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Yingting Mok, Miriam Santiago Kimpo, Huiyi Chen, Chik Hong Kuick, Kenneth Tou-En Chang, Victor Kwan Min Lee
Spindle cell tumours with S100 and CD34 co-expression (without SOX-10 positivity) have been recently collated into an entity showing recurrent fusions involving RAF1, BRAF and NTRK1/2 genes 1 . These tumours exhibit a spectrum of morphological characteristics ranging from benign to malignant1 . Recurring histological features include monomorphic spindle cell proliferation, stromal hyalinization and perivascular keloidal collagen1 . Some of these cases show morphologic overlap with lipofibromatosis-like neural tumours1, 2 ...
February 11, 2019: Histopathology
Kiminobu Tanizawa, Brett Ley, Eric Vittinghoff, Brett M Elicker, Travis S Henry, Paul J Wolters, Robert Brownell, Shuo Liu, Harold R Collard, Kirk D Jones
AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of bronchiolocentric fibrosis in patients with a histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-two patients with pathological usual interstitial pneumonia pattern were identified. Two hundred fifteen of these patients (215/252) had the multidisciplinary diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Prospectively defined clinical, radiologic and pathological features (including bronchiolocentric fibrosis) were recorded, and peripheral blood MUC5B genotype and telomere length were measured...
February 11, 2019: Histopathology
Giuseppe Piarulli, Florian Puls, Bo Wängberg, Henrik Fagman, Magnus Hansson, Jenny Nilsson, Elsa Arbajian, Fredrik Mertens
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a soft tissue tumour primarily affecting children and young adults. Approximately 50% of IMTs have gene fusions involving the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-encoding ALK gene, providing a molecular rationale for treating IMT patients with unresectable tumours with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, a subset of IMT instead displays fusions affecting other RTK-encoding genes, so far including NTRK3, PDGFRB, and ROS1. Also IMTs with variant RTK fusions may respond well to TKI treatment, but can be difficult to identify as they are negative for ALK staining at immunohistochemistry, the standard method for detection of ALK rearrangements...
February 8, 2019: Histopathology
Mohammed M Abdelsamea, Ruta Barbora Grineviciute, Justinas Besusparis, Sulayman Cham, Alain Pitiot, Arvydas Laurinavicius, Mohammad Ilyas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an essential component of biomarker research in cancer. Automated biomarker quantification is hampered by the failure of computational algorithms to discriminate "negative" tumour cells from "negative" stromal cells. We sought to develop an algorithm for segmentation of tumour epithelium in colorectal cancer (CRC) irrespective of the biomarker expression in the cells. METHODS: We developed TuPaQ (Tumour Parcellation and Quantification) to segment tumour epithelium and parcellate sections into "epithelium" and "non-epithelium"...
February 8, 2019: Histopathology
Valerie Cui Yun Koh, Jeffrey Chun Tatt Lim, Aye Aye Thike, Poh Yian Cheok, Minn Minn Myint Thu, Huihua Li, Veronique Kiak Mien Tan, Kong Wee Ong, Benita Kiat Tee Tan, Gay Hui Ho, Shyamala Thilagaratnam, Jill Su Lin Wong, Fuh Yong Wong, Ian Ogilvie Ellis, Puay Hoon Tan
AIMS: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a heterogeneous disease that has risen to prominence and more recently controversy, with the advent of screening mammography. Debate about the true biological potential of low nuclear grade DCIS continues to challenge therapeutic considerations. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive literature review of the behaviour, outcomes and current management trials of low-grade DCIS, as well as a retrospective study of a large single institutional series of low-grade DCIS diagnosed at our hospital...
February 7, 2019: Histopathology
Chae Hwa Kim, Jennifer R Chapman, Francisco Vega
B cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of varied malignant potential occur in association with immunodeficiency and include among others, follicular hyperplasia, infectious mononucleosis-like hyperplasia, plasmacytic hyperplasia, polymorphic B-lymphoproliferative disorders and the recently described clinicopathologic entity named as EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV-MCU). EBV-MCU is a localized and usually self-limited EBV-associated LPD characterized by a circumscribed ulcer involving oropharyngeal mucosa, skin, or gastrointestinal tract reported most often in elderly patients with presumed age-associated immunodeficiency...
February 6, 2019: Histopathology
Ariana Madani, Chantal C H J Kuijpers, Caro E Sluijter, Jan H Von der Thüsen, Katrien Grünberg, Valery E P P Lemmens, Lucy I H Overbeek, Iris D Nagtegaal
AIMS: Variation in health care is undesirable since this is potentially harmful for patients. In the Netherlands, an e-learning module was developed to standardise pathologic evaluation of colorectal adenomas. We studied the effect of e-learning on interlaboratory variability in grading of dysplasia in screened conventional colorectal adenomas. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed including all colorectal adenomas from the Dutch population-based colorectal cancer screening program, retrieved from the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) from January 2014-July 2015...
