Journal of Infectious Diseases

S Pollett, J R Fauver, Irina Maljkovic Berry, M Melendrez, A Morrison, L D Gillis, M A Johansson, R G Jarman, N D Grubaugh
Next-generation sequencing technologies, exponential increases in the availability of virus genomic data, and ongoing advances in phylogenomic methods have made genomic epidemiology an increasingly powerful tool for public health response to a range of mosquito-borne virus outbreaks. In this review, we offer a brief primer on the scope and methods of phylogenomic analyses that can answer key epidemiological questions during mosquito-borne virus public health emergencies. We then focus on case examples of outbreaks, including those caused by dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, and chikungunya viruses, to demonstrate the utility of genomic epidemiology to support the prevention and control of mosquito-borne virus threats...
November 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christiana Smith, Natasha O Moraka, Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Jean Leidner, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Shaobing Li, Roger Shapiro, Shahin Lockman, Adriana Weinberg
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants experience high rates of infectious morbidity. We hypothesized that early CMV infection was associated with increased hospitalization rates and decreased vaccine responses in HEU compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants. METHODS: Among infants enrolled in the Tshipidi study in Botswana, we determined CMV infection status by 6 months of age and compared hospitalization rates and responses to tetanus and BCG vaccines among HEU and HUU vaccinees...
November 10, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jemma L Walker, Hongxin Zhao, Gavin Dabrera, Nick Andrews, Sarah L Thomas, Camille Tsang, Joanna Ellis, Matthew Donati, Richard G Pebody
Maternal influenza vaccination is increasingly recognized to protect infants from influenza infection in their first 6 months. We used the screening method to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants in England, using newly available uptake data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink pregnancy register, matched on week of birth and region and adjusted for ethnicity. We found VE of 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-84%) in the 2013-2014 season and 50% (95% CI, 11%-72%) in 2014-2015, with similar VE against influenza-related hospitalization...
November 9, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nicole S Struck, Marlow Zimmermann, Ralf Krumkamp, Eva Lorenz, Thomas Jacobs, Toni Rieger, Stephanie Wurr, Stephan Günther, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Florian Marks, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach
BACKGROUND: Malaria presents with unspecific clinical symptoms that frequently overlap with other infectious diseases and is also a risk factor for co-infections, like non-Typhi Salmonella. Malaria RDTs are sensitive but unable to distinguish between an acute infection requiring treatment and asymptomatic malaria with a concomitant infection. We set out to test whether cytokine profiles could predict disease status and allow the differentiation between malaria and a bacterial bloodstream infection...
November 8, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hugh W F Kingston, Aniruddha Ghose, Voravut Rungpradubvong, Sudarat Satitthummanid, M Trent Herdman, Katherine Plewes, Haruhiko Ishioka, Stije J Leopold, Ipsita Sinha, Benjamas Intharabut, Kim Piera, Yvette McNeil, Sanjib Mohanty, Richard J Maude, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Tsin W Yeo, Md Amir Hossain, Nicholas M Anstey, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: In severe falciparum malaria, unlike sepsis, hypotension on admission is uncommon. We hypothesized that low nitric oxide bioavailability due to the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) increases vascular tone in severe malaria. METHODS: Patients with severe malaria (n = 119), uncomplicated malaria (n = 91), or suspected bacterial sepsis (n = 56), as well as healthy participants (n = 50), were recruited. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was estimated from the echocardiographic cardiac index and the mean arterial pressure...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hugh W F Kingston, Aniruddha Ghose, Voravut Rungpradubvong, Sudarat Satitthummanid, M Trent Herdman, Katherine Plewes, Stije J Leopold, Haruhiko Ishioka, Sanjib Mohanty, Richard J Maude, Marcus J Schultz, Wim K Lagrand, Md Amir Hossain, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Nicholas M Anstey, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular perfusion is central to the development of coma and lactic acidosis in severe falciparum malaria. Refractory hypotension is rare on admission but develops frequently in fatal cases. We assessed cardiac function and volume status in severe falciparum malaria and its prognostic significance. METHODS: Patients with severe (N=101) or acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria (N=83) recruited two hospitals in India and Bangladesh and healthy participants (N=44) underwent echocardiography...