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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Catherine Louise Taylor, Stephen R Zubrick, Daniel Christensen
BACKGROUND: Literacy is championed as a pathway out of poverty, yet it is vulnerable to the risk circumstances it seeks to mitigate. This study explored the developmental circumstances that gave rise to stark inequalities in reading achievement in Australian children across 6 years of school. METHODS: We used data from Growing up in Australia : the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children linked to Australia's National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy across school years 3, 5, 7 and 9...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Magnus Helgesson, Mo Wang, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Fredrik Saboonchi, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz
BACKGROUND: The aim was to elucidate if the risk of labour market marginalisation (LMM), measured as long-term unemployment, long-term sickness absence, disability pension and a combined measure of these three measures, differed between refugees and non-refugee migrants with different regions of birth compared with native Swedes. METHODS: All non-pensioned individuals aged 19-60 years who were resident in Sweden on 31 December 2009 were included (n=4 441 813, whereof 216 930 refugees)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Roger Daglius Dias, Jacson Venancio de Barros
BACKGROUND: The world's population is progressively ageing, and this trend imposes several challenges to society and governments. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden generated by the hospitalisation of older (<u>></u>60 years) compared with non-older population, as well as the epidemiology of these hospital admissions. METHODS: Using the Brazilian Unified Health System (known as 'Sistema Único de Saúde' (SUS)), an analysis of all hospital admissions of adult patients in the SUS from 2009 to 2015 was undertaken...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Elaine Kilabuk, Franco Momoli, Ranjeeta Mallick, Deborah Van Dyk, Christopher Pease, Alice Zwerling, Sharon Edmunds Potvin, Gonzalo G Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant health burden among Inuit in Canada. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a key role in TB infection, disease and ongoing transmission in this population. The objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of social determinants of Inuit health as they relate to latent TB infection (LTBI) among people living in residential areas at high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut. METHODS: Inperson home surveys were conducted among those who lived in predetermined residential areas at high risk for TB identified in a door-to-door TB prevention campaign in Iqaluit, Nunavut in 2011...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Chris Bonell, Elizabeth Allen, Charles Opondo, Emily Warren, Diana Ruth Elbourne, Joanna Sturgess, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Jennifer McGowan, Anne Mathiot, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Interventions to modify school environments are effective in promoting young people's health across outcomes, but mechanisms are poorly understood. We assessed mediation in a trial of the Learning Together intervention, building on the recent publication of results of effectiveness for reducing bullying and benefits across secondary outcomes and generally good implementation fidelity. METHODS: Within a cluster-randomised trial involving 40 English schools, we examined student-reported and staff-reported school climate and student-reported involvement with delinquent peers at 24-month and 36-month follow-up, assessing the reliability of measures and whether these mediated health outcomes at a final follow-up...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Thomas Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Beatrice Kennedy, Ruoqing Chen, Fang Fang, Unnur Valdimarsdottir, Scott Montgomery, Henrik Larsson, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: While compromised stress resilience constitutes a recognised risk factor for somatic and psychiatric disease development in general, the knowledge about how individual variation in vulnerability to stress may specifically influence the long-term risks of disadvantageous health behaviours is limited. METHODS: In this Swedish cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between stress resilience in late adolescence and adult use of addictive substances...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Cecilie Daugaard, Mette Asbjoern Neergaard, Anne Høy Seeman Vestergaard, Mette Kjærgaard Nielsen, Søren Paaske Johnsen
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, patients who are terminally ill have the right to drug reimbursement due to terminal illness (DRTI). DRTI, a proxy marker of planned end-of-life care, is intended to be equally accessible regardless of socioeconomic position. This study examined social and socioeconomic differences in DRTI among Danish patients who are terminally ill. METHODS: This cross-sectional study based on individual-level nationwide data included all patients dying from cancer, dementia, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes or stroke in 2006-2015 (n=307 188)...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sarah N Forrester, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Joseph J Gallo, Roland J Thorpe, Teresa E Seeman
BACKGROUND: Allostatic load (AL) has been characterised in many ways throughout the literature; however, its relationship to health behaviours has only been studied in limited populations. We aimed to uncover qualitative patterns of biological indicators in AL and determine if those patterns were associated with certain health behaviours. METHODS: We conducted latent class analysis using biological indicators from a multiethnic population. We fit latent class regression of class on health behaviours (smoking, poor diet, physical activity and alcohol use) to measure the association between each latent class of AL and each health behaviour...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Enrique Regidor, Romana Albaladejo, Alberto Mateo, Luis de la Fuente, Gregorio Barrio, Paloma Ortega
BACKGROUND: To evaluate trends in diabetes-related health behaviours and mortality from diabetes and other chronic diseases in the Spanish population before, during and after the 2008 economic crisis. METHODS: Annual population measurements were obtained from national surveys and administrative registries for 2004-2016. Using segmented regression analysis, we calculated the annual percentage change (APC) in 2004-2007, 2008-2010, 2011-2013 and 2014-2016 in risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and meals away from home), in healthy behaviours (fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity) and in mortality rates from diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Gillian L Booth, Maria I Creatore, Jin Luo, Ghazal S Fazli, Ashley Johns, Laura C Rosella, Richard H Glazier, Rahim Moineddin, Peter Gozdyra, Peter C Austin
