Endocrine Reviews | Page 2

Iliana C Lega, Lorraine L Lipscombe
Obesity and diabetes have both been associated with an increased risk of cancer. In the face of increasing obesity and diabetes rates worldwide, this is a worrying trend for cancer rates. Factors such as hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, antihyperglycemic medications, and shared risk factors have all been identified as potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. The most common obesity- and diabetes-related cancers are endometrial, colorectal, and postmenopausal breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence that describes the complex relationship between obesity, diabetes, and cancer, focusing on epidemiological and pathophysiological evidence, and also reviewing the role of antihyperglycemic agents, novel research approaches such as Mendelian Randomization, and the methodological limitations of existing research...
February 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Panpan Chen, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen
Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) affects males of all ages. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is effective in restoring serum testosterone and relieving symptoms. TRT, however, is reported to have possible adverse effects in part because administered testosterone is not produced in response to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Progress in stem cell biology offers potential alternatives for treating hypogonadism. Adult Leydig cells (ALCs) are generated by stem Leydig cells (SLCs) during puberty...
February 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
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January 11, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Camilla Scheele, Christian Wolfrum
Infants rely on brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a primary source of thermogenesis. In some adult humans, residuals of brown adipose tissue are adjacent to the central nervous system and acute activation increases metabolic rate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment occurs during cold acclimation and includes secretion of factors, known as batokines, which target several different cell types within BAT, and promote adipogenesis, angiogenesis, immune cell interactions, and neurite outgrowth. All these processes seem to act in concert to promote an adapted BAT...
January 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Thomas Marjot, Ahmad Moolla, Jeremy F Cobbold, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease, extending from simple steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis with a significant risk for the development of cirrhosis. It is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse outcomes both through liver-specific morbidity and mortality but, perhaps more important, through adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. It is closely associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity, and both of these conditions drive progressive disease toward the more advanced stages...
January 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Elizabeth A Killion, Shu-Chen Lu, Madeline Fort, Yuichiro Yamada, Murielle M Véniant, David J Lloyd
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies. Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide overexpression both protect from high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when codosed or molecularly combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs preclinically...
January 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Shana E McCormack, James E Blevins, Elizabeth A Lawson
There is growing evidence that oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic hormone well recognized for its effects in inducing parturition and lactation, has important metabolic effects in both sexes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiologic effects of OXT on metabolism and to explore its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorders. In model systems, OXT promotes weight loss by decreasing energy intake. Pair-feeding studies suggest that OXT-induced weight loss may also be partly due to increased energy expenditure and/or lipolysis...
December 5, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Amy B Wisniewski, Rafael L Batista, Elaine M F Costa, Courtney Finlayson, Maria Helena Palma Sircili, Francisco Tibor Dénes, Sorahia Domenice, Berenice B Mendonca
Differences/disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions that result in discordance between an individual's sex chromosomes, gonads, and/or anatomic sex. Advances in the clinical care of patients and families affected by 46,XY DSD have been achieved since publication of the original Consensus meeting in 2006. The aims of this paper are to review what is known about morbidity and mortality, diagnostic tools and timing, sex of rearing, endocrine and surgical treatment, fertility and sexual function, and quality of life in people with 46,XY DSD...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Donald S A McLeod, Ling Zhang, Cosimo Durante, David S Cooper
An ever-increasing population of patients with papillary thyroid cancer is engaging with health care systems around the world. Numerous questions about optimal management have arisen that challenge conventional paradigms. This is particularly the case for patients with low-risk disease, who comprise most new patients. At the same time, new therapies for patients with advanced disease are also being introduced, which may have the potential to prolong life. This review discusses selected controversial issues in adult papillary thyroid cancer management at both ends of the disease spectrum...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Miriam S Udler, Mark I McCarthy, Jose C Florez, Anubha Mahajan
During the last decade, there have been substantial advances in the identification and characterization of DNA sequence variants associated with individual predisposition to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As well as providing insights into the molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, these risk variants, when combined into a polygenic score, capture information on individual patterns of disease predisposition that have the potential to influence clinical management. In this review, we describe the various opportunities that polygenic scores provide: to predict diabetes risk, to support differential diagnosis, and to understand phenotypic and clinical heterogeneity...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Maria E Cabanillas, Mabel Ryder, Camilo Jimenez
