journal

Current Opinion in Neurology

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209808/evolving-options-for-the-treatment-of-cluster-headache
#1
Maria Dolores Villar-Martinez, Calvin Chan, Peter J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cluster headache is a neurological disorder that patients consider the most severe pain they experience. Recognizing new treatments provides opportunities to advance current management. RECENT FINDINGS: In contrast to the classic treatments, new options narrow in on the therapeutic target and are better tolerated. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway blockade with monoclonal antibodies (MABs), specifically the CGRP MAB galcanezumab, represents an important advance for episodic cluster headache, reducing the number of attacks during a bout...
March 23, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209807/chronic-inflammation-mediates-brain-injury-in-hiv-infection-relevance-for-cure-strategies
#2
Justin C McArthur, Tory P Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation is a major component of HIV infection, the effects of which can be devastating in the central nervous system (CNS). Protecting the brain is, therefore, critical as efforts proceed to cure HIV infection by reactivating latent viral reservoirs and driving immune responses. We review the clinical presentation and pathology findings of inflammatory processes in the CNS in patients managed with ART and the drivers of these processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and HIV infection increases the risk for chronic diseases, especially cognitive impairment...
March 23, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32073437/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-dementia
#3
Ettore Beghi, Massimiliano Beghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the frequency and trends of the comorbidity of epilepsy and dementia and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognitive functions. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the mortality and incidence of epilepsy are decreasing overall, they are increasing in the elderly as a result of population growth and increased life expectancy. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are among the commonest causes of seizures and epilepsy. Epilepsy can be also complicated by cognitive impairment, suggesting a bidirectional association...
February 18, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32073440/the-dialog-between-cognitive-neurology-and-digitized-technologies
#4
Jean-François Demonet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32134745/why-do-seizures-impair-consciousness-and-how-can-we-reverse-this
#5
Isabelle Lambert, Fabrice Bartolomei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Consciousness disorders occurring during seizures are a major source of disability in people with epilepsy. The purpose of this review is to show recent developments in the assessment and understanding of consciousness disorders in epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequent alterations in consciousness are alterations in the level of awareness. They are linked to disruptions on a large-scale network of fronto-parietal associative systems in different forms of focal seizures or in absences...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32097126/linking-mechanisms-of-periodontitis-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Mahtab Sadrameli, Praveen Bathini, Lavinia Alberi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review article discusses the association between periodontal disease and the development of dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, increasing evidence has pointed to a microbial and inflammatory origin for Alzheimer's disease with the discovery of oral and airway bacteria, viruses, and fungal species in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, recognized as the culprit of neural network dysfunction, β-amyloid oligomeric species have antimicrobial properties reinforcing the idea that dysbiosis in the host-microbiota interaction can be at the origin of dementia...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32073441/data-science-in-neurodegenerative-disease-its-capabilities-limitations-and-perspectives
#7
Sepehr Golriz Khatami, Sarah Mubeen, Martin Hofmann-Apitius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the advancement of computational approaches and abundance of biomedical data, a broad range of neurodegenerative disease models have been developed. In this review, we argue that computational models can be both relevant and useful in neurodegenerative disease research and although the current established models have limitations in clinical practice, artificial intelligence has the potential to overcome deficiencies encountered by these models, which in turn can improve our understanding of disease...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32073439/serious-video-games-and-virtual-reality-for-prevention-and-neurorehabilitation-of-cognitive-decline-because-of-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#8
Arseny A Sokolov, Amélie Collignon, Mélanie Bieler-Aeschlimann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive decline because of aging and neurodegeneration has become increasingly prevalent. This calls for the implementation of efficacious, motivating, standardized and widely available cognitive interventions for the elderly. In this context, serious video games and virtual reality may represent promising approaches. