Raul Macias Gil, Tracey Freeman, Trini Mathew, Ravina Kullar, Anais Ovalle, Don Nguyen, Angélica Kottkamp, Jin Poon, Jasmine Marcelin, Talia H Swartz
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted LGBTQ+ communities. Many disparities mirror those of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These health inequities have repeated throughout history due to the structural oppression of LGBTQ+ people. We aim to demonstrate that the familiar patterns of LGBTQ+ health disparities reflect a perpetuating, deeply rooted cycle of injustice imposed on LGBTQ+ people. Here, we contextualize COVID-19 inequities through the history of the HIV/AIDS crisis, describe manifestations of LGBTQ+ structural oppression exacerbated by the pandemic, and provide recommendations for medical professionals and institutions seeking to reduce health inequities...
July 29, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joseph Eiden, Bram Volckaert, Oleg Rudenko, Roger Aitchison, Renee Herber, Robert Belshe, Harry Greenberg, Kathleen Coelingh, David Marshall, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Gabriele Neumann, Pamuk Bilsel
BACKGROUND: Current influenza vaccines are strain-specific and demonstrate low vaccine efficacy against H3N2 influenza disease, especially when vaccine is mis-matched to circulating virus. The novel influenza vaccine candidate, M2SR (M2-deficient Single Replication), induces a broad, multi-effector immune response. METHODS: A phase 2 challenge study was conducted to assess efficacy of M2SR vaccine expressing HA and NA from A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2, clade 1). Four weeks after vaccination subjects were challenged with antigenically distinct H3N2 virus (A/Belgium/4217/2015, clade 3C...
July 29, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rachel L Winer, John Lin, Troy D Querec, Elizabeth R Unger, Joshua E Stern, Jessica M Rudd, Matthew R Golden, Fred Swanson, Lauri E Markowitz, Elissa Meites
BACKGROUND: In the United States, HPV vaccination has been recommended since 2011 for males aged 11-12 years, with catch-up vaccination recommended through age 26 years for previously unvaccinated men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: During 2016-2018, a cross-sectional study enrolled MSM and transgender women aged 18-26 years in Seattle, Washington. Participants submitted self-collected penile swab specimens for HPV genotyping. HPV vaccination history was self-reported...
July 28, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sandra Pritzkow, Damian Gorski, Frank Ramirez, Glenn C Telling, Sylvie L Benestad, Claudio Soto
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a rapidly spreading prion disorder affecting various species of wild and captive cervids. The risk that CWD poses to co-habiting animals or more importantly to humans is largely unknown. In this study we investigated differences in the capacity of CWD isolates obtained from six different cervid species to induce prion conversion in vitro by PMCA. We define and quantify spillover and zoonotic potential indices as the efficiency by which CWD prions sustain prion generation in vitro at expenses of normal prion proteins from various mammals and human, respectively...
July 24, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kristen K Bjorkman, Tassa K Saldi, Erika Lasda, Leisha Conners Bauer, Jennifer Kovarik, Patrick K Gonzales, Morgan R Fink, Kimngan L Tat, Cole R Hager, Jack C Davis, Christopher D Ozeroff, Gloria R Brisson, Daniel B Larremore, Leslie A Leinwand, Matthew B McQueen, Roy Parker
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic spread to over 200 countries in less than six months. To understand COVID spread, determining transmission rate and defining factors that increase transmission risk are essential. Most cases are asymptomatic, but they have viral loads indistinguishable from symptomatic people and do transmit SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, they are often undetected. METHODS: Given high residence hall student density, the University of Colorado Boulder established a mandatory weekly screening test program...
