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Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Christine G Parks, Armando Meyer, Laura E Beane Freeman, Jonathan Hofmann, Dale P Sandler
OBJECTIVES: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some studies have evaluated the effects of pesticides, but other agricultural exposures may also affect immune response. METHODS: We investigated non-pesticide agricultural exposures in relation to RA in licensed pesticide applicators (n=27 175, mostly male farmers) and their spouses (n=22 231) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort (1993-1997) who completed at least one follow-up survey through 2015...
February 13, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Catherine L Callahan, Melissa C Friesen, Sarah J Locke, Pamela J Dopart, Patricia A Stewart, Kendra Schwartz, Julie J Ruterbusch, Barry I Graubard, Wong-Ho Chow, Nathaniel Rothman, Jonathan N Hofmann, Mark P Purdue
OBJECTIVES: Lead is a suspected carcinogen that has been inconsistently associated with kidney cancer. To clarify this relationship, we conducted an analysis of occupational lead exposure within a population-based study of kidney cancer using detailed exposure assessment methods. METHODS: Study participants (1217 cases and 1235 controls), enrolled between 2002 and 2007, provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected lead-related occupations, answered questions regarding workplace tasks, and use of protective equipment...
February 13, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Aisha S Dickerson, Johnni Hansen, Aaron J Specht, Ole Gredal, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has indicated links between lead (Pb) exposure and increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we evaluated the association between occupational Pb exposures and ALS. METHODS: ALS cases were ascertained through the Danish National Patient Registry from 1982 to 2013 and age and sex-matched to 100 controls. Using complete employment history since 1964 from the Danish Pension Fund, cumulative Pb exposure was estimated for each subject via a Danish job exposure matrix...
January 31, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Bradley A Evanoff, Marcus Yung, Skye Buckner-Petty, Johan Hviid Andersen, Yves Roquelaure, Alexis Descatha, Ann Marie Dale
OBJECTIVES: Job exposure matrices (JEMs) can be constructed from expert-rated assessments, direct measurement and self-reports. This paper describes the construction of a general population JEM based on self-reported physical exposures, its ability to create homogeneous exposure groups (HEG) and the use of different exposure metrics to express job-level estimates. METHODS: The JEM was constructed from physical exposure data obtained from the Cohorte des consultants des Centres d'examens de santé (CONSTANCES)...
January 31, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Theodore Lytras, Manolis Kogevinas, Hans Kromhout, Anne-Elie Carsin, Josep Maria Antó, Hayat Bentouhami, Joost Weyler, Joachim Heinrich, Dennis Nowak, Isabel Urrutia, Jesús Martínez-Moratalla, José Antonio Gullón, Antonio Pereira Vega, Chantal Raherison Semjen, Isabelle Pin, Pascal Demoly, Bénédicte Leynaert, Simona Villani, Thorarinn Gíslason, Øistein Svanes, Mathias Holm, Bertil Forsberg, Dan Norbäck, Amar J Mehta, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Geza Benke, Rain Jogi, Kjell Torén, Torben Sigsgaard, Vivi Schlünssen, Mario Olivieri, Paul D Blanc, John Watkins, Roberto Bono, A Sonia Buist, Roel Vermeulen, Deborah Jarvis, Jan-Paul Zock
OBJECTIVES: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related phenotype, with distinct clinical features and prognostic implications. Occupational exposures have been previously associated with increased risk of CB but few studies have examined this association prospectively using objective exposure assessment. We examined the effect of occupational exposures on CB incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. METHODS: Population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993, and followed up twice over 20 years...
January 30, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Francois Dupont, Pierre-Majorique Léger, Mickael Begon, François Lecot, Sylvain Sénécal, Elise Labonté-Lemoyne, Marie-Eve Mathieu
In order to reduce sedentary behaviour at work, research has examined the effectiveness of active workstations. However, despite their relevance in replacing conventional desks, the comparison between types of active workstations and their respective benefits remains unclear. The purpose of this review article is thus to compare the benefits between standing, treadmill and cycling workstations. Search criteria explored Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases. The review included studies concerning adults using at least two types of active workstations, evaluating biomechanical, physiological work performance and/or psychobiological outcomes...