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Han Sol Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Ok Sarah Shin, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus infection triggers acute cardiovascular events. Several studies have demonstrated that influenza A virus infection was associated with immune cell influx and increased production of inflammatory cytokines in the atherosclerotic plaque lesion, but the underlying mechanism for these findings is not clear. METHODS: We examined the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases by influenza A virus infection in human cells using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and human MMP-13 ELISA assay...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Davide Mangioni, Anna Maria Peri, Gian Maria Rossolini, Bruno Viaggi, Carlo Federico Perno, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
Early etiological diagnosis and characterization of host response to infection are becoming central in sepsis recognition and management. Still, limitations in conventional diagnosis and patient stratification contribute to the high mortality rates of septic patients despite new antimicrobials and resuscitation agents. Novel microbiological techniques and omics analyses have recently led to the development of several tests that are now commercially available or in the pipeline as rapid diagnostic tools. In this review, we first summarize emerging assays for the etiological diagnosis starting directly from whole blood, based on target-specific PCRs or metagenomics...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lisa Stockdale, Stephen Nash, Ruth Farmer, John Raynes, Suresh Malikaarjun, Robert Newton, Helen A Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and immune activation as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) disease. It is not known whether other herpes viruses are also implicated, nor if a dose-response relationship exists between TB risk and herpes co-infection. METHODS: This nested case-control study used stored serum samples from 25 TB cases up to 10 years prior to TB diagnosis and between 3 and 6 matched non-TB controls from a rural Ugandan cohort...
November 5, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ji Hyun Lee, Dima A Hammoud, Yu Cong, Louis M Huzella, Marcelo A Castro, Jeffrey Solomon, Joseph Laux, Matthew Lackemeyer, J Kyle Bohannon, Oscar Rojas, Russ Byrum, Ricky Adams, Danny Ragland, Marisa St Claire, Vincent Munster, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging virus associated with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease and encephalitis. To develop a neurological model for NiV infection, we exposed 6 adult African green monkeys to a large-particle (approximately 12-μm) aerosol containing NiV (Malaysian isolate). Brain magnetic resonance images were obtained at baseline, every 3 days after exposure for 2 weeks, and then weekly until week 8 after exposure. Four of 6 animals showed abnormalities reminiscent of human disease in brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 5, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chad E Mire, Yee-Peng Chan, Viktoriya Borisevich, Robert W Cross, Lianying Yan, Krystle N Agans, Ha V Dang, David Veesler, Karla A Fenton, Thomas W Geisbert, Christopher C Broder
BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease in both animals and humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments for use in humans; however, therapeutic treatment of both NiV and HeV infection in ferrets and nonhuman primates with a cross-reactive, neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m102.4, targeting the G glycoprotein has been demonstrated. In a previous study, we isolated, characterized, and humanized a cross-reactive, neutralizing anti-F mAb (h5B3...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephanie N Seifert, Michael C Letko, Trenton Bushmaker, Eric D Laing, Greg Saturday, Kimberly Meade-White, Neeltje van Doremalen, Christopher C Broder, Vincent J Munster
Nipah virus (NiV) is a bat-borne zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe respiratory distress and encephalitis upon spillover into humans. Nipah virus is capable of infecting a broad range of hosts including humans, pigs, ferrets, dogs, cats, hamsters, and at least 2 genera of bats. Little is known about the biology of NiV in the bat reservoir. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the Egyptian fruit bat (EFB), Rousettus aegyptiacus, to serve as a model organism for studying NiV in bats. Our data suggest that NiV does not efficiently replicate in EFBs in vivo...