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Human Reproduction Update

Bassel H Al Wattar, Nilaani Murugesu, Aurelio Tobias, Javier Zamora, Khalid S Khan
BACKGROUND: First-trimester miscarriage affects up to a quarter of women worldwide. With many competing treatment options available, there is a need for a comprehensive evidence synthesis. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and safety of treatment options for first-trimester miscarriage: expectant management (EXP), sharp dilation and curettage (D+C), electric vacuum aspiration (EVAC), manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), misoprostol alone (MISO), mifepristone+misoprostol (MIFE+MISO) and misoprostol plus electric vacuum aspiration (MISO+EVAC)...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Sine Berntsen, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Hannele Laivuori, Anne Loft, Nan B Oldereid, Liv Bente Romundstad, Christina Bergh, Anja Pinborg
Worldwide, more than 7 million children have now been born after ART: these delivery rates are steadily rising and now comprise 2-6% of births in the European countries. To achieve higher pregnancy rates, the transfer of two or more embryos was previously the gold standard in ART. However, recently the practise has moved towards a single embryo transfer policy to avoid multiple births. The positive consequences of the declining multiple birth rates after ART are decreasing perinatal risks and overall improved health for the ART progeny...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Johnny S Younis, Nora Shapso, Richard Fleming, Izhar Ben-Shlomo, Ido Izhaki
BACKGROUND: Ovarian endometrioma is a frequent manifestation of endometriosis in women of reproductive age. Several issues related to its space occupying effects, local reactions and surgical removal continue to be actively debated today. The impact of ovarian endometrioma per se on ovarian reserve is still controversial and the effect of ovarian surgery is still actively discussed. Furthermore, the optimal biomarker of ovarian reserve estimation in women with ovarian endometrioma is still under examination...
February 1, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Kai-Lun Hu, Hsun-Ming Chang, Hong-Cui Zhao, Yang Yu, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
BACKGROUND: Initially identified as suppressors of metastasis in various types of cancer, kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides that are key regulators of the mammalian reproductive axis. Accumulating evidence has shown that kisspeptin is able to control both the pulsatile and surge GnRH release, playing fundamental roles in female reproduction, which include the secretion of gonadotropins, puberty onset, brain sex differentiation, ovulation and the metabolic regulation of fertility...
January 11, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Laurentiu Craciunas, Ioannis Gallos, Justin Chu, Tom Bourne, Siobhan Quenby, Jan J Brosens, Arri Coomarasamy
BACKGROUND: Early reproductive failure is the most common complication of pregnancy with only 30% of conceptions reaching live birth. Establishing a successful pregnancy depends upon implantation, a complex process involving interactions between the endometrium and the blastocyst. It is estimated that embryos account for one-third of implantation failures, while suboptimal endometrial receptivity and altered embryo-endometrial dialogue are responsible for the remaining two-thirds. Endometrial receptivity has been the focus of extensive research for over 80 years, leading to an indepth understanding of the processes associated with embryo-endometrial cross-talk and implantation...
January 9, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Jyotsna Pundir, David Charles, Luca Sabatini, Danielle Hiam, Sonia Jitpiriyaroj, Helena Teede, Arri Coomarasamy, Lisa Moran, Shakila Thangaratinam
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major contributor to subfertility, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women. The role of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent these outcomes has been reported in many systematic reviews, but robust conclusions have not been made due to variations in the scope, quality and findings of these reviews. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim was to provide an overview of existing evidence on the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in women with PCOS on fertility and non-fertility outcomes by a review of existing systematic reviews...
January 4, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Hsun-Ming Chang, Hai-Cui Wu, Zhen-Gao Sun, Fang Lian, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Neurotrophins [nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4)] and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are soluble polypeptide growth factors that are widely recognized for their roles in promoting cell growth, survival and differentiation in several classes of neurons. Outside the nervous system, neurotrophin (NT) and GDNF signaling events have substantial roles in various non-neural tissues, including the ovary...
January 4, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Xavier Santamaria, Aymara Mas, Irene Cervelló, Hugh S Taylor, Carlos Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
J A Deane, Y Ong, F L Cousins, C E Gargett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Jacinta H Martin, R John Aitken, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Brett Nixon
BACKGROUND: DNA integrity and stability are critical determinants of cell viability. This is especially true in the female germline, wherein DNA integrity underpins successful conception, embryonic development, pregnancy and the production of healthy offspring. However, DNA is not inert; rather, it is subject to assault from various environment factors resulting in chemical modification and/or strand breakage. If structural alterations result and are left unrepaired, they have the potential to cause mutations and propagate disease...
