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Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Courtney Alexander, Derek Pisner, Claudia Jacova
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene are a major cause of familial frontotemporal dementia. They result in a loss of progranulin levels and in GRN-related brain degenerative changes that unfold over years if not decades. The aim of our review was to summarize the evidence on emerging functional and structural brain abnormalities in carriers of GRN mutations. SUMMARY: We performed a systematic search for studies that used at least one modality (structural MRI, fMRI, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, diffusion tensor imaging) to compare mutation carriers to non-carrier controls...
January 10, 2019: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Arlette Edjolo, Karine Pérès, Maëlenn Guerchet, Sophie Pilleron, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Pascal Mbelesso, Jean-Pierre Clément, Jean-François Dartigues, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: There are a few validated tools capable of assessing the dimensions essential for the diagnosis of dementia and cognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to develop an adapted tool, the Central African - Daily Functioning Interference (DFI) scale. METHODS: An initial 16-item scale of activity limitations and participation restrictions was completed by 301 participants with low cognitive performances to assess their level of DFI...
January 10, 2019: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Alice Y Hua, Jenna L Wells, Claudia M Haase, Kuan-Hua Chen, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Robert W Levenson
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of patients with neurodegenerative diseases are at heightened risk for serious health problems, but health differences between individual caregivers abound. AIMS: To determine whether atrophy in patient brains could be used to identify caregivers at heightened risk for health problems and which patient variables mediate this relationship. METHODS: In 162 patient-caregiver dyads, we assessed patient atrophy using structural MRI, caregiver health, and patient behavior and cognitive symptoms...
January 10, 2019: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Cristina Nombela, Andrés Lozano, Clara Villanueva, Juan A Barcia
BACKGROUND/AIM: The prevalence of cognitive symptoms in recently diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may be as high as 60%. We report a novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy targeting both motor and cognitive symptoms. METHODS: A PD patient diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment underwent DBS surgery targeting the globus pallidus interna (GPi; to treat motor symptoms) and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM; to treat cognitive symptoms) using a single electrode per hemisphere...
January 10, 2019: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Sophie Vandepitte, Koen Putman, Nele Van Den Noortgate, Sofie Verhaeghe, Eric Mormont, Lisa Van Wilder, Delphine De Smedt, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dementia is one of the main reasons for institutionalization among the elderly. Few studies have explored factors associated with the caregivers' (CG) desire to institutionalize (DTI) a person with dementia (PWD). The objective of this study is to identify modifiable and non-modifiable psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with a caregiver's DTI. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 355 informal CG of community-dwelling PWD were analyzed...
November 19, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Mark S Redfern, April J Chambers, Patrick J Sparto, Joseph M Furman, J Richard Jennings
AIMS: Inhibition associated with perception has been implicated in sensory integration processes for balance when sensory conflict occurs. The current study examines the associations of three measures of inhibition (perceptual inhibition, motor inhibition, and Stroop interference) with standing balance under sensory conflict conditions in younger and older adults. METHODS: Perceptual inhibition, motor inhibition, and Stroop interference were measured in younger and older subjects...
November 7, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Irina V Tarasova, Olga A Trubnikova, Olga L Barbarash
BACKGROUND: Although an impaired cognitive status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not rare, the neurophysiological and clinical indicators of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been insufficiently investigated so far. METHODS: EEG and neuropsychological testing as well as clinical examination were performed on 122 patients with CAD, who were divided into two groups, those with MCI (n = 60; mean age 57.4 ± 5.81 years) and those without MCI (n = 62; mean age 57...
November 7, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Micaela Mitolo, Caterina Tonon, Chiara La Morgia, Claudia Testa, Valerio Carelli, Raffaele Lodi
BACKGROUND: Bright light treatment is a therapeutic intervention mainly used to treat sleep and circadian disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recently, a handful of studies also focused on the effect on cognition and behavior. Conflicting findings are reported in the literature, and no definite conclusions have been drawn about its specific therapeutic effect. SUMMARY: The aim of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of available evidence in this field, highlighting the specific characteristics of effective bright light treatment...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Chih-Chin Hsieh, Pay-Shin Lin, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang, Yu-Chen Huang, Ai-Yin Lim, Ya-Chuan Hsu
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Sixty older adults with CI were cluster-assigned to either the VRTC or the control group; the intervention was conducted twice weekly for 6 months...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Nathalie Bodd Halaas, Kaj Blennow, Ane-Victoria Idland, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Johan Ræder, Frede Frihagen, Anne Cathrine Staff, Henrik Zetterberg, Leiv Otto Watne
BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with new-onset dementia, suggesting that delirium pathophysiology involves neuronal injury. Neurofilament light (NFL) is a sensitive biomarker for neuroaxonal injury. METHODS: NFL was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 130), preoperative serum (n = 192), and postoperative serum (n = 280) in hip fracture patients, and in CSF (n = 123) and preoperative serum (n = 134) in cognitively normal older adults undergoing elective surgery...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Ales Bartos, Dan Fayette