The treatment of advanced thyroid cancer has undergone rapid evolution in the last decade, with multiple kinase inhibitor drug approvals for each subtype of thyroid cancer and a number of other commercially available drugs that have been studied for this indication. Although most of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs are antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitors-vandetanib, cabozantinib, sorafenib, lenvatinib-there are two FDA indications that are mutation specific-dabrafenib/trametinib for BRAF-mutated anaplastic thyroid cancer and larotrectinib for NTRK-fusion thyroid cancer...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Lina Schiffer, Elizabeth S Baranowski, Vasileios Chortis, Alessandro Prete, Lise Barnard, Lorna C Gilligan, Angela E Taylor, Jan Idkowiak, Wiebke Arlt, Cedric H L Shackleton
Steroid biosynthesis and metabolism are reflected by the serum steroid metabolome and, in even more detail, by the 24-hour urine steroid metabolome, which can provide unique insights into alterations of steroid flow and output indicative of underlying conditions. Mass spectrometry-based steroid metabolome profiling has allowed for the identification of unique multisteroid signatures associated with disorders of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism that can be used for personalized approaches to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognostic prediction...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Rayhan A Lal, Laya Ekhlaspour, Korey Hood, Bruce Buckingham
Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" that is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of the human factor issues in allowing automation of glucose control. The goal of these systems is to minimize or prevent both short-term and long-term complications from diabetes and to decrease the daily burden of managing diabetes...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Marjon A Smit, Caroline M J van Kinschot, Joke van der Linden, Charlotte van Noord, Snježana Kos
PTH is an important regulator of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. It is metabolized into PTH fragments, which are measured to a different extent by PTH assays of different generations because of differences in fragments recognized and lack of assay standardization. PTH is measured in the workup of several conditions, and clinical guidelines provide recommendations concerning these measurements. This review provides an overview of the impact of differences between PTH assays, applying distinct clinical guidelines for primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and perioperative use of PTH measurements...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Antonino Di Pino, Ralph A DeFronzo
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for macrovascular complications, which represent the major cause of mortality. Despite effective treatment of established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulant state), there remains a significant amount of unexplained CV risk. Insulin resistance is associated with a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors known collectively as the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome (IRS). Considerable evidence, reviewed herein, suggests that insulin resistance and the IRS contribute to this unexplained CV risk in patients with T2DM...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Animals that lack the hormone leptin become grossly obese, purportedly for two reasons: increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). This review examines the experimental evidence for the thermogenesis component. Analysis of the data available lead us to conclude that the reports indicating hypometabolism in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (as well as in the leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and fa/fa rats) derive from a misleading calculation artefact resulting from expression of energy expenditure per g body weight and not per intact organism...
November 27, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Stefan Groeneweg, Ferdy S van Geest, Robin P Peeters, Heike Heuer, W Edward Visser
Thyroid hormone transporters at the plasma membrane govern intracellular bioavailability of thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 8 and MCT10, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1C1 and SLC17A4 are currently known as transporters displaying highest specificity towards thyroid hormones. Structure-function studies using homology modelling and mutational screens have led to better understanding of the molecular basis of thyroid hormone transport. Mutations in MCT8 and in OATP1C1 have been associated with clinical disorders...
November 22, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Alison M Boyce, Michael T Collins
Fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) is a rare disorder of striking complexity. It arises from somatic, gain-of-function mutations in GNAS, leading to mosaic Gαs activation and inappropriate production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The clinical phenotype is largely determined by the location and extent of affected tissues, and the pathophysiologic effects of Gαs activation within these tissues. In bone, Gαs activation results in impaired differentiation of skeletal stem cells, leading to discrete skeletal lesions prone to fracture, deformity, and pain...
November 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Jonathan D Douros, Jenny Tong, David A D'Alessio
Although bariatric surgery was developed primarily to treat morbid obesity, evidence from the earliest clinical observations to the most recent clinical trials consistently demonstrates that these procedures have substantial effects on glucose metabolism. A large base of research indicates that bariatric surgeries such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improve diabetes in most patients, with effects frequently evident prior to substantial weight reduction...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Sasha R Howard, Leo Dunkel
This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the clinical condition of delayed puberty, a common presentation to the pediatric endocrinologist, which may present both diagnostic and prognostic challenges. Our understanding of the genetic control of pubertal timing has advanced thanks to active investigation in this field over the last two decades, but it remains in large part a fascinating and mysterious conundrum. The phenotype of delayed puberty is associated with adult health risks and common etiologies, and there is evidence for polygenic control of pubertal timing in the general population, sex-specificity, and epigenetic modulation...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
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