January 28, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kate Lewkowski, Jane S Heyworth, Ian W Li, Warwick Williams, Kahlia McCausland, Corie Gray, Elinor Ytterstad, Deborah C Glass, Adrian Fuente, Si Si, Ines Florath, Lin Fritschi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current prevalence of exposure to workplace noise and ototoxic chemicals, including co-exposures. METHOD: A cross-sectional telephone survey of nearly 5000 Australian workers was conducted using the web-based application, OccIDEAS. Participants were asked about workplace tasks they performed and predefined algorithms automatically assessed worker's likelihood of exposure to 10 known ototoxic chemicals as well as estimated their full shift noise exposure level (LAeq,8h ) of their most recent working day...
January 25, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Rocio Villar, Laura Serra, Consol Serra, Fernando G Benavides
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to occupational risk factors during pregnancy and absence from work using two different social benefits. METHOD: Three working pregnancy trajectories (WPT) were identified in a cohort of 428 pregnant workers from a healthcare institution (period 2010-2014), based on absence days and using cluster analysis. WPT1 included absences mainly covered by sickness absence benefit (32.0% of women), WPT2 included absences covered by pregnancy occupational risk (POR) benefit (28...
January 23, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Minjie Chu, Shuangshuang Wu, Wei Wang, Yuhui Yu, Mingjiong Zhang, Lingli Sang, Tian Tian, Yihua Lu, Weiwei Yuan, Qiqing Huang, Min Yi, Yuexia Gao, Jing Xiao, Yulong Lian, Xun Zhuang, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Jianqing Wu
OBJECTIVES: In a genome-wide association study, we discovered chromosome 12q15 (defined as rs73329476) as a silica-related pneumoconiosis susceptibility region. However, the causal variants in this region have not yet been reported. METHODS: We systematically screened eight potentially functional single-neucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the genes near rs73329476 (carboxypeptidase M ( CPM ) and cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 ( CPSF6 )) in a case-control study including 177 cases with silicosis and 204 healthy controls, matched to cases with years of silica dust exposure...
January 23, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Deborah Catherine Glass, Anthony Del Monaco, Sabine Pircher, Stephen Vander Hoorn, Malcolm Ross Sim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality and cancer incidence of female firefighters, a group where there are limited published findings. METHODS: Participating fire agencies supplied records of individual firefighters including the number and type of incidents attended. The cohort was linked to the Australian National Death Index and Australian Cancer Database. Standardised mortality ratios and standardised cancer incidence ratios were calculated separately for paid and volunteer firefighters...
January 23, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Elina Mauramo, Jouni Lahti, Tea Lallukka, Eero Lahelma, Olli Pietiläinen, Ossi Rahkonen
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between changes in common mental disorders (CMD) and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence (SA) among midlife and ageing municipal employees. METHODS: Data from the Helsinki Health Study phase I (2000-2002) and phase II (2007) surveys among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, were linked with prospective register data from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland on diagnosis-specific (mental, musculoskeletal, other causes) SA (n=3890)...
January 23, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Fraser Brims
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jie Xie, Guihua Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Fankun Zhou, Junfang Wu, Huan Jiao, Yanshu Li, Ying Chen, Lu Ouyang, Dandan Bo, Chang Feng, Wei Yang, Guangqin Fan
OBJECTIVES: A significant number of researches have evidenced that occupational lead (Pb) exposure increased risks of cardiovascular disease. However, evidences about the potential effects of Pb on the cardiac conduction system are sparse and inconclusive. Besides, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) induced dysfunction of cardiac excitation contraction coupling which is considered to be one of the mechanisms in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the association between occupational Pb exposure and ECG conduction abnormalities, as well as RyRs in Pb-induced ECG abnormalities...