BACKGROUND: People living in highly walkable neighbourhoods tend to be more physically active and less likely to be obese. Whether walkable urban design reduces the future risk of diabetes is less clear. METHODS: We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to compare 10-year diabetes incidence between residents living in high-walkability and low-walkability neighbourhoods within five urban regions in Ontario, Canada. Adults (aged 30-85 years) who were diabetes-free on 1 April 2002 were identified from administrative health databases and followed until 31 March 2012 (n=958 567)...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sanna Huikari, Jouko Miettunen, Marko Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Existing research on the relationship between economic recessions and suicides has almost completely concentrated on the most recent global financial crisis (2008). We provide the most comprehensive explanation to date of how different types of economic/financial crises since 1970 have affected suicides in developed countries. METHODS: Negative binomial regressions were used to estimate what the suicide rates would have been during and 1 year after each crisis began in 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries from 1970 to 2011 if the suicide rates had followed the pre-crisis trends...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Espen Saxhaug Kristoffersen, Knut Stavem, Christofer Lundqvist, Michael Bjørn Russell
BACKGROUND: Data on the socioeconomic burden of chronic headache (≥15 days/last month or <u>></u>180 days/year) is lacking. This study investigated the impact of chronic headache on sickness absence, unemployment and disutility in the general population in Norway. METHODS: 30 000 persons aged 30-44 from the general population were screened for chronic headache by a screening questionnaire. The responder rate was 71%. The International Classification of Headache Disorders was used...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lucia Tarro, Elisabet Llauradó, Magaly Aceves-Martins, David Moriña, Ignasi Papell-Garcia, Lluis Arola, Montse Giralt, Rosa Solà
BACKGROUND: Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children is a challenge. This project aimed to improve lifestyles of younger peers by engaging adolescent creators (ACs) to design and implement peer-led and social marketing (SM) health-promoting activities. METHODS: A 10-month parallel-cluster randomised controlled school-based pilot study was performed in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Reus (Spain) spanning two academic years (2015-2016/2016-2017). Eight primary schools (n=375 children) and four high schools (n=94ACs) were randomly placed in the intervention group...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Olof Östergren, Pekka Martikainen, Lasse Tarkiainen, Jon Ivar Elstad, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Despite being comparatively egalitarian welfare states, the Nordic countries have not been successful in reducing health inequalities. Previous studies have suggested that smoking and alcohol contribute to this pattern. Few studies have focused on variations in alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality within the Nordic countries. We assess the contribution of smoking and alcohol to differences in life expectancy between countries and between income quintiles within countries...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight gain is a well-known challenge for many mothers, but associations with green space quantity and quality have not been investigated. METHODS: This longitudinal study used data on 3843 mothers living in Australia tracked biennially for 15 years post partum from 2004 onwards. Multilevel growth curve models adjusted for confounding were used to examine the patterning of body mass index (BMI) in relation to green space quantity, measured by percentage land use, and green space quality, measured by self-report...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lloyd Brandts, Piet A van den Brandt
INTRODUCTION: The rising number of obese and/or physically inactive individuals might negatively impact human lifespan. This study assessed the association between height, body mass index (BMI) and non-occupational physical activity and the likelihood of reaching 90 years of age, in both sexes separately. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants born in 1916-1917 (n=7807) completed a questionnaire in 1986 (at age 68-70 years) and were followed up for vital status information until the age of 90 years (2006-2007)...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Menghan Gao, Peter Allebeck, Gita D Mishra, Ilona Koupil
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with multiple health burdens. Yet, findings regarding its 'developmental origins' are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the associations of birth characteristics with endometriosis. We also explored potential mediation by adult social and reproductive factors. METHODS: This cohort study consisted of 3406 women born in Uppsala, Sweden, between 1933 and 1972...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mercedes A Bravo, Rebecca Anthopolos, Marie Lynn Miranda
BACKGROUND: Few studies examine relationships between built environment (BE) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using spatial models, investigate BE domains apart from food environment or physical activity resources or conduct sensitivity analysis of methodological choices made in measuring BE. We examine geographic heterogeneity of T2DM, describe how heterogeneity in T2DM relates to BE and estimate associations of T2DM with BE. METHODS: Individual-level electronic health records (n=41 203) from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse (2007-2011) were linked to BE based on census block...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jennifer Williams Robinette, Jason D Boardman, Eileen M Crimmins
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is preventable, it is increasing in prevalence and it is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Importantly, residents of neighbourhoods with high levels of disorder are more likely to develop T2D than those living in less disordered neighbourhoods and neighbourhood disorder may exacerbate genetic risk for T2D. METHOD: We use genetic, self-reported neighbourhood, and health data from the Health and Retirement Study. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses in which neighbourhood disorder, polygenic scores for T2D and their interaction predicted T2D...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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