BACKGROUND: The Czech version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CZ) and delayed recall of 5 words have not been validated in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) and compared to norms of a large population. METHOD: The MoCA-CZ was administered to 1,600 elderly individuals in 2 groups consisting of 48 patients with MCI due to AD (AD-MCI) and 1,552 normal elderly adults. RESULTS: MoCA-CZ scores were significantly lower in the AD-MCI patients than in the normal elderly (21 ± 4 vs...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Mélanie Barbay, Momar Diouf, Martine Roussel, Olivier Godefroy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Post-stroke neurocognitive disorders (post-stroke NCD) have been reported with a very variable prevalence. METHODS: Based on a systematic literature search, hospital-based studies published between January 1990 and September 2015 were selected when they reported the prevalence of total, mild, and major post-stroke NCD diagnosed by using specified criteria. Factors affecting prevalence were assessed using meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 7,440 references evaluated, 16 hospital-based studies were selected, corresponding to a total of 3,087 patients...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Leila Sellami, Synthia Meilleur-Durand, Anne-Marie Chouinard, David Bergeron, Louis Verret, Stéphane Poulin, Léonie Jean, Marie-Pierre Fortin, Yannick Nadeau, Pierre Molin, Stéphanie Caron, Joël Macoir, Carol Hudon, Rémi W Bouchard, Robert Laforce
INTRODUCTION: Early recognition of atypical dementia remains challenging partly because of lack of cognitive screening instruments precisely tailored for this purpose. METHODS: We assessed the validity and reliability of the Dépistage Cognitif de Québec (DCQ;, a newly developed cognitive screening test, to detect atypical dementia using a multicenter cohort of 628 participants. Sensitivity and specificity were compared to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Courtney Lewis, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Adam P Vogel
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can result in a decline in behavior, language, and motor function. Mealtime disturbances are a common and significant outcome of FTLD. Disturbances during mealtimes can arise from dysphagia or may occur secondary to behavioral changes such as rapid eating, mealtime rigidity, and altered diet preferences. SUMMARY: Few studies have comprehensively evaluated eating behavior or dysphagia in individuals presenting with FTLD pathology despite the potential impact on medical safety and individual quality of life...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Christina G Wong, Kelsey R Thomas, Emily C Edmonds, Alexandra J Weigand, Katherine J Bangen, Joel S Eppig, Amy J Jak, Sherral A Devine, Lisa Delano-Wood, David J Libon, Steven D Edland, Rhoda Au, Mark W Bondi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) lacks a "gold standard" operational definition. The Jak/Bondi actuarial neuropsychological criteria for MCI are associated with improved diagnostic stability and prediction of progression to dementia compared to conventional MCI diagnostic approaches, although its utility in diagnosing MCI in old-old individuals (age 75+) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the applicability of neuropsychological MCI criteria among old-old from the Framingham Heart Study...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Petronilla Battista, Eleonora Catricalà, Marco Piccininni, Massimiliano Copetti, Valentina Esposito, Cristina Polito, Antonio Miozzo, Elena Gobbi, Sofia Cuoco, Veronica Boschi, Marina Picillo, Sandro Sorbi, Paolo Barone, Sandro Iannaccone, Peter Garrard, Giancarlo Logroscino, Stefano F Cappa
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the psychometric proprieties of the Screening for Aphasia in NeuroDegeneration (SAND) battery in Italian primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and movement disorder (MD) patients. METHODS: The sample included 30 consecutive PPA and 45 MD patients who completed the SAND battery together with a clinical interview and a neurological/neuropsychological examination and 130 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: The SAND battery showed good internal consistency and good convergent and divergent validity...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Dong Woo Kang, Hyun Kook Lim, Soo-Hyun Joo, Na Rae Lee, Chang-Uk Lee
BACKGROUND: Previous research has separated spatial patterns of intra- and interregional intrinsic brain connectivity, as evaluated by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC), respectively, in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the intra- and interregional intrinsic brain connectivities have been demonstrated to have a significant relationship with each other. OBJECTIVE: To explore FCs from brain regions which display a difference in ReHo between an amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) group and healthy controls (HC) and to examine the relationship of intra- and interregional intrinsic brain connectivity to cognitive function in both groups...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Chi-Mo Lin, Guang-Uei Hung, Cheng-Yu Wei, Ray-Chang Tzeng, Pai-Yi Chiu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Language dysfunction is a crucial feature of brain disorders. This study investigated language dysfunction in patients with dementia with or without parkinsonism by using an informant-based simple questionnaire. METHODS: Language dysfunction in normal controls (NCs), and patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or Alzheimer disease (AD) were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: A total of 1,662 individuals were studied: 285 NCs, 157 PD patients, 161 PDD patients, 248 DLB patients, and 811 AD patients...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Mona Michelet, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk, Anne Lund, Guro Hanevold Bjørkløf, Peter Otto Horndalsveen, Sverre Bergh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A timely diagnosis of dementia is important, and the Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) is a newly developed instrument to screen for cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and internal consistency of the Norwegian version of the CFI. METHODS: We included 265 participants with dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and a reference group without subjective or assessed cognitive decline...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Gunnar Lachmann, Insa Feinkohl, Friedrich Borchers, Thomas H Ottens, Hendrik M Nathoe, Anne-Mette Sauer, Jan M Dieleman, Finn M Radtke, Diederik van Dijk, Claudia Spies, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Older people undergoing surgery are at risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but little is known of risk factors predisposing patients to POCD. Our objective was to estimate the risk of POCD associated with exposure to preoperative diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. METHODS: Original data from 3 randomised controlled trials (OCTOPUS, DECS, SuDoCo) were obtained for secondary analysis on diabetes, hypertension, baseline blood pressure, obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and BMI as risk factors for POCD in multiple logistic regression models...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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