December 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Clare Oliver-Williams, Marija Glisic, Sara Shahzad, Elizabeth Brown, Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Mahmuda Chadni, Rajiv Chowdhury, Oscar H Franco, Taulant Muka
BACKGROUND: The effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains controversial. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We aimed to systematically review the evidence regarding the role of dose, route of hormone administration, timing of initiation and duration of HT on cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women. SEARCH METHODS: The electronic databases Medline Ovid, Web of Science and Cochrane Central were systematically searched to identify studies published before 30 January 2018...
December 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Arne Sunde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Elpida Fragouli, Santiago Munne, Dagan Wells
BACKGROUND: Embryos that are able to form blastocysts have succeeded in activating their genome and differentiating into two cell types-an external layer of trophectoderm cells, which will go on to form extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta, and the inner cell mass, which will give rise to the embryo proper. Culturing embryos to the blastocyst stage has become an increasingly popular IVF practice over the past decade. Additionally, it has been proposed that the identification and transfer of euploid blastocysts could significantly improve IVF outcomes...
January 1, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Alison E Hipwell, Linda G Kahn, Pam Factor-Litvak, Christina A Porucznik, Eva L Siegel, Raina N Fichorova, Richard F Hamman, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Kim G Harley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to non-persistent chemicals in consumer products is ubiquitous and associated with endocrine-disrupting effects. These effects have been linked to infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes in some studies and could affect couple fecundability, i.e. the capacity to conceive a pregnancy, quantified as time to pregnancy (TTP). OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Few epidemiologic studies have examined the impact of non-persistent chemicals specifically on TTP, and the results of these studies have not been synthesized...
January 1, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Antoinette Anazodo, Paula Laws, Shanna Logan, Carla Saunders, Jo Travaglia, Brigitte Gerstl, Natalie Bradford, Richard Cohn, Mary Birdsall, Ronald Barr, Nao Suzuki, Seido Takae, Ricardo Marinho, Shuo Xiao, Chen Qiong-Hua, Nalini Mahajan, Madhuri Patil, Devika Gunasheela, Kristen Smith, Leonard Sender, Cláudia Melo, Teresa Almeida-Santos, Mahmoud Salama, Leslie Appiah, Irene Su, Sheila Lane, Teresa K Woodruff, Allan Pacey, Richard A Anderson, Francoise Shenfield, William Ledger, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Fertility preservation (FP) is an important quality of life issue for cancer survivors of reproductive age. Despite the existence of broad international guidelines, the delivery of oncofertility care, particularly amongst paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients, remains a challenge for healthcare professionals (HCPs). The quality of oncofertility care is variable and the uptake and utilization of FP remains low. Available guidelines fall short in providing adequate detail on how oncofertility models of care (MOC) allow for the real-world application of guidelines by HCPs...
November 20, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Amma Owusu-Akyaw, Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Laura T Goldsmith, Sara S Morelli
BACKGROUND: The human uterine endometrium undergoes significant remodeling and regeneration on a rapid and repeated basis, after parturition, menstruation, and in some cases, injury. The ability of the adult endometrium to undergo cyclic regeneration and differentiation/decidualization is essential for successful human reproduction. Multiple key physiologic functions of the endometrium require the cells of this tissue to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial phenotypes, processes known as mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Ignatia F Reijnders, Annemarie G M G J Mulders, Melissa van der Windt, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, placenta-related complications contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth, with implications for the future health of mothers and offspring. The placenta develops in the periconception period and forms the interface between mother and embryo/fetus. An unhealthy periconceptional maternal lifestyle, such as smoking, alcohol and under- and over-nutrition, can detrimentally influence placental development and function...
November 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Chen Sar-Shalom Nahshon, Lena Sagi-Dain, Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi, Martha Dirnfeld
Background: Endometrial injury is an intentional damage made to the endometrium, usually produced by a Pipelle catheter. Over the last two decades, endometrial injury has been studied to improve implantation rates and decrease the incidence of implantation failure in invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Recently, additional studies of endometrial injury, performed not only in patients with implantation failure but also in intrauterine insemination cycles, have been conducted, and the endometrial injury made by hysteroscopy has been researched...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Matheus Roque, Thor Haahr, Selmo Geber, Sandro C Esteves, Peter Humaidan
BACKGROUND: Elective freezing of all good quality embryos and transfer in subsequent cycles, i.e. elective frozen embryo transfer (eFET), has recently increased significantly with the introduction of the GnRH agonist trigger protocol and improvements in cryo-techniques. The ongoing discussion focuses on whether eFET should be offered to the overall IVF population or only to specific subsets of patients. Until recently, the clinical usage of eFET was supported by only a few randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses, suggesting that the eFET not only reduced ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), but also improved reproductive outcomes...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Anna L Boss, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited...
November 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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