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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Patrick J Highton, Fernanda R Goltz, Naomi Martin, David J Stensel, Alice E Thackray, Nicolette C Bishop
PURPOSE: Microparticles (MPs) are shed extracellular vesicles that express the pro-thrombotic tissue factor (TF). Aerobic exercise may reduce MP count and TF expression. This study investigated the impact of acute running or rest followed by standardised meal consumption on MP phenotypes and TF expression. METHODS: 15 males (age: 22.9 ± 3.3 years; body mass: 81.9 ± 11.4 kg; V[Combining Dot Above]O2 max 54.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg·min; mean ± SD) completed 1h of running (70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) or rest at 9am, and consumed a standardised meal (1170 kcal, 43% CHO, 17% PRO, 40% fat) at 10:45am...
March 19, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Shelbi L Sutterfield, Andrew M Alexander, Shane M Hammer, Kaylin D Didier, Jacob T Caldwell, Thomas J Barstow, Carl J Ade
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine values and ranges for key aerobic fitness variables that can individually map the level of success for planetary mission tasks performance for long-duration spaceflight. With the goal to develop a predictor-testing model that can be performed with in-flight equipment. METHODS: We studied a group of 45 men and women who completed a series of mission critical tasks; a surface traverse task and a hill climb task. Participants performed each mission task at a low and moderate intensity designed to elicit specific metabolic responses similar to what is expected for ambulation in Lunar and Martian gravities, respectively...
March 12, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Peta Forsyth, Jo Miller, Kate Pumpa, Kevin G Thompson, Ollie Jay
PURPOSE: Establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors. METHODS: 31 trained males (8 tetraplegic (TP; C5-C8), 7 high paraplegic (HP; T1-T5), 8 low paraplegic (LP; T6-L1) and 8 able-bodied (AB)) performed 3×10-min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of: a) 4.0 W/kg (AB vs. TP), or b) 6.0 W/kg (AB vs. HP vs. LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity (RH)...
March 6, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew E Holman, Ashraf S Gorgey
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) negatively impacts muscle quality and testosterone levels. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) following SCI, while testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve muscle quality in other populations. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if the combined effects of these interventions, TRT+RT, may maximize the beneficial effects on muscle quality after SCI. METHODS: Twenty-two SCI subjects randomized into either a TRT+RT (n = 11) or TRT (n = 11) intervention for 16 weeks...
March 5, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Shawn R Eagle, Anthony P Kontos, Qi Mi, Shawn D Flanagan, Bradley C Nindl, Kim Beals, Chris Connaboy
Concussions are common in military personnel and may result in increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. One plausible explanation for this risk could be that neuromotor deficiencies enhance injury risk following concussion through altered muscular activation/contraction timing. PURPOSE: To compare military personnel with at least one concussion during the past 1 month to 2 years (CONCUSSED) to military branch-, age- and Special Operations Forces group- matched controls (CONTROL) on physiological, musculoskeletal and biomechanical performance...
March 4, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Rebecca K Randell, James M Carter, Asker E Jeukendrup, Maria Antonia Lizarraga, Javier I Yanguas, Ian Rollo
PURPOSE: Large inter-individual variation exists in maximal fat oxidation rates (MFO) and the exercise intensity at which it occurs (FATMAX). However, there is no data describing the shape of the fat oxidation curve or, if individual differences exist when tested on separate occasions. Furthermore, there is limited data on fat metabolism in professional team sport athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test-retest the concavity (shape) and intercept (height) of fat oxidation curves within a group of professional soccer players...
March 4, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yi Sun, Brandt D Pence, Selena Shiyue Wang, Jeffrey A Woods
Studies suggest that exercise can improve vaccination responses in humans. Chronic stress can lead to immunosuppression, and there may be a role for exercise in augmenting immune responses. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute eccentric exercise (ECC) and voluntary wheel exercise training (VWR) on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to vaccination in chronically stressed mice. We hypothesized that both ECC and VWR would attenuate chronic stress-induced reductions in vaccination responses...
March 1, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ryan E Ross, Michael E Saladin, Mark S George, Chris M Gregory
Aerobic exercise (AEx) exerts antidepressant effects, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such effects are not well understood. Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and elevated cortisol have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and appear to normalize with antidepressant treatment. Thus BDNF and cortisol may serve as biological targets for developing AEx as an antidepressant treatment. PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of AEx, of different intensities, on serum BDNF and cortisol in individuals with and without depression...
March 1, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Steve Foulkes, Erin J Howden, Ashley Bigaran, Kristel Janssens, Yoland Antill, Sherene Loi, Piet Claus, Mark J Haykowsky, Robin M Daly, Steve F Fraser, Andre La Gerche
PURPOSE: Anthracycline chemotherapy (AC) is associated with acute reductions in cardiopulmonary fitness (VO2peak). We sought to determine whether changes in VO2peak and cardiac function persisted at 12-months post-AC completion, and whether changes in cardiac function explain the heightened long-term heart failure risk. METHODS: Women with breast cancer scheduled for AC (n=28) who participated in a non-randomized trial of exercise training (ET; n=14) or usual care (UC; n=14) during AC completed a follow-up evaluation 12-months post-AC completion (16-months from baseline)...
March 1, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Asier Mañas, José Losa-Reyna, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Sebastien F M Chastin, Luis M Alegre, Francisco J García-García, Ignacio Ara
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) is considered the best non-pharmacological treatment for the decrease in bone mass (BM) produced during ageing. Therefore, it is essential to assess how the time spent in PA is distributed in order to control further changes. This work examines the relationship between movement behaviours and BM during ageing, using compositional data analysis. METHODS: We studied 227 older people aged 65 to 94 (102 men and 125 women) divided by sex and bone status, over a period of 4 years...
