Hiroo Katsuya, Lucy B M Cook, Aileen G Rowan, Anat Melamed, Jocelyn Turpin, Jumpei Ito, Saiful Islam, Paola Miyazato, Benjy Jek Yang Tan, Misaki Matsuo, Toshikazu Miyakawa, Hirotomo Nakata, Shuzo Matsushita, Graham P Taylor, Charles R M Bangham, Shinya Kimura, Yorifumi Satou
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 diminishes the value of the CD4 + T-cell count in diagnosing AIDS, and increases the rate of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. It remains elusive how HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection is related to such clinical characteristics. Here, we investigated the mutual effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection on their integration sites (ISs) and the clonal expansion. METHODS: We extracted DNA from longitudinal peripheral blood samples from 7 HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfected individuals, and from 12 HIV-1 and 13 HTLV-1 mono-infected individuals...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
C M Rooney, S Ahmed, M H Wilcox
We examine 3 different approaches to protecting the gut microbiome: highly targeted antibiotics, antibiotic destruction, and antibiotic binding. Each approach shows promise to prevent the off-target effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome.
April 10, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Masatoki Sato, Emi Takashita, Masahiko Katayose, Kenji Nemoto, Nobuko Sakai, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Koichi Hashimoto, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: We aimed to detect influenza variants with reduced susceptibility to baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) and oseltamivir and identify differences in the clinical course between children with and without these variants after anti-viral treatment. METHODS: During the 2019-2020 influenza season, we enrolled children with confirmed influenza A (20 treated with baloxavir and 16 with oseltamivir). We analyzed patients' sequential viral RNA loads and infectious virus titers, the drug susceptibilities of clinical isolates, and amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase acidic protein subunits or neuraminidase...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Suzane Ramos da Silva, Enguo Ju, Wen Meng, Alberto E Paniz Mondolfi, Sanja Dacic, Anthony Green, Clare Bryce, Zachary Grimes, Mary Fowkes, Emilia M Sordillo, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Haitao Guo, Shou-Jiang Gao
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients manifest with pulmonary symptoms reflected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), excessive inflammation, and thromboembolism. The mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. METHODS: We performed multicolor staining for SARS-CoV-2 proteins and lineage markers to define viral tropism and lung pathobiology in 5 autopsy cases. RESULTS: Lung parenchyma showed severe DAD with thromboemboli. Viral infection was found in an extensive range of cells including pneumocyte type II, ciliated, goblet, club-like and endothelial cells...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hideaki Miyachi, Seiichiro Wakabayashi, Takashi Sugihira, Reika Aoyama, Shinobu Saijo, Hanako Koguchi-Yoshioka, Manabu Fujimoto, Gabriel Núñez, Hiroyuki Matsue, Yuumi Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Among skin commensal fungi, lipophilic Malassezia species exist on nearly all human skin surfaces. The pathophysiology of Malassezia-associated skin diseases remains poorly understood due in part to the lack of appropriate animal models. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-induced skin inflammation using a novel murine model that physiologically recapitulates Malassezia skin infection. METHODS: Mice were inoculated epicutaneously with Malassezia yeasts without barrier disruption and in the absence of external lipid supplementation...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Preeti Pathela, Addie Crawley, Don Weiss, Beth Maldin, Jennifer Cornell, Jeff Purdin, Pamela K Schumacher, Stacey Marovich, Joyce Li, Demetre Daskalakis
BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC) was the U.S. epicenter of the Spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. We present seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and correlates of seropositivity immediately after the first wave. METHODS: From a serosurvey of adult NYC residents (May 13-July 21, 2020), we calculated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies stratified by participant demographics, symptom history, health status, and employment industry. We used multivariable regression models to assess associations between participant characteristics and seropositivity...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zachary M Most, Michael Holcomb, Andrew R Jamieson, Trish M Perl
Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have "flattened the curve" of the COVID-19 pandemic, however the effect of these interventions on other respiratory viruses is unknown. We used aggregate level case count data for eight respiratory viruses and compared the institutional and statewide case counts before and during the period that NPIs were active. We observed a 61% (IRR 0.39, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.41, P < 0.0001) decrease in non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viral infections when NPIs were implemented...
