Stine H Scheuer, Gregers S Andersen, Bendix Carstensen, Lars Diaz, Vanja Kosjerina, Nanna Lindekilde, Sarah H Wild, Caroline A Jackson, Frans Pouwer, Michael E Benros, Marit E Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in incidence of acute diabetes complications in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with and without severe mental illness (SMI) in Denmark by age and calendar year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using nationwide registers from 1996 to 2020 to identify individuals with diabetes, ascertain SMI status (namely, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression) and identify the outcomes: hospitalization for hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)...
April 19, 2024: Diabetes Care
Philip Zeitler, Rodolfo J Galindo, Melanie J Davies, Brandon K Bergman, Vivian T Thieu, Claudia Nicolay, Sheryl Allen, Robert J Heine, Clare J Lee
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated baseline characteristics of participants with early-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the SURPASS program and tirzepatide's effects on glycemic control, body weight (BW), and cardiometabolic markers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis compared baseline characteristics and changes in mean HbA1c, BW, waist circumference (WC), lipids, and blood pressure (BP) in 3,792 participants with early-onset versus later-onset T2D at week 40 (A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Diet and Exercise Alone [SURPASS-1], A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] Versus Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-on Therapy to Metformin in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes [SURPASS-2]) or week 52 (A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] Versus Insulin Degludec in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes [SURPASS-3])...
April 19, 2024: Diabetes Care
Mian Li, Jie Li, Yu Xu, Jinli Gao, Qiuyu Cao, Yi Ding, Zhuojun Xin, Ming Lu, Xiaoting Li, Haihong Song, Jue Shen, Tianzhichao Hou, Ruixin He, Ling Li, Zhiyun Zhao, Min Xu, Jieli Lu, Tiange Wang, Shuangyuan Wang, Hong Lin, Ruizhi Zheng, Jie Zheng, Callum John Baker, Shenghan Lai, Nathan Anthony Johnson, Guang Ning, Stephen Morris Twigg, Weiqing Wang, Yan Liu, Yufang Bi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the effects of a 5:2 regimens diet (2 days per week of energy restriction by formula diet) or an exercise (2 days per week of high-intensity interval training and resistance training) intervention compared with routine lifestyle education (control) on glycemic control and cardiometabolic health among adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This two-center, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial recruited 326 participants with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes and randomized them into 12 weeks of diet intervention (n = 109), exercise intervention (n = 108), or lifestyle education (control) (n = 109)...
April 18, 2024: Diabetes Care
Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppina Salzano, Bruno Bombaci, Nicola Minuto, Marta Bassi, Riccardo Bonfanti, Francesco Scialabba, Enza Mozzillo, Francesca Di Candia, Sara Monti, Vanna Graziani, Claudio Maffeis, Claudia Anita Piona, Claudia Arnaldi, Davide Tosini, Barbara Felappi, Rosalia Roppolo, Angela Zanfardino, Maurizio Delvecchio, Donatella Lo Presti, Elena Calzi, Carlo Ripoli, Roberto Franceschi, Petra Reinstadler, Ivana Rabbone, Giulio Maltoni, Angela Alibrandi, Stefano Zucchini, Marco Marigliano, Fortunato Lombardo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate glucose metrics and identify potential predictors of the achievement of glycemic outcomes in children and adolescents during their first 12 months of MiniMed 780G use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, real-world study recruited 368 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) starting SmartGuard technology between June 2020 and June 2022. Ambulatory glucose profile data were collected during a 15-day run-in period (baseline), 2 weeks after automatic mode activation, and every 3 months...
April 16, 2024: Diabetes Care
Pang Yao, Andri Iona, Alfred Pozarickij, Saredo Said, Neil Wright, Kuang Lin, Iona Millwood, Hannah Fry, Christiana Kartsonaki, Mohsen Mazidi, Yiping Chen, Fiona Bragg, Bowen Liu, Ling Yang, Junxi Liu, Daniel Avery, Dan Schmidt, Dianjianyi Sun, Pei Pei, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Michael Hill, Derrick Bennett, Robin Walters, Liming Li, Robert Clarke, Huaidong Du, Zhengming Chen
OBJECTIVE: Integrated analyses of plasma proteomics and genetic data in prospective studies can help assess the causal relevance of proteins, improve risk prediction, and discover novel protein drug targets for type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured plasma levels of 2,923 proteins using Olink Explore among ∼2,000 randomly selected participants from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) without prior diabetes at baseline. Cox regression assessed associations of individual protein with incident T2D (n = 92 cases)...