March 1, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Simon D Angus
INTRODUCTION: Breaking the sub-2 hour marathon in an official event has attracted growing interest in recent times with commercial and international momentum building. Here it is shown that predicting how likely, and when, the sub-2 hour barrier will be broken are statistically coupled considerations. METHODS: Using a non-linear limiting exponential model and calculating prediction intervals, a statistical timetable for the sub-2 hour event is produced over a range of likelihoods...
February 26, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Austin R Swisher, Blake Koehn, Stanley Yong, Jonathan Cunha, Carrie Ferguson, Daniel T Cannon
PURPOSE: We aimed to measure 1) the dynamics of locomotor fatigue during constant supra-critical power cycling, and 2) the magnitude of any reserve in locomotor power at intolerance to constant and ramp-incremental cycling in recreationally-active volunteers. METHODS: Fifteen participants (7 women and 8 men, 22±3 yr, 3.34±0.67 L.min V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) completed ramp-incremental and very-heavy constant power (205±46 W) exercise to the limit of tolerance...
February 26, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sarah Kozey Keadle, Eli S Kravitz, Charles E Matthews, Marilyn Tseng, Raymond J Carroll
PURPOSE: Interest in a variety of physical behaviors (e.g., exercise, sitting time, sleep) in relation to health outcomes creates a need for new statistical approaches to analyze the joint effects of these distinct but inter-related physical behaviors. We developed and tested an integrated physical behavior score (PBS). METHODS: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study participants (N=163,016) completed a questionnaire (2004-2006) asking about time spent in five exercise and non-exercise physical activities, two sedentary behaviors (television and non-television), and sleep...
February 26, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matteo Fiorenza, Morten Hostrup, Thomas P Gunnarsson, Yusuke Shirai, Federico Schena, F Marcello Iaia, Jens Bangsbo
PURPOSE: To examine the degree of neuromuscular fatigue development along with changes in muscle metabolism during two work-matched high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols in trained individuals. METHODS: In a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design, eleven endurance-trained men performed high-intensity intermittent cycle exercise protocols matched for total work and including either multiple short- (18×5 s; SS) or long-duration (6×20 s; LS) sprints...
February 26, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
C Elizabeth Shaaban, Howard Jay Aizenstein, Dana R Jorgensen, Rebecca L M Mahbubani, Nicole A Meckes, Kirk I Erickson, Nancy W Glynn, Joseph Mettenburg, Jack Guralnik, Anne B Newman, Tamer S Ibrahim, Paul J Laurienti, Abbe N Vallejo, Caterina Rosano
Identifying promoters of cerebral small vein integrity is important to counter vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. PURPOSE: In this preliminary investigation, the effects of a randomized 24-month physical activity (PA) intervention on changes in cerebral small vein integrity were compared to those of a health education (HE) control. METHODS: Cerebral small vein integrity was measured in 24 older adults (n=8, PA; n=16, HE) using ultra-high field MRI before and at the end of the 24-month intervention...
February 26, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Reid A Mitchell, Kyle G Boyle, Andrew H Ramsook, Joseph H Puyat, William R Henderson, Michael S Koehle, Jordan A Guenette
PURPOSE: The physiological consequences of freely chosen cadence (FCC) during cycling remains poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of cadence on the respiratory and hemodynamic response to cycling exercise. METHODS: Eleven cyclists (10M:1F; age=27±6yr; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max=60.8±3.7ml·kg·min) completed four, 6-min constant-load cycling trials at 10% below their previously determined gas exchange threshold (i.e., 63±5% peak power) while pedaling at 60, 90, and 120rpm, and a FCC (94...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yo Shih, Hsiang-Ling Teng, Christopher M Powers
PURPOSE: High vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) loading rates are thought to contribute to lower extremity injuries in runners. Given that elevated lower extremity stiffness has been reported to be associated with increased GRFs, the purpose of the current study was to determine if overall lower extremity stiffness, or individual joint angular excursions and/or torsional stiffness are predictive of the average vGRF loading rate during running. METHODS: Forty heel-strike runners (20 males and 20 females) ran overground at a speed of 3...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
J Chadwick Smith, Brandi R Washell, Mary Frances Aini, Sydney Brown, MacGregor C Hall
INTRODUCTION: Static stretching (SS) has been used for inducing acute and long-term increases in range of motion (ROM). Foam rolling (FR) has recently gained popularity for acutely increasing ROM. However, the long-term effects of FR on ROM have not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and long-term changes in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) as a result of six weeks of FR, SS, and FR followed by SS (FR + SS). METHODS: Participants (n = 44) were randomly assigned to FR, SS, and FR + SS groups...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mahsa Modarress-Sadeghi, Petteri Oura, Juho-Antti Junno, Maisa Niemelä, Jaakko Niinimäki, Timo Jämsä, Raija Korpelainen, Jaro Karppinen
BACKGROUND: Vertebral fractures reduce the quality of life and are a major burden to the health care sector. Small vertebral size is associated with increased vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between physical activity and vertebral size, but their results seem somewhat contradictory. In this population-based birth cohort study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and vertebral size. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1202 cohort participants who underwent PA and vertebral size measurements at the age of 46-48...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Peter J McKnight, Luke A Bennett, Jon J Malvern, David P Ferguson
PURPOSE: Automobile racing is widely known to be physically demanding, however there is no published information comparing the physical fitness variables of elite level race car drivers across various competitive championships. METHODS: We documented the body composition, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and isometric neck strength in a sample of elite race car drivers currently competing in Formula 1, IndyCar, NASCAR, and International Motor Sports Association sports car racing (IMSA GTD), in order to determine current human performance benchmarks and establish goals for drivers wishing to compete in these series...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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