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Malaria Journal

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744666/implications-of-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vector-control-with-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-evidence-from-health-facility-data-from-benin
#1
Filémon T Tokponnon, Yolande Sissinto, Aurore Hounto Ogouyémi, Adicath Adéola Adéothy, Alioun Adechoubou, Télesphore Houansou, Mariam Oke, Dorothée Kinde-Gazard, Achille Massougbodji, Martin C Akogbeto, Sylvie Cornelie, Vincent Corbel, Tessa B Knox, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Martin J Donnelly, Immo Kleinschmidt, John Bradley
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based interventions have averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000, but insecticide resistance in mosquitoes could bring about a rebound in disease and mortality. This study investigated whether insecticide resistance was associated with increased incidence of clinical malaria. METHODS: In an area of southern Benin with insecticide resistance and high use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), malaria morbidity and insecticide resistance were measured simultaneously in 30 clusters (villages or collections of villages) multiple times over the course of 2 years...
February 11, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736864/prescribing-patterns-and-compliance-with-world-health-organization-recommendations-for-the-management-of-severe-malaria-a-modified-cohort-event-monitoring-study-in-public-health-facilities-in-ghana-and-uganda
#2
H Hilda Ampadu, Kwaku Poku Asante, Samuel Bosomprah, Samantha Akakpo, Pierre Hugo, Helga Gardarsdottir, Hubert G M Leufkens, Dan Kajungu, Alexander N O Dodoo
BACKGROUND: Injectable artesunate (AS) is the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended medication for the treatment of severe malaria followed with an oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). There are few studies indicating how physicians prescribe injectable AS, injectable quinine (Q) or injectable artemether (AR) and ACT for severe malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate prescription compliance to the WHO recommendation in 8 public health facilities in Ghana and Uganda...
February 8, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736813/effects-of-azadirachta-indica-seed-kernel-extracts-on-early-erythrocytic-schizogony-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-pro-inflammatory-response-in-inbred-mice
#3
Annette Habluetzel, Barbara Pinto, Sofia Tapanelli, Judith Nkouangang, Michela Saviozzi, Giuseppina Chianese, Annalisa Lopatriello, Alain Rodrigue Tenoh, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Fulvio Esposito, Fabrizio Bruschi
BACKGROUND: Medicinal plant research may contribute to develop new pharmacological control tools for vector borne diseases, such as malaria. METHODS: The effects of methanol extracts (ME) obtained from seed kernel of ripe and unripe Azadirachta indica fruits were studied on erythrocytic proliferation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei strain ANKA and on mice pro-inflammatory response, as evaluated by measuring the matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plasma levels, in two mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) which are considered as prototypical of Th1 and Th2 immune response, respectively...
February 8, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728021/aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-as-malarial-drug-targets-a-comparative-bioinformatics-study
#4
Dorothy Wavinya Nyamai, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Treatment of parasitic diseases has been challenging due to evolution of drug resistant parasites, and thus there is need to identify new class of drugs and drug targets. Protein translation is important for survival of malarial parasite, Plasmodium, and the pathway is present in all of its life cycle stages. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are primary enzymes in protein translation as they catalyse amino acid addition to the cognate tRNA. This study sought to understand differences between Plasmodium and human aminoacyl tRNA synthetases through bioinformatics analysis...
February 6, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717748/correction-to-performance-of-an-ultra-sensitive-plasmodium-falciparum-hrp2-based-rapid-diagnostic-test-with-recombinant-hrp2-culture-parasites-and-archived-whole-blood-samples
#5
Smita Das, Roger B Peck, Rebecca Barney, Ihn Kyung Jang, Maria Kahn, Meilin Zhu, Gonzalo J Domingo
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors flagged an error concerning a reference to a product in the Methods section.
