journal

Endocrine Reviews | Page 3

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31241742/the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-islet-function-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-control
#41
REVIEW
Jonathan D Douros, Jenny Tong, David A D'Alessio
Although bariatric surgery was developed primarily to treat morbid obesity, evidence from the earliest clinical observations to the most recent clinical trials consistently demonstrates that these procedures have substantial effects on glucose metabolism. A large base of research indicates that bariatric surgeries such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improve diabetes in most patients, with effects frequently evident prior to substantial weight reduction...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31220230/delayed-puberty-phenotypic-diversity-molecular-genetic-mechanisms-and-recent-discoveries
#42
REVIEW
Sasha R Howard, Leo Dunkel
This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the clinical condition of delayed puberty, a common presentation to the pediatric endocrinologist, which may present both diagnostic and prognostic challenges. Our understanding of the genetic control of pubertal timing has advanced thanks to active investigation in this field over the last two decades, but it remains in large part a fascinating and mysterious conundrum. The phenotype of delayed puberty is associated with adult health risks and common etiologies, and there is evidence for polygenic control of pubertal timing in the general population, sex-specificity, and epigenetic modulation...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31127816/bone-marrow-adiposity-basic-and-clinical-implications
#43
REVIEW
Zachary L Sebo, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Gene P Ables, Dieter M Lindskog, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Pouneh K Fazeli, Mark C Horowitz
The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last 10 years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole-body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are anatomically and functionally separate from brown, beige, and classic white adipocytes...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31098621/the-liver-as-an-endocrine-organ-linking-nafld-and-insulin-resistance
#44
REVIEW
Matthew J Watt, Paula M Miotto, William De Nardo, Magdalene K Montgomery
The liver is a dynamic organ that plays critical roles in many physiological processes, including the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional hepatic lipid metabolism is a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disorder worldwide, and is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Through the use of advanced mass spectrometry "omics" approaches and detailed experimentation in cells, mice, and humans, we now understand that the liver secretes a wide array of proteins, metabolites, and noncoding RNAs (miRNAs) and that many of these secreted factors exert powerful effects on metabolic processes both in the liver and in peripheral tissues...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081896/the-gut-microbiome-influences-host-endocrine-functions
#45
REVIEW
Marialetizia Rastelli, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gut microbiome is considered an organ contributing to the regulation of host metabolism. Since the relationship between the gut microbiome and specific diseases was elucidated, numerous studies have deciphered molecular mechanisms explaining how gut bacteria interact with host cells and eventually shape metabolism. Both metagenomic and metabolomic analyses have contributed to the discovery of bacterial-derived metabolites acting on host cells. In this review, we examine the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial metabolites act as paracrine or endocrine factors, thereby regulating host metabolism...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081877/diabetic-gastroparesis
#46
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Yogish C Kudva, David O Prichard
This review covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of diabetic gastroparesis, and more broadly diabetic gastroenteropathy, which encompasses all the gastrointestinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Up to 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM and suboptimal glycemic control have delayed gastric emptying (GE), which can be documented with scintigraphy, 13C breath tests, or a wireless motility capsule; the remainder have normal or rapid GE. Many patients with delayed GE are asymptomatic; others have dyspepsia (i...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074826/uterine-glands-developmental-biology-and-functional-roles-in-pregnancy
#47
REVIEW
Andrew M Kelleher, Francesco J DeMayo, Thomas E Spencer
All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that develop only or primarily after birth. Gland development or adenogenesis in the postnatal uterus is intrinsically regulated by proliferation, cell-cell interactions, growth factors and their inhibitors, as well as transcription factors, including forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) and estrogen receptor α (ESR1). Extrinsic factors regulating adenogenesis originate from other organs, including the ovary, pituitary, and mammary gland. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in uterine gland knockout sheep and mouse models support a primary role for secretions and products of the glands in pregnancy success...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074798/the-aging-thyroid-a-reappraisal-within-the-geroscience-integrated-perspective