July 24, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lisa M Bebell, Rebecca Zash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lydia L Shook, Evan A Bordt, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, David Pepin, Rose M De Guzman, Sara Brigida, Laura J Yockey, Kaitlyn E James, Mackenzie W Sullivan, Lisa M Bebell, Drucilla J Roberts, Anjali J Kaimal, Jonathan Z Li, Danny Schust, Kathryn J Gray, Andrea G Edlow
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in vulnerability to and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described in non-pregnant populations. ACE2 and TMPRSS2, host molecules required for viral entry, are regulated by sex steroids and expressed in the placenta. We sought to investigate whether placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression vary by fetal sex and in the presence of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were quantified in 68 pregnant individuals (38 SARS-CoV-2 positive, 30 SARS-CoV-2 negative) delivering at Mass General Brigham from April to June 2020...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
J Zhou, S Choi, H Liu, J Zhang, Y Tian, A G Edlow, T Ezashi, R M Roberts, W Ma, D J Schust
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in term placenta is relatively rare. However, growing evidence suggests that susceptibility of the human placenta to infection may vary by gestational age and pathogen. For several viral infections, susceptibility appears to be greatest during early gestation. Infections of the peri-implantation placenta that result in pre-clinical pregnancy loss would typically go undetected. Little is known about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the peri-implantation human placenta since this time in pregnancy can only be modeled in vitro...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kun Li, Christine Wohlford-Lenane, Jennifer A Bartlett, Paul B McCray
SARS-CoV-2 initiates entry into airway epithelia by binding its receptor, ACE2. To explore whether inter-individual variation in ACE2 abundance contributes to variability in COVID-19 outcomes, we measured ACE2 protein abundance in primary airway epithelial cultures derived from 58 human donor lungs. We found no evidence for sex- or age-dependent differences in ACE2 protein expression. Further, we found that variations in ACE2 abundance had minimal effects on viral replication and induction of the interferon response in airway epithelia infected with SARS-CoV-2...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Theodore J Kottom, Kyle Schaefbauer, Eva M Carmona, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis spp. interaction with myeloid cells is well known, especially in macrophages. Contrary, how the organism binds to lung epithelial cells is incompletely understood. Ephrin type-A receptor (EphA2), has been previously identified as a lung epithelial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that binds to fungal β-glucans. Herein, we also report that EphA2 can also bind Pneumocystis β-glucans, both in isolated forms and also on exposed surfaces of the organism. Furthermore, binding of Pneumocystis β-glucans resulted in phosphorylation of the EphA2 receptor, which has been shown to be important for downstream proinflammatory response...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alexandra Johnson Valiente, Kin Seng Liem, Kathleen B Schwarz, Philip Rosenthal, Karen F Murray, Douglas Mogul, Jeffery Teckman, Norberto Rodriguez-Baez, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, Jordan J Feld, David K Wong, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Georg Lauer, Bettina E Hansen, Simon C Ling, Harry L A Janssen, Adam J Gehring
Liver damage in hepatitis B is immune driven and correlates with inflammatory markers in patient serum. There is no comparison of these markers to determine if inflammatory profiles are distinct to different types of liver damage across patients at different stages of disease. We measured 25 inflammatory markers in acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg seroconversion and chronic patients stopping nucleoside analogue therapy. Myeloid markers dominated the inflammatory profile in all stages of hepatitis B...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Juliana da Silva, Sherri Pals, Joy Chang, Stephanie Hackett, Catherine Godfrey, Elliot Raizes
Dolutegravir-based regimens are now standard of care for HIV treatment for millions of people around Sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure its continued efficacy, monitoring of emerging drug resistance that inform a treatment strategy amongst those failing is crucial. Here we outline the plan by the President Emergence Plan for AIDS Relief to leverage viral load infra structure to implement effective drug resistance surveillance in the countries it supports.