February 4, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709399/how-can-interventions-that-target-forest-goers-be-tailored-to-accelerate-malaria-elimination-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-a-systematic-review-of-the-qualitative-literature
#6
Stephanie D Nofal, Thomas J Peto, Bipin Adhikari, Rupam Tripura, James Callery, Thanh Mai Bui, Lorenz von Seidlein, Christopher Pell
BACKGROUND: Despite decreases in incidence and related mortality, malaria remains a major public health challenge in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The emergence of artemisinin resistance threatens these gains and has prompted efforts to accelerate elimination in the region. In the GMS, transmission now clusters in hotspots along international borders and among high-risk populations, including forest-goers. To eliminate malaria in the region, interventions must target such hard-to-reach populations...
February 1, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704496/genetic-variability-of-plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-proteins-2-and-3-in-central-america
#7
Gustavo Fontecha, Alejandra Pinto, Denis Escobar, Gabriela Matamoros, Bryan Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important disease in many tropical countries. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are valuable tools for diagnosing malaria in remote areas. The majority of RDTs used for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum are based on the detection of the specific histidine-rich proteins (PfHRP2 and PfHRP3). During the last decade, the threat posed by the lack of expression of these antigens and the variability of the proteins on the diagnosis of malaria has been widely discussed...
January 31, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700282/formation-primaquine-5-6-orthoquinone-the-putative-active-and-toxic-metabolite-of-primaquine-via-direct-oxidation-in-human-erythrocytes
#8
Pius S Fasinu, N P Dhammika Nanayakkara, Yan-Hong Wang, Narayan D Chaurasiya, H M Bandara Herath, James D McChesney, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas Khan, Babu L Tekwani, Larry A Walker
BACKGROUND: The activity and haemolytic toxicity associated with primaquine has been linked to its reactive metabolites. The reactive metabolites are thought to be primarily formed through the action of cytochrome P450 -mediated pathways. Human erythrocytes generally are not considered a significant contributor to drug biotransformation. As erythrocytes are the target of primaquine toxicity, the ability of erythrocytes to mediate the formation of reactive oxidative primaquine metabolites in the absence of hepatic enzymes, was evaluated...
January 30, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696441/swarms-of-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus-in-tanzania
#9
Emmanuel W Kaindoa, Halfan S Ngowo, Alex J Limwagu, Magellan Tchouakui, Emmanuel Hape, Said Abbasi, Japhet Kihonda, Arnold S Mmbando, Rukiyah M Njalambaha, Gustav Mkandawile, Hamis Bwanary, Maureen Coetzee, Fredros O Okumu
BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus mosquitoes currently contribute more than 85% of ongoing malaria transmission events in south-eastern Tanzania, even though they occur in lower densities than other vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis. Unfortunately, the species ecology is minimally understood, partly because of difficulties in laboratory colonization. This study describes the first observations of An. funestus swarms in Tanzania, possibly heralding new opportunities for control. METHOD: Using systematic searches by community-based volunteers and expert entomologists, An...
January 29, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691446/does-artemether-lumefantrine-administration-affect-mosquito-olfactory-behaviour-and-fitness
#10
Jetske G de Boer, Annette O Busula, Jet Ten Berge, Tessa S van Dijk, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the recommended treatment against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections, and ACT is widely used. It has been shown that gametocytes may be present after ACT and transmission to mosquitoes is still possible. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is a broadly used artemisinin-based combination medicine. Here, it is tested whether AL influences behaviour and fitness of Anopheles mosquitoes, which are the main vectors of P. falciparum...