#48
Claudio Franceschi, Rita Ostan, Stefano Mariotti, Daniela Monti, Giovanni Vitale
The thyroid plays a crucial and pervasive role in physiology (metabolism, thermogenesis, and immunity, among others) and its aging and related changes in thyroid hormone production contribute to the common occurrence of thyroid diseases in elderly and to age-associated changes in other organs and systems. We address the complexity of thyroid aging following the basic suggestions of geroscience. This integrative new perspective identifies a few basic molecular mechanisms or "pillars" (inflammation, adaptation to stress, loss of proteostasis, stem cell exhaustion, metabolism derangement, macromolecular damage, and epigenetic modifications) as a unifying conceptual framework to understand the aging process and age-associated diseases...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30920583/the-liver-%C3%AE-cell-axis-and-type-2-diabetes
#49
REVIEW
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Pedersen, Katrine D Galsgaard, Marie Winther-Sørensen, Malte P Suppli, Lina Janah, Jesper Gromada, Hendrik Vilstrup, Filip K Knop, Jens J Holst
Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) strongly associate with increasing body mass index, and together these metabolic diseases affect millions of individuals. In patients with T2D, increased secretion of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia as proven by the significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose levels following glucagon receptor antagonist administration. Emerging data now indicate that the elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon may also be associated with hepatic steatosis and not necessarily with the presence or absence of T2D...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30869771/nuclear-receptors-recent-drug-discovery-for-cancer-therapies
#50
REVIEW
Linjie Zhao, Shengtao Zhou, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors actively involved in many aspects of human physiology and pathology, serving as sensors of stimuli, master regulators of downstream molecular events, and hubs governing complex gene regulatory networks. The importance of various members of the NR superfamily in cancer has led to substantial efforts to target them therapeutically. Notably, drugs that block the action of estrogen receptor (ER)α in patients with ERα+ breast cancer or the androgen receptor (AR) in patients with prostate cancer have provided remarkable improvements in survival...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31180479/the-use-and-abuse-of-growth-hormone-in-sports
#51
REVIEW
Richard I G Holt, Ken K Y Ho
GH is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a performance-enhancing anabolic agent. Doping with GH likely began in the early 1980s and became more prevalent with the advent of recombinant technology well before any scientific evidence of benefit. The expectation that GH improves physical function stems from its anabolic and lipolytic properties. Athletic performance depends on muscle strength and the energy required to power muscle function. In recreational athletes, GH selectively improves anaerobic sprint capacity but has not been proven to significantly enhance muscle strength, power, or maximum rate of oxygen consumption...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31173080/corrigendum-for-growth-hormone-s-links-to-cancer
#52
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31127805/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-and-therapy-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#53
REVIEW
Marc Y Donath, Daniel T Meier, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler
The role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated complications is now well established. Therapeutic interventions counteracting metabolic inflammation improve insulin secretion and action and glucose control and may prevent long-term complications. Thus, a number of anti-inflammatory drugs approved for the treatment of other inflammatory conditions are evaluated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Most advanced are clinical studies with IL-1 antagonists showing improved β-cell function and glycemia and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and heart failure...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074800/potential-clinical-error-arising-from-use-of-hba1c-in-diabetes-effects-of-the-glycation-gap
#54
REVIEW
Ananth U Nayak, Baldev M Singh, Simon J Dunmore
The glycation gap (GGap) and the similar hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) define consistent differences between glycated hemoglobin and actual glycemia derived from fructosamine or mean blood glucose, respectively. Such a disparity may be found in a substantial proportion of people with diabetes, being >1 U of glycated HbA1c% or 7.2 mmol/mol in almost 40% of estimations. In this review we define these indices and explain how they can be calculated and that they are not spurious, being consistent in individuals over time...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074764/the-role-of-sexual-hormones-on-the-enteroinsular-axis
