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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Vincent Cattoir, Brice Felden
Conventional antibiotics have cured more diseases than all other drug classes combined. However, the pipeline of novel antibiotics is running dry while multi-drug resistance (MDR) is increasing at an alarming rate. Even though vaccines and antibodies are part of the toolkit against antimicrobial resistance, broadening the concept of 'antibiotic' is essential for innovation. Original roadmaps are needed to tackle the overwhelming MDR bacterial infections. The majority of 'in-use' antibacterial drugs derived from secondary metabolites that are produced by cultured soil microorganisms...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sangun Lee, Melanie Ginese, Don Girouard, Gillian Beamer, Christopher D Huston, Damon Osbourn, David W Griggs, Saul Tzipori
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis, an enteric protozoon, causes substantial morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea in children <2 years old in low-to-middle-income countries. There is no vaccine and treatments are inadequate. A piperazine-based compound MMV665917 has in vitro and in vivo efficacy against C. parvum. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of MMV665917 in gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with C. hominis, the species responsible for >75% of diarrhea reported in these children...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Catherine Godfrey, Andrew Bremer, Diana Alba, Caroline Apovian, John R Koethe, Suneil Koliwad, Dorothy Lewis, Janet Lo, Grace A McComsey, Alison Eckard, Suman Srinivasa, Janine Trevillyan, Clovis Palmer, Steven Grinspoon
Metabolic complications relating to complex effects of viral and immune mediated mechanisms are now a focus of clinical care among persons living with HIV (PWH) and obesity is emerging as a critical problem. To address knowledge gaps, the NIH sponsored a symposium in May 2018 entitled "Obesity and Fat Metabolism in HIV-infected Individuals." Mechanisms relating to adipose dysfunction and fibrosis, immune function, inflammation, and gastrointestinal integrity were highlighted as contributors to obesity among PWH...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pablo Tebas, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Ami Patel, Joel N Maslow, Matthew P Morrow, Albert J Sylvester, Dawson Knoblock, Elisabeth Gillespie, Dinah Amante, Trina Racine, Trevor McMullan, Moonsup Jeong, Christine C Roberts, Young K Park, Jean Boyer, Kate E Broderick, Gary P Kobinger, Mark Bagarazzi, David B Weiner, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Scott M White
BACKGROUND: Non-live vaccine approaches that are simple to deliver and stable at room temperature or 2-8°C could be advantageous in controlling future Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreaks. Using an immunopotent DNA vaccine that generates protection from lethal EBOV challenge in small animals and NHPs, we performed a clinical study to evaluate both intramuscular (IM) and novel intradermal (ID) DNA delivery. METHODS: Two DNA vaccine candidates (INO-4201 and INO-4202) targeting the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) were evaluated for safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in a Phase 1 clinical trial...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jessica Briggs, John Ategeka, Richard Kajubi, Teddy Ochieng, Abel Kakuru, Cephus Ssemanda, Razack Wasswa, Prasanna Jagannathan, Bryan Greenhouse, Isabel Rodriquez-Barraquer, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey
BACKGROUND: Placental malaria is a major cause of adverse birth outcomes. However, data are limited on the relationships between longitudinal measures of parasitemia during pregnancy and placental malaria. METHODS: Data come from 637 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) from Uganda. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia was assessed using microscopy and ultrasensitive quantitative PCR at intervals of 28 days from 12-20 weeks gestation through delivery...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zewu Zhang, Zhenglun Liang, Ji Zeng, Jikai Zhang, Peng He, Jiali Su, Yaoming Zeng, Renfeng Fan, Dan Zhao, Wenjun Ma, Gang Zeng, Qiaoli Zhang, Huizhen Zheng
BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that the immunogenicity and safety of the simultaneous administration of the combined EV71 vaccine with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenA) is not inferior to separate administration of each vaccine. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized, open-label, and non-inferiority trial, and was registered at (NCT03274102). A total of 775 healthy infants aged 6 months were randomized 1:1:1 to simultaneous administration (SI) or separate administration (SE1:EV71 and SE2: HepB followed by MenA)...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhidong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Xiao-Yong Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kristian Tonby, Rasmus Mortensen, Morten Ruhwald, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Synne Jenum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sydney Costantini, Rochelle P Walensky