April 16, 2024: Diabetes Care
Laura M Jacobsen, David Cuthbertson, Brian N Bundy, Mark A Atkinson, Wayne Moore, Michael J Haller, William E Russell, Stephen E Gitelman, Kevan C Herold, Maria J Redondo, Emily K Sims, Diane K Wherrett, Antoinette Moran, Alberto Pugliese, Peter A Gottlieb, Jay M Sosenko, Heba M Ismail
OBJECTIVE: Mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide at 12-24 months represents the primary end point for nearly all intervention trials seeking to preserve β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that participant benefit might be detected earlier and predict outcomes at 12 months posttherapy. Such findings would support shorter trials to establish initial efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined data from six Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet immunotherapy randomized controlled trials in a post hoc analysis and included additional stimulated metabolic indices beyond C-peptide AUC...
April 15, 2024: Diabetes Care
Peter K Yang, Sandra L Jackson, Brian R Charest, Yiling J Cheng, Yan V Sun, Sridharan Raghavan, Elizabeth M Litkowski, Brian T Legvold, Mary K Rhee, Richard A Oram, Elena V Kuklina, Marijana Vujkovic, Peter D Reaven, Kelly Cho, Aaron Leong, Peter W F Wilson, Jin Zhou, Donald R Miller, Seth A Sharp, Lisa R Staimez, Kari E North, Heather M Highland, Lawrence S Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To characterize high type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic risk in a population where type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominates. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Characteristics typically associated with T1D were assessed in 109,594 Million Veteran Program participants with adult-onset diabetes, 2011-2021, who had T1D genetic risk scores (GRS) defined as low (0 to <45%), medium (45 to <90%), high (90 to <95%), or highest (≥95%). RESULTS: T1D characteristics increased progressively with higher genetic risk (P < 0...
April 12, 2024: Diabetes Care
Angelo Sabag, Matthew N Ahmadi, Monique E Francois, Svetlana Postnova, Peter A Cistulli, Luigi Fontana, Emmanuel Stamatakis
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between timing of aerobic moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), microvascular disease (MVD), and all-cause mortality in adults with obesity and a subset with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants included adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and a subset of those with T2D from the UK Biobank accelerometry substudy. Aerobic MVPA was defined as bouts of MVPA lasting ≥3 continuous minutes...
April 10, 2024: Diabetes Care
Shuxiao Shi, Ying Dong, Sujing Wang, Xihao Du, Nannan Feng, Lan Xu, Victor W Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Whether genetic susceptibility to disease and dietary cholesterol (DC) absorption contribute to inconsistent associations of DC consumption with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DC consumption was assessed by repeated 24-h dietary recalls in the UK Biobank. A polygenetic risk score (PRS) for DC absorption was constructed using genetic variants in the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 and ATP Binding Cassettes G5 and G8 genes...
April 9, 2024: Diabetes Care
Thomas Danne, Michael Joubert, Niels Væver Hartvig, Anne Kaas, Nikoline Nygård Knudsen, Julia K Mader
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of insulin injection adherence, smart insulin pen engagement, and glycemic control using real-world data from 16 countries from adults self-administering basal insulin degludec and bolus insulin with a smart insulin pen (NovoPen 6 or NovoPen Echo Plus) alongside continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were aggregated over 14-day periods. Treatment adherence was defined according to the number of missed basal and missed bolus insulin doses and smart pen engagement according to the number of days with data uploads...
April 3, 2024: Diabetes Care
Matthew C Riddle
In the Commentary cited above, the HbA1c value calling for insulin rescue therapy was twice inadvertently given as 7.0%; the correct value of 7.5% is shown in the revised text below."A final analysis describes the use of rescue therapy with insulin when the originally assigned second-line treatment no longer keeps HbA1c below 7.5% (14).""It was initiated about halfway through the study to determine why insulin was not consistently added within 6 weeks after HbA1c was verified as higher than 7.5%, as required by protocol...
April 2, 2024: Diabetes Care
David B Sacks, M Sue Kirkman, Randie R Little
Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) is widely used for the diagnosis and management of diabetes. Accurate measurement of A1C is necessary for optimal clinical value. Assay standardization has markedly improved the accuracy and consistency of A1C testing. Devices to measure A1C at point of care (POC) are commercially available, allowing rapid results when the patient is seen. In this review, we describe how standardization of A1C testing was achieved, leading to high-quality results in clinical laboratories. We address the use of POC A1C testing in clinical situations and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of POC A1C testing...