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Olga Tymejczyk, Ellen Brazier, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Mary-Ann Davies, Madeline DiLorenzo, Andrew Edmonds, Rachel Vreeman, Carolyn Bolton, Christella Twizere, Nicollate Okoko, Sam Phiri, Gertrude Nakigozi, Patricia Lelo, Per von Groote, Annette H Sohn, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: Young adolescents with perinatally-acquired HIV are at risk for poor care outcomes. We examined whether universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) eligibility policies (Treat All) improved rapid ART initiation following care enrollment among 10-14-year-olds in seven sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Regression discontinuity analysis and data for 6,912 10-14-year-old patients were used to estimate changes in rapid ART initiation (within 30 days of care enrollment) following adoption of Treat All policies in two groups of countries: Uganda and Zambia (policy adopted in 2013) and Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, and Rwanda (policy adopted in 2016)...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Brian C Zanoni, Jessica E Haberer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Coleen K Cunningham, Elizabeth J McFarland, R Leavitt Morrison, Edmund V Capparelli, Jeffrey T Safrit, Lynne M Mofenson, Bonnie Mathieson, Megan E Valentine, Charlotte Perlowski, Betsy Smith, Rohan Hazra, Lynette Purdue, Petronella Muresan, Paul A Harding, Tapiwa Mbengeranwa, Lisa-Gaye Robinson, Andrew Wiznia, Gerhard Theron, Bob Lin, Robert T Bailer, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham
BACKGROUND: While mother-to-child HIV transmission has dramatically decreased with maternal antiretroviral therapy, breast milk transmission accounts for most of the 180,000 new infant HIV infections annually. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) may further reduce transmission. METHODS: A Phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study was conducted: a single subcutaneous (SC) dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg (Dose Groups 1 and 2, respectively) of the bNAb VRC01 was administered to HIV-exposed infants soon after birth...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christian Gaebler, Marina Caskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Leesa F Wockner, Isabell Hoffmann, Lachlan Webb, Benjamin Mordmüller, Sean C Murphy, James G Kublin, Peter O'Rourke, James S McCarthy, Louise Marquart
BACKGROUND: Growth rate of malaria parasites in the blood of infected subjects is an important measure of efficacy of drugs and vaccines. METHODS: We used log-linear and sine-wave models to estimate the parasite growth rate of the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum using data from 177 subjects from 14 induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) studies conducted at QIMR Berghofer. We estimated parasite multiplication rate per 48 hour (PMR48), PMR per life-cycle (PMRLC), and parasite life-cycle duration...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tiffany A Walker, Ben Waite, Mark G Thompson, Colin McArthur, Conroy Wong, Michael G Baker, Tim Wood, Jennifer Haubrock, Sally Roberts, Diane K Gross, Q Sue Huang, E Claire Newbern
BACKGROUND: Severe influenza illness is presumed more common in adults with chronic medical conditions (CMC), but evidence is sparse and often combined into broad CMC categories. METHODS: Residents (aged 18-80 years) of Central and South Auckland hospitalized for WHO-defined severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) (2012-2015) underwent influenza virus PCR testing. CMC statuses for Auckland residents were modelled using hospitalization ICD-10 codes, pharmaceutical claims, and laboratory results...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jeanne Bigot, Loic Guillot, Juliette Guitard, Manon Ruffin, Harriet Corvol, Michel Chignard, Christophe Hennequin, Viviane Balloy
Human bronchial epithelial cells play a key role in airway immune homeostasis. We hypothesized that these sentinel cells can remember a previous contact with pathogen compounds and respond nonspecifically to reinfection, a phenomenon called innate immune memory. We demonstrated that their pre-exposure to Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin modify their inflammatory response to a second, non-related stimulus, including live pathogens or lipopolysaccharide. Using histone acetyltransferase and methyltransferase inhibitors, we showed that this phenomenon relied on epigenetic regulation...
November 3, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Swagata Ghosh, Jay Padalia, Renay Ngobeni, Jan Abendroth, Laura Farr, Debbie-Ann Shirley, Thomas Edwards, Shannon Moonah
Targeting virulence factors represents a promising alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy, through the inhibition of pathogenic pathways that result in host tissue damage. Yet, virulence inhibition remains an understudied area in parasitology. Several medically important protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Entamoeba, Toxoplasma, and Leishmaniasecrete an inflammatory MIF cytokine homolog, a virulence factor linked to severe disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of targeting parasite-produced MIF as combination therapy with standard antibiotics to reduce disease severity...
November 2, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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