February 6, 2019: Histopathology
Michael S Toss, Islam M Miligy, Rita Haj-Ahmad, Kylie L Gorringe, Abdulbaqi AlKawaz, Karuna Mittal, Ian O Ellis, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a key regulatory enzyme for galactoside metabolism. Additionally, it has a distinct proteolytic activity and plays a role in tumour progression. CTSA is differentially expressed at the mRNA level between breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). In this study, we aimed to characterise CTSA protein expression in DCIS and evaluate its prognostic significance. METHODS: A large cohort of DCIS (n=776 for pure DCIS and n=239 for DCIS associated with IBC (DCIS/IBC)) prepared as tissue microarray was immunohistochemically stained for CTSA...
February 6, 2019: Histopathology
Raghav Madan, Mustafa Deebajah, Shaheen Alanee, Nilesh S Gupta, Shannon Carskadon, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Sean R Williamson
AIMS: Comedonecrosis in prostate cancer has always been Gleason pattern 5. However, we aimed to evaluate how intraductal carcinoma (not graded) with comedonecrosis should be considered. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 52 radical prostatectomy patients, 40 were informative and evaluated with immunohistochemistry for basal cells. Clinical outcome was assessed for biochemical recurrence, metastatic disease, and the need for adjuvant therapy. Comedonecrosis was predominantly located in intraductal carcinoma (24, 60%)...
February 5, 2019: Histopathology
Sarah Menguy, Marie Beylot-Barry, Parrens Marie, Anne Pham Ledard, Eric Frison, François Comoz, Maxime Battistella, Vanessa Szablewski, Brigitte Balme, Anne Croue, Frédéric Franck, Nicolas Ortonne, Emilie Tournier, Laurence Lamant, Agnès Carlotti, Anne De Muret, François Le Gall, Marie-Hélène Lorton, Jean-Philippe Merlio, Béatrice Vergier
AIMS: We applied the 2017 WHO classification criteria to categorize a series of 64 primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs), containing a majority (⩾80%) of large-cells and a proliferative rate ⩾40%, raising the problem of the differential diagnosis between PCLBCLs, leg type (PCLBCLs-LT) or primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas with large cell morphology (PCFCLs-LC). The aims were to determine reproducibility and prognostic relevance of the 2017 WHO criteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morphology and phenotype identified 32 PCLBCLs-LT and 25 PCFCLs-LC; 7 cases (11%) remained unclassified...
February 4, 2019: Histopathology
Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Kentaro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ishii, Hisako Kushima, Masaki Fujita, Kazuki Nabeshima
AIMS: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome that results from tobacco smoking. Emphysema and fibrosis in CPFE patients have been considered to exist separately, with emphysema in the upper lobes and interstitial pneumonia in the lower lobes. The aim of this study was to examine the intrapulmonary distribution of fibrosis and emphysema in clinically diagnosed patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) having coexisting emphysema. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among IPF patients (n=40) who had been autopsied or pneumonectomized for lung transplantation from 1993 to 2018, we retrospectively selected patients with IPF having coexisting emphysema (n=19) based on the presence on chest computed tomography (IPF patients with emphysema)...
February 4, 2019: Histopathology
Masato Yamadera, Eiji Shinto, Yoshiki Kajiwara, Satsuki Mochizuki, Koichi Okamoto, Hideyuki Shimazaki, Kazuo Hase, Hideki Ueno
AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify the quantitative and qualitative differences of tumour budding identification between haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin and to estimate the respective clinical impacts in stage II colorectal cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively examined 314 surgically resected cases of stage II colorectal cancer and assessed tumour budding on serial section slides with H&E and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin...
January 30, 2019: Histopathology
Wiebke Solass, Christine Sempoux, Norman Carr, Frédéric Bibeau, Daniel Neureiter, Tarkan Jäger, Tina Di Caterino, Christophe Brunel, Eckhard Klieser, Claus Fristrup, Michael Bau Mortensen, Sönke Detlefsen
INTRODUCTION: The 4-tiered Peritoneal Regression Grading Score (PRGS) is assessing response to chemotherapy in peritoneal metastasis (PM). The PRGS is for example used to assess response to Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC). However, the reproducibility of the PRGS is currently unkown. We aimed to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver variability of the PRGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 patients who underwent at least 3 PIPAC treatments as part of the PIPAC-OPC1 or PIPAC-OPC2 clinical trials at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, were included...
