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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Fuguang Chen, Wanjiang Zhang, Stefan Schwarz, Yao Zhu, Ruichao Li, Xin Hua, Siguo Liu
OBJECTIVES: Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates rarely cause infections in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate a multiresistant porcine K. pneumoniae isolate for plasmidic and chromosomal antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes and their genetic environment. METHODS: K. pneumoniae strain ZYST1 originated from a pig with pneumonia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution. Conjugation experiments were conducted using Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Samantha Ebeyan, Madeline Windsor, Amanda Bordin, Lebogang Mhango, Simon Erskine, Ella Trembizki, Elisa Mokany, Lit Yeen Tan, David Whiley
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the ResistancePlus GC (beta) assay for the simultaneous detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gyrA S91 markers of resistance (S91F) and susceptibility (WT) to ciprofloxacin, from both clinical specimens and isolates. METHODS: Performance was assessed on several sample banks, including N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 822), non-gonococcal isolates (n = 110), N. gonorrhoeae-positive clinical specimens (n = 402) and N...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mohamed Sassi, François Guérin, Asma Zouari, Racha Beyrouthy, Michel Auzou, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Sophie Potrel, Loren Dejoies, Anaïs Collet, Sarrah Boukthir, Gabriel Auger, Richard Bonnet, Vincent Cattoir
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological trend of linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE) collected in France from 2006 to 2016 and to extensively characterize LRE isolates. METHODS: The National Reference Center for Enterococci (NRC-Enc) received enterococcal isolates suspected to be VRE and/or LRE from all French hospitals between 2006 and 2016. LRE isolates were phenotypically characterized and their genomes were entirely sequenced by Miseq (Illumina). Transfer of linezolid resistance was attempted by filter mating experiments...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Grace Chan, Robert Houle, Meihong Lin, Jocelyn Yabut, Kathleen Cox, Jin Wu, Xiaoyan Chu
OBJECTIVES: To identify the transporters involved in renal elimination of relebactam, and to assess the potential of relebactam as a perpetrator or victim of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for major drug transporters. METHODS: A series of bidirectional transport, uptake and inhibition studies were conducted in vitro using transfected cell lines and membrane vesicles. The inhibitory effects of relebactam on major drug transporters, as well as the inhibitory effects of commonly used antibiotics/antifungals on organic anion transporter (OAT) 3-mediated uptake of relebactam, were assessed...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde, Jean-Chrysostome Gody, David Veyer, Hélène Péré, Mathieu Matta, Leman Robin, Gérard Grésenguet, Charlotte Charpentier, Laurent Bélec
OBJECTIVES: The predictive efficacy of integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) was investigated in HIV-infected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa. METHODS: Plasma was collected at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic, from INSTI-naive children (n = 8) and adolescents (n = 10) in virological failure (viral load >1000 copies/mL) after 5 years of first- and/or second-line combination ART (cART). IN, reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (P) genes were genotyped and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) to INSTIs, NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs were interpreted using the Stanford algorithm...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Olga Rivero-Menendez, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the in vitro activity of olorofim (F901318), a novel broad-spectrum antifungal agent, against 150 strains belonging to 16 different cryptic species of Aspergillus by EUCAST and CLSI methodologies. METHODS: Olorofim, amphotericin B, micafungin, posaconazole and voriconazole were tested against cryptic species belonging to Aspergillus fumigatus complex (n = 57), Aspergillus ustus complex (n = 25), Aspergillus niger complex (n = 20), Aspergillus flavus complex (n = 20), Aspergillus circumdati complex (n = 15) and Aspergillus terreus complex (n = 13) using EUCAST and CLSI methodologies for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of antifungal agents...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Wenbo Hao, Xinxin Shan, Dexi Li, Stefan Schwarz, Su-Mei Zhang, Xin-Sheng Li, Xiang-Dang Du
