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Human Reproduction

Catherine M Castillo, Gregory Horne, Cheryl T Fitzgerald, Edward D Johnstone, Daniel R Brison, Stephen A Roberts
STUDY QUESTION: Has birthweight (BW) changed over time among IVF-conceived singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Singleton BW has increased markedly over the past 25 years. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IVF conceived singletons have had a higher incidence of low BW compared to spontaneously conceived singletons, and this has raised concerns over long-term increased risks of cardio-metabolic disease. However, few causal links between IVF procedures and BW have been robustly established, and few studies have examined whether BW has changed over time as IVF techniques have developed...
March 14, 2019: Human Reproduction
Manon S Oud, Ludmila Volozonoka, Roos M Smits, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Liliana Ramos, Joris A Veltman
STUDY QUESTION: Which genes are confidently linked to human monogenic male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our systematic literature search and clinical validity assessment reveals that a total of 78 genes are currently confidently linked to 92 human male infertility phenotypes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The discovery of novel male infertility genes is rapidly accelerating with the availability of next-generating sequencing methods, but the quality of evidence for gene-disease relationships varies greatly...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
E A Stewart, M P Diamond, A R W Williams, B R Carr, E R Myers, R A Feldman, W Elger, C Mattia-Goldberg, B M Schwefel, K Chwalisz
STUDY QUESTION: Can asoprisnil, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, provide clinically meaningful improvements in heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) associated with uterine fibroids with an acceptable safety profile? SUMMARY ANSWER: Uninterrupted treatment with asoprisnil for 12 months effectively controlled HMB and reduced fibroid and uterine volume with few adverse events. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In a 3-month study, asoprisnil (5, 10 and 25 mg) suppressed uterine bleeding, reduced fibroid and uterine volume, and improved hematological parameters in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
Virginie Carmignac, Julie Barberet, Julian Iranzo, Ronan Quéré, Magali Guilleman, Déborah Bourc'his, Patricia Fauque
STUDY QUESTION: Do assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) impact on the expression of transposable elements (TEs) in preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: The expression of all TE families is globally increased with mouse embryo culture with differences according to culture medium composition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mammalian genomes are subject to global epigenetic reprogramming during early embryogenesis. Whether ARTs could have consequences on this period of acute epigenetic sensitivity is the matter of intense research...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
Maris Laan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
Manuel Belli, Ling Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Annemarie Donjacour, Elena Ruggeri, Maria Grazia Palmerini, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Guido Macchiarelli, Paolo Rinaudo
STUDY QUESTION: Does the oxygen concentration in the culture medium [either physiologic (5%) or atmospheric (20%)] affect mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in preimplantation mouse embryos generated by IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Embryos cultured in 20% oxygen show increased mitochondrial abnormalities compared to embryos cultured in 5% oxygen. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART are widely used and have resulted in the birth of more than 8 million children...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
Elpida Fragouli, Caroline McCaffrey, Krithika Ravichandran, Katharina Spath, James A Grifo, Santiago Munné, Dagan Wells
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
A J Newson, S de Lacey, D K Dowling, S Murray, C M Sue, D R Thorburn, L Gillam, C Degeling
STUDY QUESTION: Does an informed group of citizens endorse the clinical use of mitochondrial donation in a country where this is not currently permitted? SUMMARY ANSWER: After hearing balanced expert evidence and having opportunity for deliberation, a majority (11/14) of participants in a citizens' jury believed that children should be able to be born using mitochondrial donation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Research suggests that patients, oocyte donors and health professionals support mitochondrial donation to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disease...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
Gayathree Murugappan, Shufeng Li, Ruth B Lathi, Valerie L Baker, Michael L Eisenberg
STUDY QUESTION: Is female infertility associated with higher risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although absolute risks are low, infertility is associated with higher risk of cancer compared to a group of non-infertile women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile women are at higher risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. Information on risk of non-gynecologic cancers is rare and conflicting, and the effect of pregnancy on these risk associations is known for only a minority of cancer types...
March 13, 2019: Human Reproduction
M Popovic, L Dhaenens, J Taelman, A Dheedene, M Bialecka, P De Sutter, S M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, B Menten, B Heindryckx
STUDY QUESTION: What is the accuracy of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) when considering human peri-implantation outcomes in vitro? STUDY ANSWER: The probability of accurately diagnosing an embryo as abnormal was 100%, while the proportion of euploid embryos classified as clinically suitable was 61.9%, yet if structural and mosaic abnormalities were not considered accuracy increased to 100%, with a 0% false positive and false negative rate...
March 6, 2019: Human Reproduction
Yanling Gou, Xue Li, Peiling Li, Hongyan Zhang, Tenghan Xu, Hao Wang, Beidi Wang, Xuesong Ma, Xue Jiang, Zongfeng Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: How is the activation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) involved in macrophage recruitment to promote the pathogenesis of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: ERβ modulates the production of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) via nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling in ESCs and thus recruits macrophages to ectopic lesions to promote pathogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Macrophages are mainly recruited to the peritoneal cavity to promote the pathogenesis of endometriosis...
