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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Markella V Zanni, Magid Awadalla, Mabel Toribio, Jake Robinson, Lauren A Stone, Diana Cagliero, Adam Rokicki, Connor P Mulligan, Jennifer E Ho, Anne M Neilan, Mark J Siedner, Virginia A Triant, Takara L Stanley, Lidia S Szczepaniak, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Michael D Nelson, Tricia H Burdo, Tomas G Neilan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) imparts increased heart failure risk to women. Among women with HIV (WHIV), immune pathways relating to heart failure precursors may intimate targets for heart failure prevention strategies. Twenty asymptomatic, antiretroviral-treated WHIV and 14 non-HIV-infected women matched on age and body mass index underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and immune phenotyping. WHIV (vs non-HIV-infected women) exhibited increased myocardial fibrosis (extracellular volume fraction, 0...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Elise T Zeiser, Scott A Becka, Steven Park, Brigid M Wilson, Marisa L Winkler, Roshan D'Souza, Indresh Singh, Granger Sutton, Derrick E Fouts, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Evelyn J Ellis-Grosse, George L Drusano, David S Perlin, Robert A Bonomo
Previously, by targeting penicillin-binding protein 3, Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase (PDC), and MurA with ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin, antimicrobial susceptibility was restored among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Herein, ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin combination therapy against MDR P. aeruginosa clinical isolate CL232 was further evaluated. Checkerboard susceptibility analysis revealed synergy between ceftazidime-avibactam and fosfomycin. Accordingly, the resistance elements present and expressed in P...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dana G Mordue, Gary P Wormser
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine (TQ) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prophylaxis of malaria and, in addition, for eradication of the hepatic phase of the relevant Plasmodium species. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of TQ for treatment of Babesia microti infection in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). METHODS: SCID mice were infected with 1.1-1.5 × 108 B. microti-infected red blood cells by intraperitoneal injection...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
A Zauberman, D Gur, Y Levy, M Aftalion, Y Vagima, A Tidhar, T Chitlaru, E Mamroud
Pneumonic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is a rapidly progressing contagious disease. In the plague mouse model, a single immunization with the EV76 live attenuated Y. pestis strain rapidly induced the expression of hemopexin and haptoglobin in the lung and serum, both of which are important in iron sequestration. Immunization against a concomitant lethal Y. pestis respiratory challenge was correlated with temporary inhibition of disease progression. Combining EV76-immunization and second-line antibiotic treatment, which are individually insufficient, led to a synergistic protective effect that represents a proof of concept for efficient combinational therapy in cases of infection with antibiotic-resistant strains...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefanie Kroeze, Ferdinand W Wit, Theresa M Rossouw, Helen C Steel, Cissy M Kityo, Margaret Siwale, Sulaimon Akanmu, Kishor Mandaliya, Marleen de Jager, Pascale Ondoa, Peter Reiss, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Neeltje Kootstra, Raph L Hamers
We evaluated immune biomarker profiles in HIV-infected adults (n=398) from 5 African countries. Although all biomarkers decreased after ART initiation, CXCL10, LBP, CRP, sCD163 and sCD14 were significantly higher during ART than in an HIV-negative reference group (n=90), indicating persistent monocyte/macrophage activation, inflammation and microbial translocation. Before ART initiation, high HIV viral load was associated with elevated CXCL10 and tuberculosis coinfection was associated with elevated sCD14. High pre-ART levels of each biomarker strongly predicted residual immune activation during ART...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hedda Hoel, Thor Ueland, Andreas Knudsen, Andreas Kjær, Annika E Michelsen, Ellen Lund Sagen, Bente Halvorsen, Arne Yndestad, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Pål Aukrust, Anne-Mette Lebech, Marius Trøseids
People with HIV (PWH) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population. In a nested case-control study of 55 PWH with first-time Myocardial Infarction (MI) (cases) and 182 PWH with no CVD (controls), we measured soluble markers of IL-1 activation at 4 different timepoints before the case´s MI. Cases had higher levels of IL-1Ra at all time-points leading up to first-time MI, and higher levels of IL-1Ra were associated with approximately 1.5-fold increased risk of MI, supporting the rationale to target IL-1 activation in order to reduce cardiovascular risk in PWH...