March 29, 2024: Diabetes Care
David Simmons, Jincy Immanuel, William M Hague, Helena Teede, Christopher J Nolan, Michael J Peek, Jeff R Flack, Mark McLean, Vincent W Wong, Emily J Hibbert, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Jürgen Harreiter, Helena Backman, Emily Gianatti, Arianne Sweeting, Viswanathan Mohan, N Wah Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To compare pregnancy outcomes among women with a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before 20 weeks' gestation (early) and at 24-28 weeks' gestation (late) (no gestational diabetes mellitus, or No-GDM), those with early GDM randomized to observation with a subsequent normal OGTT (GDM-Regression), and those with GDM on both occasions (GDM-Maintained). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Women at <20 weeks' gestation with GDM risk factors who were recruited for a randomized controlled early GDM treatment trial were included...
March 29, 2024: Diabetes Care
Barbara Blodi, Thomas W Gardner, Xiaoyu Gao, Jennifer K Sun, Gayle M Lorenzi, Lisa C Olmos de Koo, Arup Das, Neil H White, Rose A Gubitosi-Klug, Lloyd P Aiello, Ionut Bebu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitative and qualitative changes in retinal structure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and their associations with systemic or other risk factors in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, OCT images were obtained during study years 25-28 (2019-2022) in 937 participants; 54% and 46% were from the original intensive (INT) and conventional (CONV) glycemic management treatment groups, respectively...
March 29, 2024: Diabetes Care
Kathryn E Nagel, Reshma Ramachandran, Kasia J Lipska
Escalating insulin prices have prompted public scrutiny of the practices of drug manufacturers, pharmacy benefit managers, health insurers, and pharmacies involved in production and distribution of medications. As a result, a series of policies have been proposed or enacted to improve insulin affordability and foster greater equity in access. These policies have implications for other diabetes and obesity therapeutics. Recent legislation, at both the state and federal level, has capped insulin out-of-pocket payments for some patients...
March 27, 2024: Diabetes Care
Giorgio Orlando, Steven Brown, Edward Jude, Frank L Bowling, Andrew J M Boulton, Neil D Reeves
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of vibrating insoles on dynamic balance and gait quality during level and stair walking and explored the influence of vibration type and frequency in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-two men with DPN were assessed for gait quality and postural and dynamic balance during walking and stair negotiation using a motion capture system and force plates across seven vibratory insole conditions (Vcs) versus a control (Ctrl) condition (insole without vibration)...
March 27, 2024: Diabetes Care
Francesco Giorgino, Denise R Franco, Claudia Nicolay, Andrea Hemmingway, Ángel Rodríguez, Russell J Wiese
OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis assessed change from baseline to week 52 in glycemic parameters for tirzepatide (5, 10, 15 mg) versus insulin degludec (SURPASS-3 trial) and glargine (SURPASS-4 trial) in people with type 2 diabetes and different baseline glycemic patterns, based on fasting serum glucose (FSG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participant subgroups with low FSG/low PPG, low FSG/high PPG, high FSG/low PPG, and high FSG/high PPG were defined according to the median values of these measures...
March 26, 2024: Diabetes Care
Robert M Califf
In the Duality of Interest section of the article cited above, it was incorrectly noted, due to a clerical error prior to manuscript submission, that the author served on the board of directors for the Center for Policy Analysis on Trade and Health (CPATH); the correct institution is the Critical Path Institute (C-Path). The author apologizes for the error. The online version of the article ( has been updated to correct the error.
March 22, 2024: Diabetes Care
Laura L Määttä, Signe T Andersen, Tina Parkner, Claus V B Hviid, Lasse Bjerg, Mustafa A Kural, Morten Charles, Esben Søndergaard, Jens Kuhle, Hatice Tankisi, Daniel R Witte, Troels S Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal development of neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in type 2 diabetes with and without diabetic polyneuropathy (+/-DPN) and to explore the predictive potential of NfL as a biomarker for DPN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed retrospective longitudinal case-control analysis of data from 178 participants of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Denmark (ADDITION-Denmark) cohort of people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes...
March 19, 2024: Diabetes Care
Ying Shang, Emilie Toresson Grip, Angelo Modica, Helena Skröder, Oskar Ström, Fady Ntanios, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Hannes Hagström
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk for major adverse liver outcomes (MALOs), including cirrhosis and its complications. Patients with T2D frequently have other traits of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). It remains uncertain whether there is a synergistic effect of accumulating MetS traits on future MALO risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with T2D without a history of liver disease were identified from national registers in Sweden from 1998 to 2021...
March 18, 2024: Diabetes Care
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