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and transferability of the poxtA gene and identify the genetic context of poxtA in two enterococcal plasmids from swine. METHODS: MICs were determined by broth microdilution. A total of 114 porcine enterococci with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 mg/L were screened for the presence of the poxtA gene by PCR. Transferability of poxtA was investigated by conjugation and transformation. The poxtA-carrying plasmids were completely sequenced using the Illumina Miseq and PacBio RSII platform...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yao Zhu, Wanjiang Zhang, Stefan Schwarz, Changzhen Wang, Wenyu Liu, Fuguang Chen, Tian Luan, Siguo Liu
OBJECTIVES: To characterize an MDR blaIMP-4-harbouring plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae EC62 of swine origin in China. METHODS: Plasmid pIMP-4-EC62 from E. cloacae EC62 was transferred by conjugation via filter mating into Escherichia coli J53. Plasmid DNA was extracted from an E. coli J53 transconjugant and sequenced using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. MIC values for both the isolate EC62 and the transconjugant were determined using the broth microdilution and agar dilution methods...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Oliver Van Hecke, Chris C Butler, Kay Wang, Sarah Tonkin-Crine
BACKGROUND: There remains public misconception about antibiotic use and resistance. Preschool children are at particular risk of receiving unnecessary antibiotics because they commonly present in primary care and many childhood infections are self-limiting. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to explore parents' perceptions and understanding of antibiotic use and resistance in the context of their young child with an acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) and to explore strategies parents would find acceptable to minimize antibiotic resistance for their families...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Silva, P E Ferreira, S D Otienoburu, C Calçada, B Ngasala, A Björkman, A Mårtensson, J P Gil, M I Veiga
BACKGROUND: Delayed parasite clearance and, consequently, reduced efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies have been linked with Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene SNPs in Southeast Asia. In Africa, significantly prolonged clearance has not yet been observed and the presently restricted variation in parasite clearance cannot be explained by K13 polymorphisms. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to study the in vivo pfK13 transcriptional response in patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine and explore whether the pfk13 transcripts can explain the patients' parasite clearance outcomes...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lara García-Álvarez, M Mercedes Sanz, Mercedes Marín, M Carmen Fariñas, Miguel Montejo, Josune Goikoetxea, Raquel Rodríguez García, Arístides de Alarcón, Manuel Almela, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, M Mar Alonso Socas, Miguel A Goenaga, Enrique Navas, Luis Vicioso, José A Oteo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Devchand, C M J Kirkpatrick, W Stevenson, K Garrett, D Perera, S Khumra, K Urbancic, M L Grayson, J A Trubiano
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic allergy labels (AALs), reported by up to 25% of hospitalized patients, are a significant barrier to appropriate prescribing and a focus of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes. METHODS: A prospective audit of a pharmacist-led AMS penicillin allergy de-labelling ward round at Austin Health (Melbourne, Australia) was evaluated. Eligible inpatients with a documented penicillin allergy receiving an antibiotic were identified via an electronic medical report and then reviewed by a pharmacist-led AMS team...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sahana Vasudevan, Ramya Devi Durai, David Raj Chellappan, Vedha Hari B Narayanan, P C Prabu, Adline Princy Solomon
BACKGROUND: MDR Staphylococcus aureus is a major aetiological agent of catheter-associated infections. A quorum sensing targeted drug development approach proves to be an effective alternative strategy to combat such infections. METHODS: Intravenous catheters were coated with polymethacrylate copolymers loaded with the antivirulent compound 2-[(methylamino)methyl]phenol (2MAMP). The in vitro drug release profile and kinetics were established. The anti-biofilm effect of the coated catheters was tested against clinical isolates of MDR S...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Anne Sophie Bourrel, Laurent Poirel, Guilhem Royer, Mélanie Darty, Xavier Vuillemin, Nicolas Kieffer, Olivier Clermont, Erick Denamur, Patrice Nordmann, Jean-Winoc Decousser