May 11, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marie-Astrid Hoogerwerf, Luc E Coffeng, Eric A T Brienen, Jacqueline J Janse, Marijke C C Langenberg, Yvonne C M Kruize, Chelsea Gootjes, Mikhael D Manurung, Mark Dekker, Luke Becker, Marianne A A Erkens, Martha T van der Beek, Munisha S Ganesh, Carola Feijt, Beatrice M F Winkel, Inge M Westra, Pauline Meij, Alex Loukas, Leo G Visser, Sake J de Vlas, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Lisette van Lieshout, Meta Roestenberg
Four healthy volunteers were infected with 50 Necatoramericanus infective larvae (L3) in a controlled human hookworm infection trial and followed for 52 weeks. Kinetics of fecal egg counts in volunteers was assessed with Bayesian multi-level analysis, revealing an increase between weeks 7 and 13 followed by a plateau at about 1000 eggs per gram feces. Variation in egg counts was minimal between same day measurements but varied considerably between days, particularly during the plateau phase. These analyses pave the way for the controlled human hookworm model to accelerate drug- and vaccine efficacy studies...
May 11, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Judith S Currier, Priscilla Hsue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lindsay T Fourman, Charles F Saylor, Lediya Cheru, Kathleen Fitch, Sara Looby, Kiana Keller, Jake A Robinson, Udo Hoffmann, Michael T Lu, Tricia Burdo, Janet Lo
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that may be protective against coronary atherosclerosis. In an observational study of people with HIV (PWH) and uninfected controls, IL-10 was measured in sera by ELISA, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by CT angiography. Among PWH, a 10-fold decrease in IL-10 was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in the odds of coronary plaque (p=0.01) after controlling for traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. IL-10 was also inversely associated with total coronary plaque (ρ= -0...
May 11, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Katherine O'Flaherty, Ricardo Ataíde, Sophie G Zaloumis, Elizabeth A Ashley, Rosanna Powell, Gaoqian Feng, Linda Reiling, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas P Day, Mehul Dhorda, Rick M Fairhurst, Pharath Lim, Chanaki Amaratunga, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Tran Tinh Hien, Ye Htut, Mayfong Mayxay, M Abul Faiz, James G Beeson, Francois Nosten, Julie A Simpson, Nicholas J White, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to the blood-stages of malaria enhance parasite-clearance and antimalarial efficacy. The antibody subclass and functions that contribute to parasite-clearance during anti-malarial treatment and their relationship with malaria transmission intensity have not been characterised. METHODS: IgG subclasses and C1q-fixation in response to P. falciparum merozoite antigens (EBA-175RIII-V, MSP-2 and MSP-142), and opsonic-phagocytosis of merozoites were measured in a multinational trial assessing the efficacy of artesunate across 11 South-East Asian sites...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tanjila Taskin, Semiu O Gbadamosi, Sandra Kiplagat, Rahel Dawit, Purnima Madhivanan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yingying Su, Feixue Wei, Xiumin Huang, Yafei Li, Lingxian Qiu, Fangfang Hu, Chaoqi Yang, Yuejing Zhang, Kai Yin, Mingqiang Li, Ting Wu, Ningshao Xia, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission dynamics which has important public health implications for designing HPV vaccination strategies is scarce in undeveloped area. METHODS: From May to July 2014, 390 couples were enrolled from general population in Liuzhou, China. Exfoliated cells from male penis/glans penis/coronary sulcus (PGC) and perianal/anal canal (PA) sites and from female vaginal, vulvar, and PA sites were collected biannually for one year...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yu Yan, Xuesong Wang, Peilan Lou, Zhenzheng Hu, Panke Qu, Dapeng Li, Qingchao Li, Yongfen Xu, Junqi Niu, Yongning He, Jin Zhong, Zhong Huang