January 28, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683128/prescriber-practices-and-patient-adherence-to-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-guinea-2016
#11
Alioune Camara, Leah F Moriarty, Timothée Guilavogui, Papa Sambou Diakité, Joseph Souba Zoumanigui, Sidikiba Sidibé, Ibrahima Bah, Ibrahima Kaba, Djebory Kourouma, Koho Zoumanigui, Mateusz Plucinski
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria for the control of malaria across the world. There are several types of ACT used across malaria-endemic countries, yet there is little information about preferences and adherence practices regarding different types of ACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of adherence to two types of ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ), for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among prescribers and patients in Guinea in 2016...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683107/streamlined-smfa-and-mosquito-dark-feeding-regime-significantly-improve-malaria-transmission-blocking-assay-robustness-and-sensitivity
#12
Tibebu Habtewold, Sofia Tapanelli, Ellen K G Masters, Astrid Hoermann, Nikolai Windbichler, George K Christophides
BACKGROUND: The development of malaria transmission-blocking strategies including the generation of malaria refractory mosquitoes to replace the wild populations through means of gene drives hold great promise. The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that involves mosquito feeding on parasitized blood through an artificial membrane system is a vital tool for evaluating the efficacy of transmission-blocking interventions. However, despite the availability of several published protocols, the SMFA remains highly variable and broadly insensitive...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683104/structure-of-rhoptry-neck-protein-2-is-essential-for-the-interaction-in-vitro-with-apical-membrane-antigen-1-in-plasmodium-vivax
#13
Perla Salgado-Mejias, Flavio L Alves, Kátia S Françoso, Karin A Riske, Emerson R Silva, Antonio Miranda, Irene S Soares
BACKGROUND: In several Apicomplexa, the formation of moving junctions (MJs) at the interface between the external membranes of the invading parasite and the host cell is essential for the process of parasite invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, the MJ is composed of the Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) and Rhoptry Neck Proteins (RONs) complex; specifically, AMA1 interacts with RON2 during host cell invasion. METHODS: Recombinant proteins based on Plasmodium vivax RON2 (A2033-P2100) and its synthetic peptide fragments, one cyclic and one linear, based on PvRON2 (D2035-T2074) were generated and used to evaluate the interaction with P...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683099/a-fast-and-cost-effective-microsampling-protocol-incorporating-reduced-animal-usage-for-time-series-transcriptomics-in-rodent-malaria-parasites
#14
Abhinay Ramaprasad, Amit Kumar Subudhi, Richard Culleton, Arnab Pain
BACKGROUND: The transcriptional regulation that occurs in malaria parasites during the erythrocytic stages of infection can be studied in vivo with rodent malaria parasites propagated in mice. Time-series transcriptome profiling commonly involves the euthanasia of groups of mice at specific time points followed by the extraction of parasite RNA from whole blood samples. Current methodologies for parasite RNA extraction involve several steps and when multiple time points are profiled, these protocols are laborious, time-consuming, and require the euthanization of large cohorts of mice...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683097/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-6-phosphogluconolactonase-characterization-of-the-plasmodium-vivax-enzyme-and-inhibitor-studies
#15
Kristina Haeussler, Isabell Berneburg, Esther Jortzik, Julia Hahn, Mahsa Rahbari, Norma Schulz, Janina Preuss, Viktor A Zapol'skii, Lars Bode, Anthony B Pinkerton, Dieter E Kaufmann, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
BACKGROUND: Since malaria parasites highly depend on ribose 5-phosphate for DNA and RNA synthesis and on NADPH as a source of reducing equivalents, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is considered an excellent anti-malarial drug target. In Plasmodium, a bifunctional enzyme named glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase (GluPho) catalyzes the first two steps of the PPP. PfGluPho has been shown to be essential for the growth of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683091/community-knowledge-and-acceptance-of-indoor-residual-spraying-for-malaria-prevention-in-mozambique-a-qualitative-study
#16
Amílcar Magaço, Carlos Botão, Pedroso Nhassengo, Mohomede Saide, Arminda Ubisse, Sérgio Chicumbe, Rose Zulliger
BACKGROUND: Malaria control remains a leading health challenge in Mozambique. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective strategy to control malaria transmission, but there are often barriers to reaching the coverage necessary for attaining maximum community protective effect of IRS. Mozambique recorded a high number of household refusals during the 2016 IRS campaign. This study sought to evaluate household and community factors related to the acceptability of IRS to inform strategies for future campaigns in Mozambique and the region...