January 27, 2019: Histopathology
S Ramón Y Cajal, S Hümmer, V Peg, X Matias Guiu, I De Torres, J Castellvi, E Martinez-Saez, J Hernandez-Losa
Malignant tumors show a marked degree of morphological, molecular and proteomic heterogeneity. This variability is closely related to microenvironmental factors and the location of the tumor. The activation of genetic alterations is very tissue dependent and only few tumors have distinct genetic alterations. Importantly, the activation state of proteins and signaling factors is heterogeneous in the primary tumor and in metastases and recurrences. The molecular diagnosis based only in genetic alterations can drive to treatments with unpredictable responses depending on the tumor location such as the tumor response in melanomas vs...
January 22, 2019: Histopathology
Mariko Ogino, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Tomoko Mitsuhashi, Yutaka Hatanaka, Toraji Amano, Katsuji Marukawa, Takeo Nitta, Takashi Ueno, Masato Ono, Shota Kuwabara, Tooru Yamada, Satoshi Hirano
AIMS: Tumour budding is a risk factor for poor prognosis in various cancers. Tumour buds may present an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) morphological phenotype. This study aimed to elucidate the prognostic impact of tumour budding grade and its association with clinicopathological and EMT-related features in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC) or distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects included 195 PHCC and 115 DCC patients. The numbers of tumour buds in different patients were stratified for postoperative survival using the recursive partitioning technique...
January 22, 2019: Histopathology
Jacqueline Birkness, Dora Lam-Himlin, Kathleen Byrnes, Laura Wood, Lysandra Voltaggio
AIMS: Inverted appendices are rare but have the potential to cause diagnostic confusion among endoscopists and pathologists. The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of inverted appendices seen at our institution over the last 30 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: 21 inverted appendices were identified and the clinical and pathologic features reviewed. Patients were predominantly middle aged women. Most cases were detected incidentally on colonoscopy...
January 22, 2019: Histopathology
Sarah Morgan, Elzbieta Slodkowska, Carlos Parra-Herran, Jelena Mirkovic
AIM: Neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell type of the uterine cervix (SmCC-Cx) is a rare HPV- related tumor with limited therapeutic options. Merkel cell carcinoma, another virus-associated neuroendocrine malignancy, has significant PD-L1 expression rates. PD-L1 expression has been reported in other malignancies of the cervix. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PD-L1 in the context of mismatch repair protein (MMR) and RB1 expression status in SmCC-Cx. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten cases of SmCC-Cx were tested for immunohistochemistry expression of PD-L1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, RB1, CD3, CD20 and HPV in situ hybridization (ISH)...
January 22, 2019: Histopathology
Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Hajime Horiuchi, Atsushi Kurata, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Rikiya Okuyama, Genki Usui, Yoshio Masuda, Masahiko Kuroda, Shigeru Inoue, Kaoru Furushima, Nobuyuki Matsuhashi, Yasushi Harihara, Teppei Morikawa
AIMS: Recent studies have provided the concept of invasive intramucosal colorectal carcinoma (CRC), and a case of intramucosal CRC with lymphatic invasion was reported; however, the characteristics of such cases and the risk of lymph node metastasis have never been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the pathological characteristics of intramucosal CRCs with lymphovascular invasion as well as the possibility of lymph node metastasis as an indication for additional surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: To delineate the histological features of intramucosal CRCs with lymphovascular invasion, we analyzed several histological features and compared their incidence among 9 such cases, as well as 20 other cases of intramucosal CRCs without lymphovascular invasion...
January 21, 2019: Histopathology
Bo Wang, Shujie Xie, Junming Bi, Zhuowei Liu, Hong Zeng, Hao Huang, Miaoxin Xue, Zhihua He, Meihua Yang, Hao Yu, Jian Huang, Tianxin Lin
AIMS: Lymphocytic infiltration is predominantly distributed in the tumor stroma and represents the tumor-related immune response. This study was to elucidate the prognostic value of stromal lymphocytic infiltration (SLI) in resectable urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). METHODS: The prognostic significance of SLI in UCB was assessed in a discovery (n=226; 60 deaths) cohort and a validation cohort (n=417; 103 deaths). SLI was categorized into intense (≥50% SLI) and non-intense (<50% SLI)...
January 17, 2019: Histopathology
Katharina Puetz, Elfriede Bollschweiler, Robert Semrau, Stefan P Mönig, Arnulf H Hölscher, Uta Drebber
AIM: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation reduces tumor volume and improves R0 resection rate, followed by extended survival for patients with advanced esophageal cancer. The degree of tumor regression has high prognostic relevance. To date, there is still no generally accepted tumor regression grading system. The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic discrimination power of different histological regression grading systems: a. the fibrosis/tumor ratio within the primary tumor (Mandard), b...
January 12, 2019: Histopathology
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