Despite the emergence of new direct-acting antivirals, HCV chronic infection and its consequent fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma remain a significant burden for public health, thus requiring an effective preventive vaccine. We previously showed that a subunit vaccine based on recombinant soluble E2 (sE2) can induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. In order to improve the immunogenicity of sE2, we designed and produced a fusion protein (sE2-Ferritin) comprising sE2 and a Ferritin unit in Drosophila S2 cells, which self-assembled into a nanoparticle with sE2 displayed on the surface...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephen M Laidlaw, Lynn B Dustin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nelson Lee, Edward E Walsh, Ian Sander, Robert Stolper, Jessica Zakar, Veronique Wyffels, David Myers, Roman Fleischhackl
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in adults hospitalized with acute respiratory infections, guidelines for the diagnosis and management of RSV have not been established. This analysis evaluated the role and timeliness of RSV diagnostic testing and its potential impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed individual patient data from hospitalized adults with confirmed RSV infections during two North American RSV seasons...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Qun Wang, Li Ma, Ting Liu, Chen Ge, Qingjun Zhou, Chao Wei, Weiyun Shi
BACKGROUND: The role of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) induced protein 8-like-2 (TIPE2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis was explored. METHODS: Eight-week-old TIPE2 knockout (TIPE2-/-) C57BL/6 mice and their wild-type littermates (WT) were used. Corneal disease was graded at 1, 2, and 3 days post-infection, and slit lamp, clinical score, histopathology, and immunostaining were performed in the infected corneas. The corneas were harvested, and mRNA levels of TNF-α, interleukin-1βIL-1β, and IL-6 were tested...
May 8, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth A Caine, Suzanne M Scheaffer, Darcy E Broughton, Vanessa Salazar, Jennifer Govero, Subhajit Poddar, Augustine Osula, Jacques Halabi, Malgorzata E Skaznik-Wikiel, Michael S Diamond, Kelle H Moley
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a global concern because infection of pregnant mothers was linked to congenital birth defects. ZIKV is unique from other flaviviruses, as it is transmitted vertically and sexually in addition to by mosquito vectors. Prior studies in mice, non-human primates, and humans have shown that ZIKV targets the testis in males, resulting in persistent infection and oligospermia. However, its effects on the corresponding female gonads have not been evaluated. Here, we assessed the effects of ZIKV on the ovary in non-pregnant mice...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michel D Wissing, Karolina Louvanto, Emilie Comète, Ann N Burchell, Mariam El-Zein, Allita Rodrigues, Pierre-Paul Tellier, François Coutlée, Eduardo L Franco
BACKGROUND: We studied the association between HPV viral loads (VL) and HPV concordance in sexually active couples. METHODS: The HITCH cohort included young (women aged 18-24y), heterosexual, recently-formed couples. Web-based questionnaires and genital samples were collected at 0 and 4 months. Samples were tested for HPV DNA by PCR (Linear Array). VL of HPV6/11/16/18/31/42/51 were quantified using type-specific real-time PCR. Correlations between VL and type-specific HPV prevalence, incidence, and clearance were evaluated using multilevel, mixed-effects linear/logistic regression models...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ibrahim M Sayed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hitomi Nakayama, Rie Yamazaki, Jun Kato, Yuya Koda, Masatoshi Sakurai, Ryohei Abe, Shintaro Watanuki, Chieko Sumiya, Kohei Shiroshita, Shinya Fujita, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takehiko Mori
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) causes life-threatening central nervous system disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Recent studies implicated CD134 as a specific receptor of HHV-6B and demonstrated that its expression levels in CD4-positive T cells after allo-HSCT could be related to the reactivation of HHV-6. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between HHV-6 reactivation and CD134+ T cells in the recipients of allo-HSCT. METHODS: HHV-6 viral load in plasma was quantitatively measured weekly after allo-HSCT by digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in 34 patients...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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