April 8, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Robert W Eisinger, Andrea M Lerner, Anthony S Fauci
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted persons with HIV interfering with critical health services for HIV prevention, treatment, and care. While there are multiple profiles of persons living with HIV and the impact of COVID-19 may differ for each, the severity of COVID-19 disease in persons with HIV is related strongly to the presence of comorbidities that increase the risk of severe disease in COVID-19 patients in the absence of HIV. An effective response to the juxtaposition of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics requires a novel coordinated and collaborative global effort of scientists, industry, and community partners to accelerate basic and clinical research, as well as implementation science to operationalize evidence-based interventions expeditiously in real-world settings...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
R Elaine Cagnina, Kathryn R Michels, Alexandra M Bettina, Marie D Burdick, Yogesh Scindia, Zhimin Zhang, Thomas J Braciale, Borna Mehrad
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) results from NADPH oxidase deficiency and impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This results in impaired killing of Aspergillus and, independently, a pathologic hyperinflammatory response to the organism. We hypothesized that neutrophil-derived ROS inhibit the inflammatory response to Aspergillus, and acute lung injury in CGD is due to failure of this regulation. Mice with gp91phox-deficiency, the most common CGD mutation, had more severe lung injury, neutrophil infiltration, and lung TNF after Aspergillus challenge compared to wildtypes...
April 5, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marieke Raffenberg, Tanja Engel, Isabella C Schoepf, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter Reiss, Dominique L Braun, Christian W Thorball, Jacques Fellay, Roger D Kouyos, Bruno Ledergerber, Huldrych F Günthard, Philip E Tarr
BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) shortens during aging, HIV-seroconversion and untreated chronic HIV infection. It is unknown whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) start is associated with less TL shortening during primary HIV infection (PHI). METHODS: We measured TL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative PCR in participants of the Zurich PHI Study with samples available for >6 years. We obtained uni-/multivariable estimates from mixed-effects models and evaluated the association of delaying ART start or interrupting ART with baseline and longitudinal TL...
April 5, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shu Ran, Ke Su, Suhua Zhang, Baolin Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ming Tong, Qing Zheng, Fang Chen, Yimin Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mei Zhou, Zhengrong Yin, Juanjuan Xu, Sufei Wang, Tingting Liao, Kai Wang, Yumei Li, Fan Yang, Zhen Wang, Guanghai Yang, Jianchu Zhang, Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: Post-discharge immunity and its correlation with clinical features among patients recovered from COVID-19 are poorly described. This prospective cross-sectional study explored the inflammatory profiles and clinical recovery of COVID-19 patients at 3 months post-discharge. METHODS: COVID-19 patients discharged from four hospitals in Wuhan, recovered asymptomatic patients (APs) from an isolation hotel, and uninfected healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
April 4, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
H Russell Day, John B Bond, Bhaskar Gupta, Kordo Saeed, Mark P Breazzano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Melissa D Johnson, Russell E Lewis, Elizabeth S Dodds Ashley, John R Perfect, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Abhijit Pati, Sunali Padhi, Debarchan Panda, Subham Suvankar, Aditya K Panda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mathew D Esona, M Leanne Ward, Mary E Wikswo, Slavica M Rustempasic, Rashi Gautam, Charity Perkins, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Christopher J Harrison, Julie A Boom, Janet A Englund, Eileen J Klein, Mary Allen Staat, Monica M McNeal, Natasha Halasa, James Chappell, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Daniel C Payne, Umesh D Parashar, Michael D Bowen
BACKGROUND: Following the implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) has substantially declined in USA (US) children. We report the RVA genotype prevalence as well as co-infection data from seven US New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) sites during three consecutive RVA seasons, 2014-2016. METHODS: A total of 1041 stool samples that tested positive for RVA by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for RVA genotyping and multipathogen testing...
April 2, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chelsea G Major, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Susan L Hills, Dania M Rodriguez, Brad J Biggerstaff, Michael Johansson
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) can be transmitted sexually, but the risk of sexual transmission remains unknown. Most evidence of sexual transmission is from partners of infected travelers returning from areas with ZIKV circulation. METHODS: We used data from the U.S. national arboviral disease surveillance system (ArboNET) on travel- and sexually-acquired ZIKV disease cases during 2016-2017 to develop individual-level simulations for estimating risk of male-to-female, male-to-male, and female-to-male sexual transmission of ZIKV via vaginal and/or anal intercourse...
April 2, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Suresh Pallikkuth, Erin Williams, Dawen Yu Esther, Jose Mateus, Lorenzo Quiambao, Eric Wang, Stephen A Rawlings, Daniel Stadlbauer, Kaijun Jiang, Fatima Amanat, David Arnold, David Andrews, Irma Fuego, Jennifer M Dan, Alba Grifoni, Daniela Weiskopf, Florian Krammer, Shane Crotty, Michael E Hoffer, Savita G Pahwa, Alessandro Sette
Herein we measured CD4 + T cell responses against common cold corona (CCC) viruses and SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk health care workers (HCW) and community controls. We observed higher levels of CCC reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 seronegative HCW compared to community donors, consistent with potential higher occupational exposure of HCW to CCC. We further show that SARS-CoV-2 T cell reactivity of seronegative HCW was higher than community controls and correlation between CCC and SARS-CoV-2 responses is consistent with cross-reactivity and not associated with recent in vivo activation...
April 2, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chris Kenyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2021: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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