January 25, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678733/collaborative-intelligence-and-gamification-for-on-line-malaria-species-differentiation
#17
María Linares, María Postigo, Daniel Cuadrado, Alejandra Ortiz-Ruiz, Sara Gil-Casanova, Alexander Vladimirov, Jaime García-Villena, José María Nuñez-Escobedo, Joaquín Martínez-López, José Miguel Rubio, María Jesús Ledesma-Carbayo, Andrés Santos, Quique Bassat, Miguel Luengo-Oroz
BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization recommendations for the management of malaria include the need for a parasitological confirmation prior to triggering appropriate treatment. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria has contributed to a better infection recognition and a more targeted treatment. Nevertheless, low-density infections and parasites that fail to produce HRP2 can cause false-negative RDT results. Microscopy has traditionally been the methodology most commonly used to quantify malaria and characterize the infecting species, but the wider use of this technique remains challenging, as it requires trained personnel and processing capacity...
January 24, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30674319/molecular-characterization-and-mapping-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-mutations-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion
#18
Germana Bancone, Didier Menard, Nimol Khim, Saorin Kim, Lydie Canier, Chea Nguong, Koukeo Phommasone, Mayfong Mayxay, Sabine Dittrich, Malavanh Vongsouvath, Nadine Fievet, Jean-Yves Le Hesran, Valerie Briand, Sommay Keomany, Paul N Newton, Gornpan Gorsawun, Kaelan Tardy, Cindy S Chu, Orpreeya Rattanapalroj, Le Thanh Dong, Huynh Hong Quang, Nguyen Tam-Uyen, Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Tran Tinh Hien, Michael Kalnoky, Francois Nosten
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination can only be achieved by the deployment of 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) in combination with ACT to kill both blood and liver-stage parasites. However, primaquine and the other 8-aminoquinolines cause dose-dependent haemolysis in subjects with G6PD deficiency, an X-linked disorder of red blood cells that is very common in populations living in tropical and subtropical areas. In order to inform safer use of 8-aminoquinolines in the Greater Mekong Subregion, a multi-centre study was carried out to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and to identify the main G6PD variants in samples collected in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam...
January 23, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670064/comparative-analysis-of-igg-and-igg-subclasses-against-plasmodium-falciparum-msp-1-19-in-children-from-five-contrasting-bioecological-zones-of-cameroon
#19
Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti, Tufon Anthony Kukwah, Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti, Babila Raymond Nyassa, Meriki Henry Dilonga, George Enow-Orock, Nicholas Tendongfor, Nota Damian Anong, Samuel Wanji, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
BACKGROUND: Studies reporting the natural immune responses against malaria in children from different geographical settings in endemic areas are not readily available. This study was aimed at comparing the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 antigen in children from five contrasting bioecological zones in Cameroon. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, children between 2 and 15 years, were enrolled from five ecological strata including the south Cameroonian equatorial forest, sudano-sahelian, high inland plateau, high western plateau, and the coastal strata...
January 22, 2019: Malaria Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670032/interaction-between-maternally-derived-antibodies-and-heterogeneity-in-exposure-combined-to-determine-time-to-first-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-kenyan-infants
#20
Arnold Reynaldi, Arlene E Dent, Timothy E Schlub, Sidney Ogolla, Rosemary Rochford, Miles P Davenport
BACKGROUND: Studies of the association between the level of anti-malarial antibody and protection from malaria infection can yield conflicting results if they fail to take into account differences in the malaria transmission rate. This can occur because high malaria exposure may drive high antibody responses, leading to an apparent positive association between immune response and infection rate. The neonatal period provides a unique window to study the protective effects of antibodies, because waning maternally-derived antibodies lead to different levels of protection with time...
January 22, 2019: Malaria Journal
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