While health care providers have largely turned a blind eye, the cost of health care in the US has been skyrocketing, in part as a result of rising drug prices. Patent protections and market exclusivity, while serving to incentivize targeted new drug development, have exacerbated inequitable outcomes and reduced access, sometimes fueling national epidemics. Branded drug manufacturers face few barriers to exorbitant pricing of drugs with exclusivity-as in the cases of Sovaldi, Zyvox, and Truvada. Furthermore, albendazole, pyrimethamine, and penicillin demonstrate that generic medications without patent exclusivity are not guaranteed to have durably low costs, especially where manufacturer competition is lacking...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shashi N Kapadia, Roy M Gulick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gino Agbota, Manfred Accrombessi, Gilles Cottrell, Yves Martin-Prével, Jacqueline Milet, Smaïla Ouédraogo, David Courtin, Achille Massougbodji, André Garcia, Michel Cot, Valérie Briand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Komal Raj Rijal, Bipin Adhikari, Prakash Ghimire, Megha Raj Banjara, Garib Das Thakur, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Mallika Imwong, Kesinee Chotivanich, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the main cause of malaria in Nepal. Relapse patterns have not been characterized previously. METHODS: Patients with P. vivax malaria were randomized to receive chloroquine (CQ: 25 mg base/kg given over 3 days) alone or together with primaquine (CQ+PQ: 0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) and followed intensively for one month, then at 1-2 month intervals for one year. Parasite isolates were genotyped. RESULTS: 101 (49%) patients received CQ and 105 (51%) received CQ+PQ...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
C Loiseau, M Requena, M Nayrac, M Mavigner, M Cazabat, A L Iscache, N Carrere, B Suc, L Alric, J Izopet, P Delobel
The restoration of CD4+ T cells, especially of Th17 cells, remains incomplete in the gut mucosa of most HIV-1-infected individuals despite sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART). Herein, we report an increase in absolute number of CXCR3+ T cells in the duodenal mucosa on ART. The frequencies of Th1 and CXCR3+ CD8+ T cells were increased and negatively correlated with CCL20 and CCL25 expression in the mucosa. Ex-vivo, we showed that IFN-γ, the main cytokine produced by Th1 and effector CD8+ T cells, down-regulates the expression of CCL20 and CCL25 by small intestine enterocytes, while it increases the expression of CXCL9/10/11, the ligands of CXCR3...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ting Shi, Angeline Denouel, Anna K Tietjen, Iain Campbell, Emily Moran, Xue Li, Harry Campbell, Clarisse Demont, Bryan O Nyawanda, Helen Y Chu, Sonia K Stoszek, Anand Krishnan, Peter Openshaw, Ann R Falsey, Harish Nair
Respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute respiratory infection (RSV-ARI) constitutes a substantial disease burden in older adults aged ≥65 years. We aimed to identify all studies worldwide investigating the disease burden of RSV-ARI in this population. We estimated the community incidence, hospitalization rate, and in-hospital case-fatality ratio (hCFR) of RSV-ARI in older adults, stratified by industrialized and developing regions, using data from a systematic review of studies published between January 1996 and April 2018 and 8 unpublished population-based studies...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elinor Hortle, Khelsey E Johnson, Matt D Johansen, Tuong Nguyen, Jordan A Shavit, Warwick J Britton, David M Tobin, Stefan H Oehlers
BACKGROUND: Infection-induced thrombocytosis is a clinically important complication of tuberculosis infection. Recent studies have highlighted the utility of aspirin as a host-directed therapy modulating the inflammatory response to infection, but have not investigated the possibility that the effect of aspirin is related to an anti-platelet mode of action. METHODS: Here we utilise the zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model to show mycobacteria drive host haemostasis through the formation of granulomas...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mariusz Wojnarski, Oussama Mouri, Charlotte Chambrion, Camille Roussel, Nathalie Chartrel, Bryan Smith, Philip Smith, Marc Thellier, Pierre Buffet, Papa Alioune Ndour
Pitting, the removal of dead parasites from their host erythrocyte, has been studied in patients with severe malaria treated parenterally with quinine or artesunate, and was recently shown to contribute to delayed hemolysis, a frequent adverse event of artesunate. We quantified pitting in 81 travelers treated with oral antimalarial therapy. Pitting rate was high (55.8%) with artemisinin-based combinations, but lower than 10% with the non-artemisinin drugs quinine, mefloquine and atovaquone-proguanil. This may, in part explain the slower parasite clearance in patients treated with antimalarial drugs lacking an artemisinin component, as well as the absence of post-treatment hemolysis with these drugs...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Deepak Kaushal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Irving Cancino-Muñoz, Miguel Moreno-Molina, Victoria Furió, Galo A Goig, Manuela Torres-Puente, Álvaro Chiner-Oms, Luis M Villamayor, Francisco Sanz, María Remedio Guna-Serrano, Iñaki Comas
Understanding Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases not detected by rapid phenotypic and genotypic routine clinical tests is essential to improve diagnostics and advance towards personalized TB treatments. Here, we combine WGS with single-colony phenotyping testing to diagnose a MDR strain infecting a patient over nine years. Our investigation revealed the failure of rapid testing assays and genome-based prediction tools to identify the MDR strain. The false negative outcome was caused by uncommon RIF and INH resistance mutations...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dang Thi Thanh Huyen, Ondrej Mach, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Pham Quang Thai, Ho Vinh Thang, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Roland W Sutter, Dang Duc Anh
BACKGROUND: Due to global shortage of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and global withdrawal of poliovirus type-2 (PV2) containing oral vaccine in May 2016, Vietnam has not used any PV2-containing vaccine between May 2016-October 2018. We assessed population immunity gap to PV2. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in children 1-18 months of age was carried out in January 2018: one blood sample was obtained and analysed for the presence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Srinivas Nallandhighal, Tuan M Tran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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