January 19, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Vaughn Barry, Andrew C Todd, Kyle Steenland
OBJECTIVES: Bone lead and past blood lead levels may be more strongly associated with current health effects than current blood lead, representing recent exposure. We examined whether current bone lead was correlated with maximum past blood lead and compared how three lead measures predicted current blood pressure (BP) and kidney function among workers with past occupational lead exposure. METHODS: Adult men in a lead surveillance programme residing near New York City were enrolled...
January 19, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Paula Edeusa Cristina Hammer, Anne Helene Garde, Luise Moelenberg Begtrup, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Johnni Hansen, Åse Marie Hansen, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Henrik A Kolstad, Ann Dyreborg Larsen, Anja Bisgaard Pinborg, Ina Olmer Specht, Jens Peter Bonde
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the acute effect of night work during pregnancy on the risk of calling in sick the following day using register-based information and the workers as their own controls. METHODS: Using the payroll-based national Danish Working Hour Database, including all public hospital employees in Denmark, we identified 9799 pregnant women with ≥1 day shift and ≥1 night shift and ≥1 day of sick leave during the first 32 pregnancy weeks from January 2007 to December 2013...
January 19, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Milene Torp Madsen, Lars Rauff Skadhauge, Anders Daldorph Nielsen, Jesper Baelum, David Lee Sherson
INTRODUCTION: Anhydrides are widely used as cross-linking agents in epoxy resins and alkyd production, for example, as coatings and adhesives in plastic products. Sensitisation to several anhydrides is known to cause occupational asthma. There are indications that the lesser known pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) can cause irritative respiratory symptoms and possibly asthma. We report three cases of workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant, who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenge (SIC)...
January 11, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Arif Jetha, Robert Shaw, Adrienne R Sinden, Quenby Mahood, Monique Am Gignac, Mary Ann McColl, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
OBJECTIVE: Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase where careers are established. Young adults with chronic disabling health conditions are underrepresented in the labour market. Our study aims to examine the effectiveness of work-focused interventions that support the labour market transition of young adults with chronic disabling health conditions; and to examine whether the effectiveness of work-focused interventions differ across work transition phase (eg, preparation, entry and sustaining work, employment advancement) and disability type...
January 11, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Johan Høy Jensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Janne Skakon, Naja Hulvej Rod, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVES: We examined exposure to different types of organisational changes at work as risk factors for subsequent prescription for psychotropic medication among employees. METHODS: The study population included 15 038 public healthcare employees nested within 1284 work units in the Capital Region of Denmark. Multilevel mixed-effects parametric survival models were developed to examine time to prescription for psychotropic medications (anxiolytics/hypnotics/sedatives/antidepressants) during the 12-month interval following exposure to organisational changes relative to no change from January to December 2013...
January 7, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Norman Jones, Chantelle Whelan, Larissa Harden, Andrea Macfarlane, Howard Burdett, Neil Greenberg
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a military resilience intervention which aimed to help UK military recruits to manage their personal health and well-being more effectively. METHODS: Trainers within six pre-existing training teams were randomly allocated by team to deliver a resilience-based intervention (SPEAR) or usual training (control) during recruit training. 23 trainers delivered SPEAR; 18 delivered the control training. 707 recruits participated (n=358 SPEAR and n=349 controls)...
December 18, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Ine Ilona Decuyper, Athina Van Gasse, Margaretha Antje Faber, Christel Mertens, Jessy Elst, Hans-Peter Rihs, Vito Sabato, Hilde Lapeere, Margo Hagendorens, Chris Bridts, Luc De Clerck, Didier Ebo
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis allergy has mainly been described following recreational use but some cases also point to cannabis sensitisation as a result of occupational exposure. As a consequence, little is known on the prevalence and clinical phenotype of occupational cannabis allergy. Therefore, this study aims to explore the allergy-associated health risks of occupational cannabis exposure in Belgian police force personnel. METHODS: 81 participants, active in the police force, reporting regular occupational cannabis exposure during the past 12 months, were included...
December 15, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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