July 20, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stéphane Pelleau, Tom Woudenberg, Jason Rosado, Françoise Donnadieu, Laura Garcia, Thomas Obadia, Soazic Gardais, Yasmine Elgharbawy, Aurelie Velay, Maria Gonzalez, Jacques Yves Nizou, Nizar Khelil, Konstantinos Zannis, Charlotte Cockram, Sarah Hélène Merkling, Annalisa Meola, Solen Kerneis, Benjamin Terrier, Jerome de Seze, Delphine Planas, Olivier Schwartz, François Dejardin, Stéphane Petres, Cassandre von Platen, Sandrine Fernandes Pellerin, Laurence Arowas, Louise Perrin de Facci, Darragh Duffy, Clíona Ní Cheallaigh, Jean Dunne, Niall Conlon, Liam Townsend, Veasna Duong, Heidi Auerswald, Laurie Pinaud, Laura Tondeur, Marija Backovic, Bruno Hoen, Arnaud Fontanet, Ivo Mueller, Samira Fafi-Kremer, Timothée Bruel, Michael White
BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the Spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to eleven months after symptoms...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth M Hamilton, Naomi E Allen, Alexander J Mentzer, Thomas J Littlejohns
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to examine associations between HCMV and incident CVD, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. METHODS: This study included 8,531 women and men of predominantly white ethnic background, aged 40-69 without prevalent CVD from the population-based UK Biobank study recruited between 2006-2010 with HCMV antibody levels measured...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Noe Rico Montanari, Ricardo Ramirez, Nick Van Buuren, Thierry P P van den Bosch, Michail Doukas, Jose D Debes, Becket Feierbach, Andre Boonstra
Inactive Carrier phases in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection present minimal liver disease and HBV replication activity suggesting a partial immune-reconstitution although the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Moreover, HBsAg production -hypothesized to modulate the immune response- is unaltered. Here, we assessed the intrahepatic transcriptome in Inactive Carrier patients vs healthy liver donors, also in the context of diverse HBsAg levels (serum and liver), to better understand the phenomenon of immune control...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ravindra Ganesh, Lindsey M Philpot, Dennis M Bierle, Ryan J Anderson, Lori L Arndt, Richard F Arndt, Tracy L Culbertson, Molly J Destro Borgen, Sara N Hanson, Brian D Kennedy, Brian B Kottke, Jennifer J Larsen, Priya Ramar, Jordan K Rosedahl, Maria Teresa Seville, Leigh L Speicher, Sidna M Tulledge-Scheitel, Caroline G Wilker, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab are authorized for treatment of high-risk patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We compared the outcomes of patients who received these therapies to identify factors associated with hospitalization and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: Adult patients who received monoclonal antibody from November 19, 2020 to February 11, 2021 were selected and divided into those who received bamlanivimab (n=2747) and casirivimab-imdevimab (n=849)...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jacqueline Deen, John D Clemens
Vaccine herd protection is the extension of the defense conferred by immunization beyond the vaccinated to unvaccinated persons in a population, as well as the enhancement of the protection among the vaccinated, due to vaccination of the surrounding population. Vaccine herd protection has traditionally been inferred from observations of disease trends after inclusion of a vaccine in national immunization schedules. Rather than awaiting outcomes of widescale vaccine deployment, earlier-stage evaluation of vaccine herd protection during trials or mass vaccination projects could help inform policy decisions about potential vaccine introduction...
July 17, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
James M Fleckenstein, Alaullah Sheikh
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are ubiquitous diarrheal pathogens that thrive in areas lacking basic human needs of clean water and sanitation. These genetically plastic organisms cause tremendous morbidity among disadvantaged young children, both in the form of acute diarrheal illness and sequelae of malnutrition and growth impairment. The recent discovery of additional plasmid-encoded virulence factors and elucidation of their critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC may inform new approaches to the development of broadly protective vaccines...
July 17, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Valentina Stosor, Michael P Angarone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Phoebe Hodges, Mizinga Tembo, Paul Kelly
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a syndrome characterised by impairments of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier failure in people living in insanitary or tropical environments. There is substantial evidence that it contributes to impaired linear growth of millions of children in low- and middle-income countries, to slowed neurocognitive development, and to diminished responses to oral vaccines. It represents the functional consequences of environmental enteropathy, an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of the mucosa, and there is considerable overlap with the enteropathy observed in severe clinical malnutrition...
July 17, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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