March 6, 2019: Human Reproduction
K Stocking, J Wilkinson, S Lensen, D R Brison, S A Roberts, A Vail
STUDY QUESTION: How much statistical power do randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have to investigate the effectiveness of interventions in reproductive medicine? SUMMARY ANSWER: The largest trials in reproductive medicine are unlikely to detect plausible improvements in live birth rate (LBR), and meta-analyses do not make up for this shortcoming. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Effectiveness of interventions is best evaluated using RCTs...
March 6, 2019: Human Reproduction
Moran Gershoni, Ron Hauser, Shimi Barda, Ofer Lehavi, Eli Arama, Shmuel Pietrokovski, Sandra E Kleiman
STUDY QUESTION: Are there genetic variants that can be used for the clinical evaluation of azoospermic men? SUMMARY ANSWER: A novel homozygous frame-shift mutation in the MEIOB gene was identified in three azoospermic patients from two different families. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Up to 1% of all men have complete absence of sperm in the semen, a condition known as azoospermia. There are very few tools for determining the etiology of azoospermia and the likelihood of sperm cells in the testis...
March 6, 2019: Human Reproduction
(no author information available yet)
STUDY QUESTION: How has the timing of women's reproductive events (including ages at menarche, first birth, and natural menopause, and the number of children) changed across birth years, racial/ethnic groups and educational levels? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women who were born in recent generations (1970-84 vs before 1930) or those who with higher education levels had menarche a year earlier, experienced a higher prevalence of nulliparity and had their first child at a later age...
March 4, 2019: Human Reproduction
S Stormlund, L Schmidt, J Bogstad, K Løssl, L Prætorius, A Zedeler, A Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: What are the attitudes towards different aspects of a freeze-all strategy and elective frozen embryo transfer (eFET) in comparison with fresh embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology treatment among female and male patients before and after their first ART treatment cycle in a public health care setting? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite concerns about the delay in embryo transfer associated with eFET, nearly 60% of the participants were in favor of eFET compared with fresh embryo transfer assuming that the clinical pregnancy rate was equivalent...
February 27, 2019: Human Reproduction
Lucile Ferreux, Amira Sallem, Ahmed Chargui, Anne-Sophie Gille, Mathilde Bourdon, Chloé Maignien, Pietro Santulli, Jean Philippe Wolf, Catherine Patrat, Khaled Pocate-Cheriet
STUDY QUESTION: Did the revised Alpha/ESHRE consensus (Vienna, 2017) bring a real answer on managing oocytes with aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SERa)? SUMMARY ANSWER: According to the currently available literature, a case by case approach on the time of injecting/inseminating SERa+ oocytes may be not helpful for embryologists making a decision, so we suggest fertilizing both SERa+ and SERa- oocytes and prioritizing embryos derived from SERa- oocytes...
February 26, 2019: Human Reproduction
A Miettinen, A Rotkirch, A-M Suikkari, V Söderström-Anttila
STUDY QUESTION: What are the attitudes and expectations of past oocyte donors concerning contact with their donor offspring and contact between donor offspring and their own children? SUMMARY ANSWER: The large majority (95%) of open-identity oocyte donors, as well as voluntarily registered donors (registered before the Finnish 2007 ART law), expressed positive or neutral feelings towards contact with their donor offspring and mainly positive expectations towards contact between donor offspring and their own children...
February 26, 2019: Human Reproduction
Juan S Gnecco, Tianbing Ding, Caroline Smith, Jacky Lu, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran, Kevin G Osteen
STUDY QUESTION: Does the uterine vasculature play a localized role in promoting stromal cell decidualization in the human endometrium? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study demonstrated that hemodynamic forces induced secretion of specific endothelial cell-derived prostanoids that enhanced endometrial perivascular decidualization via a paracrine mechanism. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Differentiation of stromal cell fibroblasts into the specialized decidua of the placenta is a progesterone-dependent process; however, histologically, it has long been noted that the first morphological signs of decidualization appear in the perivascular stroma...
February 21, 2019: Human Reproduction
A Eapen, M Joing, P Kwon, J Tong, E Maneta, C De Santo, F Mussai, D Lissauer, D Carter
STUDY QUESTION: Does administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in the first trimester improve pregnancy outcomes, among women with a history of unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: rhG-CSF administered in the first trimester of pregnancy did not improve outcomes among women with a history of unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The only previous randomized controlled study of granulocyte colony stimulating factor in recurrent miscarriage in 68 women with unexplained primary recurrent miscarriage found a statistically significant reduction in miscarriage and improvement in live birth rates...
February 18, 2019: Human Reproduction
Carmen Mendoza, Nieves Cremades, Estrella Ruiz-Requena, Francisco Martinez, Esperanza Ortega, Sergio Bernabeu, Jan Tesarik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
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