#55
REVIEW
Sandra Handgraaf, Jacques Philippe
Sex steroid estrogens, androgens, and progesterone, produced by the gonads, which have long been considered as endocrine glands, are implicated in sexual differentiation, puberty, and reproduction. However, the impact of sex hormones goes beyond these effects through their role on energy metabolism. Indeed, sex hormones are important physiological regulators of glucose homeostasis and, in particular, of the enteroinsular axis. In this review, we describe the roles of estrogens, androgens, and progesterone on glucose homeostasis through their effects on pancreatic α- and β-cells, as well as on enteroendocrine L-cells, and their implications in hormonal biosynthesis and secretion...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31033998/paradigms-of-dynamic-control-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling
#56
REVIEW
Antonio C Bianco, Alexandra Dumitrescu, Balázs Gereben, Miriam O Ribeiro, Tatiana L Fonseca, Gustavo W Fernandes, Barbara M L C Bocco
Thyroid hormone (TH) molecules enter cells via membrane transporters and, depending on the cell type, can be activated (i.e., T4 to T3 conversion) or inactivated (i.e., T3 to 3,3'-diiodo-l-thyronine or T4 to reverse T3 conversion). These reactions are catalyzed by the deiodinases. The biologically active hormone, T3, eventually binds to intracellular TH receptors (TRs), TRα and TRβ, and initiate TH signaling, that is, regulation of target genes and other metabolic pathways. At least three families of transmembrane transporters, MCT, OATP, and LAT, facilitate the entry of TH into cells, which follow the gradient of free hormone between the extracellular fluid and the cytoplasm...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30994890/endometriosis
#57
REVIEW
Serdar E Bulun, Bahar D Yilmaz, Christia Sison, Kaoru Miyazaki, Lia Bernardi, Shimeng Liu, Amanda Kohlmeier, Ping Yin, Magdy Milad, JianJun Wei
Pelvic endometriosis is a complex syndrome characterized by an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory process that affects primarily pelvic tissues, including the ovaries. It is caused when shed endometrial tissue travels retrograde into the lower abdominal cavity. Endometriosis is the most common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and is associated with infertility. The underlying pathologic mechanisms in the intracavitary endometrium and extrauterine endometriotic tissue involve defectively programmed endometrial mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901029/emerging-roles-for-serotonin-in-regulating-metabolism-new-implications-for-an-ancient-molecule
#58
REVIEW
Julian M Yabut, Justin D Crane, Alexander E Green, Damien J Keating, Waliul I Khan, Gregory R Steinberg
Serotonin is a phylogenetically ancient biogenic amine that has played an integral role in maintaining energy homeostasis for billions of years. In mammals, serotonin produced within the central nervous system regulates behavior, suppresses appetite, and promotes energy expenditure by increasing sympathetic drive to brown adipose tissue. In addition to these central circuits, emerging evidence also suggests an important role for peripheral serotonin as a factor that enhances nutrient absorption and storage...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888401/aging-and-the-male-reproductive-system
#59
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw, Ahmed Mahmoud, Guy T'Sjoen, Ilpo Tapani Huhtaniemi
This narrative review presents an overview of current knowledge on fertility and reproductive hormone changes in aging men, the factors driving and modulating these changes, their clinical consequences, and the benefits and risks of testosterone (T) therapy. Aging is accompanied by moderate decline of gamete quality and fertility. Population mean levels show a mild total T decline, an SHBG increase, a steeper free T decline, and a moderate LH increase with important contribution of comorbidities (e.g., obesity) to these changes...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30882882/testicular-adrenal-rest-tumors-current-insights-on-prevalence-characteristics-origin-and-treatment
#60
REVIEW
Manon Engels, Paul N Span, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Fred C G J Sweep, Nike M M L Stikkelbroeck, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten
This review provides the reader with current insights on testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs), a complication in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In recent studies, an overall TART prevalence of 40% (range, 14% to 89%) in classic patients with CAH is found. Reported differences are mainly caused by the method of detection and the selected patient population. Biochemically, histologically, and molecularly, TARTs exhibit particular adrenal characteristics and were therefore thought to originate from aberrant adrenal cells...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
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