Diabetes Care

Marit de Jong, Mark Woodward, Sanne A E Peters
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes has shown to be a stronger risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) in women than men. Whether sex differences exist across the glycemic spectrum is unknown. We investigated sex differences in the associations of diabetes status and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) with the risk of MI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were used from 471,399 (56% women) individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD) included in the UK Biobank. Sex-specific incidence rates were calculated by diabetes status and across levels of HbA1c using Poisson regression...
July 10, 2020: Diabetes Care
Roman Vangoitsenhoven, Pieter-Jan Martens, Falco van Nes, Carolien Moyson, Frank Nobels, Paul Van Crombrugge, Katrien Wierckx, Inge van Pottelbergh, Liesbeth Van Huffel, Pieter Gillard, Chantal Mathieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Daniel R Quast, Nina Schenker, Björn A Menge, Michael A Nauck, Christoph Kapitza, Juris J Meier
OBJECTIVE: Short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) decelerate gastric emptying more than long-acting GLP-1 RAs. Delayed gastric emptying is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. We aimed to measure esophageal reflux and function as well as gastric emptying and acid secretion during treatment with short-acting (lixisenatide) and long-acting (liraglutide) GLP-1 RAs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 57 subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a 10-week treatment with lixisenatide or liraglutide...
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Matthew J Crowley, Darren K McGuire, Anastasia-Stefania Alexopoulos, Thomas Jon Jensen, Søren Rasmussen, Hans A Saevereid, Subodh Verma, John B Buse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Daniel Modin, Brian Claggett, Lars Køber, Morten Schou, Jens Ulrik Stæhr Jensen, Scott D Solomon, Orly Vardeny, Filip Krag Knop, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Michael Fralick, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Gislason, Tor Biering-Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: Recent influenza infection is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. Little is known about the association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used nationwide register data to identify patients with diabetes in Denmark during nine consecutive influenza seasons in the period 2007-2016. Diabetes was defined as use of glucose-lowering medication...
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Angela S Lee, Nathan A Johnson, Margaret J McGill, Jane Overland, Connie Luo, Callum J Baker, Sergio Martinez-Huenchullan, Jencia Wong, Jeffrey R Flack, Stephen M Twigg
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes and overweight or obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty inactive adults with type 1 diabetes who had BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and HbA1c ≥7.5% were randomized to 12 weeks of either HIIT exercise intervention consisting of 4 × 4-min HIIT (85-95% peak heart rate) performed thrice weekly or usual care control. In a partial crossover design, the control group subsequently performed the 12-week HIIT intervention...
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Stéphane Roze, John Isitt, Jayne Smith-Palmer, Mehdi Javanbakht, Peter Lynch
OBJECTIVE: A long-term health economic analysis was performed to establish the cost-effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) (Dexcom G6) versus self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) alone in U.K.-based patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis used the IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model. Clinical input data were sourced from the DIAMOND trial in adults with T1D. Simulations were performed separately in the overall population of patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7...
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Anniina Tynjälä, Carol Forsblom, Valma Harjutsalo, Per-Henrik Groop, Daniel Gordin
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes is accompanied by a significant burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. We therefore aimed to explore whether arterial stiffness estimated by the augmentation index (AIx) predicts mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: After baseline examination comprising pulse wave analysis by applanation tonometry alongside assessment of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, 906 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study were followed up for a median of 8...
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Christian Hampp, Richard S Swain, Casie Horgan, Elizabeth Dee, Yandong Qiang, Sarah K Dutcher, Andrew Petrone, Rong Chen Tilney, Judith C Maro, Catherine A Panozzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2020: Diabetes Care
Hertzel C Gerstein, Ruth L Coleman, Charles A B Scott, Shishi Xu, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Lars Rydén, Rury R Holman
OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, on incident diabetes and regression to normoglycemia in 6,522 Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation trial participants in China who had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and coronary heart disease (CHD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to acarbose or placebo and followed with four monthly fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests and annual oral glucose tolerance tests...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Mugdha Gokhale, Stacie B Dusetzina, Virginia Pate, Danielle S Chun, John B Buse, Til Stürmer, Emily W Gower
OBJECTIVE: Using the 2016 Medicare part D coverage gap as an example, we explored effects of increased out-of-pocket costs on adherence to branded dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) in patients without financial subsidies relative to subsidized patients who do not experience increased spending during the gap. We also explored seasonality of reinitiation, because discontinuers may be more likely to reinitiate in January when benefits reset. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified DPP-4i or sulfonylurea initiators, aged ≥66 years, from a 20% sample of 2015-2016 Medicare claims...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Ghazal S Fazli, Arlene S Bierman, Lorraine L Lipscombe, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Baiju R Shah, C Fangyun Wu, Ashley Johns, Gillian L Booth