BACKGROUND: Beyond plasmid-encoded resistance (mcr genes) prevalence in strain collections, large epidemiological studies to estimate the human burden of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli gut carriage are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of colistin-resistant E. coli carriage in inpatients and decipher the molecular support of resistance and the genetic background of the strains. METHODS: During a 3 month period in 2017, we prospectively screened patients in six Parisian hospitals for rectal carriage of colistin-resistant E...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Henrik Hasman, Philip T L C Clausen, Hülya Kaya, Frank Hansen, Jenny Dahl Knudsen, Mikala Wang, Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Jurgita Samulioniené, Bent L Røder, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Ole Lund, Anette M Hammerum
OBJECTIVES: In enterococci, resistance to linezolid is often mediated by mutations in the V domain of the 23S rRNA gene (G2576T or G2505A). Furthermore, four genes [optrA, cfr, cfr(B) and poxtA] encode linezolid resistance in enterococci. We aimed to develop a Web tool for detection of the two mutations and the four genes encoding linezolid resistance in enterococci from whole-genome sequence data. METHODS: LRE-Finder (where LRE stands for linezolid-resistant enterococci) detected the fraction of Ts in position 2576 and the fraction of As in position 2505 of the 23S rRNA and the cfr, cfr(B), optrA and poxtA genes by aligning raw sequencing reads (fastq format) with k-mer alignment...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Wesley D Kufel, Ambika P Eranki, Kristopher M Paolino, Andrea Call, Christopher D Miller, Bryan T Mogle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jessica D Schulz, Jean T Coulibaly, Christian Schindler, David Wimmersberger, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Yearly, millions of children are treated globally with ivermectin mainly for neglected tropical diseases. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical differences between children and adults may result in changes in pharmacokinetics. However, paediatric pharmacokinetic data of ivermectin are lacking. METHODS: In the framework of a randomized controlled dose-finding trial in rural Côte d'Ivoire, Trichuris trichiura-infected pre-school-aged children (PSAC, 2-5 years) and school-aged children (SAC, 6-12 years) were assigned to 100 or 200 μg/kg and 200, 400 or 600 μg/kg ivermectin, respectively (ISRCTN registry no...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Angela Huttner, Rixt A Wijma, Andrew J Stewardson, Flaminia Olearo, Elodie Von Dach, Stephan Harbarth, Roger J M Brüggemann, Johan W Mouton, Anouk E Muller
BACKGROUND: Use of nitrofurantoin has increased significantly since its recent repositioning as a first-line agent for uncomplicated cystitis by multiple guidelines. However, current dosing regimens were developed in an era before robust pharmacokinetic testing and may not be optimal. Furthermore, formulations have been modified over the years. OBJECTIVES: To reassess the plasma and urinary pharmacokinetic profile of macrocrystalline nitrofurantoin in two commonly used dosing regimens...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Manuela Tietgen, Jan S Kramer, Steffen Brunst, Bardya Djahanschiri, Sonali Wohra, Paul G Higgins, Marko Weidensdorfer, Sara Riedel-Christ, Klaas M Pos, Aitor Gonzaga, Matthias Steglich, Ulrich Nübel, Ingo Ebersberger, Ewgenij Proschak, Stephan Göttig
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus clinical isolate AC_2117 with the novel carbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamase (CHDL) OXA-679. METHODS: Identification of the species and β-lactamases was verified by genome sequencing (PacBio) and phylogenetic analyses. Antibiotic susceptibility of AC_2117 and transformants harbouring cloned blaOXA-679 was evaluated using antibiotic gradient strips and microbroth dilution...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, S J Ryan Arends, Herman Goossens, Robert K Flamm
BACKGROUND: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program monitors the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms from various infection types worldwide. METHODS: A total of 102 995 bacterial isolates were consecutively collected (one per patient) in 1997-2016 from 258 medical centres in North America (n = 44 999; 113 centres), Europe (n = 30 988; 61 centres from 22 nations), the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n = 16 503; 67 centres from 12 nations) and Latin America (n = 10 505; 17 centres from 7 nations)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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