision-making capacity (as legally defined in different jurisdictions) and (b) recognizing some degree of respect for confidentiality among children who do not have decision-making capacity...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792602/management-practice-related-and-modifiable-factors-associated-with-paediatric-emergency-return-visits
#16
Quynh Doan, Ran D Goldman, Garth D Meckler
Objectives: We explored practice-related factors associated with preventable unscheduled return visits to an emergency department (RTED). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using standardized review of health records. We included all visits with at least one RTED within 7 days of the index visit. Cases were reviewed by investigators and clinicians to identify: 1) the proportion of unscheduled RTED, 2) the proportion deemed clinically unnecessary and 3) the contribution of clinical practice pattern and system factors...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792601/excellence-in-clinical-care-is-the-most-important-thing-but-not-the-only-thing
#17
Jonathan B Kronick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792600/serious-self-harm-requiring-intensive-care-unit-admission-understanding-near-fatal-suicide-attempts
#18
Daphne J Korczak, Robin Skinner, Raelyne Dopko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792599/how-to-screen-for-aces-in-an-efficient-sensitive-and-effective-manner
#19
Priya Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792598/adverse-childhood-experiences-basics-for-the-paediatrician
#20
Gabriella Jacob, Meta van den Heuvel, Nimo Jama, Aideen M Moore, Lee Ford-Jones, Peter D Wong
In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences study established the profound effects of early childhood adversity on life course health. The burden of cumulative adversities can affect gene expression, immune system development and condition stress response. A scientific framework provides explanation for numerous childhood and adult health problems and high-risk behaviours that originate in early life. In our review, we discuss adverse childhood experiences, toxic stress, the neurobiological basis and multigenerational and epigenetic transmission of trauma and recognized health implications...
February 2019: Paediatrics & Child Health
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