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is a predictor of non-drug-related health care costs among Canadian adults with diabetes and, if so, whether SES disparities in costs are reduced after age 65 years, when universal drug coverage commences as an insurable benefit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Administrative health databases were used to examine publicly funded health care expenditures among 698,113 younger (20-64 years) and older (≥65 years) adults with diabetes in Ontario from April 2004 to March 2014...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Roselle A Herring, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Robert Garesse, Mary Stevenage, Nicola Jackson, Barbara A Fielding, Agampodi Mendis, Sigurd Johnsen, A Margot Umpleby, Melanie Davies, David L Russell-Jones
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on glucose flux, lipolysis, and ketone body concentrations during insulin withdrawal in people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with a 4-week washout period was performed in 12 people with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy. Participants received dapagliflozin or placebo in random order for 7 days...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Ga Eun Nam, Wonsock Kim, Kyungdo Han, Chung-Woo Lee, Yeongkeun Kwon, Byoungduck Han, Seokwon Park, Joo-Hyun Park, Yang-Hyun Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Seon Mee Kim, Youn Seon Choi, Kyung Hwan Cho, Yong Gyu Park
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and mortality, and they commonly result in weight variabilities. We aimed to investigate the association between body weight variability and risk of major cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes using large-scale, nationwide cohort data on the Korean population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 624,237 individuals with type 2 diabetes who underwent health examinations provided by the Korean National Health Insurance System between 2009 and 2010, with three or more body weight measurements within 5 years since enrollment and followed up until the end of 2017...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Shilan Seyed Ahmadi, Klara Westman, Aldina Pivodic, Arndís F Ólafsdóttir, Sofia Dahlqvist, Irl B Hirsch, Jarl Hellman, Magnus Ekelund, Tim Heise, William Polonsky, Magnus Wijkman, Erik Schwarcz, Marcus Lind
OBJECTIVE: According to recent guidelines, individuals with type 1 diabetes should spend <4.0% per day with glucose levels <3.9 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL) and <1.0% per day with glucose levels <3.0 mmol/L (<54 mg/dL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the GOLD randomized crossover trial, 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) were randomized to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or conventional therapy with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and evaluated over 16 months...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Kendra Vehik, Ezio Bonifacio, Ake Lernmark, Liping Yu, Alistair Williams, Desmond Schatz, Marian Rewers, Jin-Xiong She, Jorma Toppari, William Hagopian, Beena Akolkar, Anette G Ziegler, Jeffrey P Krischer
OBJECTIVE: The first-appearing β-cell autoantibody has been shown to influence risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we assessed the risk of autoantibody spreading to the second-appearing autoantibody and further progression to clinical disease in the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eligible children with increased HLA-DR-DQ genetic risk for T1D were followed quarterly from age 3 months up to 15 years for development of a single first-appearing autoantibody (GAD antibody [GADA], insulin autoantibody [IAA], or IA2 autoantibody [IA-2A]) and subsequent development of a single second-appearing autoantibody and progression to T1D...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Rodolfo J Galindo, Alexandra L Migdal, Georgia M Davis, Maria A Urrutia, Bonnie Albury, Cesar Zambrano, Priyathama Vellanki, Francisco J Pasquel, Maya Fayfman, Limin Peng, Guillermo E Umpierrez
OBJECTIVE: We compared the performance of the FreeStyle Libre Pro continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and point-of-care capillary glucose testing (POC) among insulin-treated hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study in adult patients with T2D admitted to general medicine and surgery wards. Patients were monitored with POC before meals and bedtime and with CGM during the hospital stay. Study end points included differences between POC and CGM in mean daily blood glucose (BG), hypoglycemia <70 and <54 mg/dL, and nocturnal hypoglycemia...
July 8, 2020: Diabetes Care
Rie Sakai-Bizmark, Laurie A Mena, Dennys Estevez, Eliza J Webber, Emily H Marr, Lauren E M Bedel, Jennifer K Yee
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe differences in health care utilization between homeless and nonhomeless minors with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Statewide Inpatient Database from New York for years 2009-2014 were examined to identify pediatric patients <18 years old with diabetes. Outcomes of interest included hospitalization rate, in-hospital mortality, admission through the emergency department (ED), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hospitalization cost, and length of stay (LOS)...
July 2, 2020: Diabetes Care
Michael J Cannon, Svetlana Masalovich, Boon Peng Ng, Robin E Soler, Rajai Jabrah, Elizabeth K Ely, Bryce D Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess retention in the National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle change program, which seeks to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed retention among 41,203 individuals who enrolled in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recognized in-person lifestyle change programs at organizations that submitted data to CDC's Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program during January 2012-February 2017...
July 2, 2020: Diabetes Care
Tina Costacou, Amy K Saenger, Trevor J Orchard
OBJECTIVE: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure, respectively, have not been widely studied in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We evaluated whether their assessment in T1D enhances the prediction of CVD and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were analyzed on the Roche Cobas E601 using the first available stored specimen ( n = 581; mean age, 29 years; duration, 21 years)...
July 2, 2020: Diabetes Care
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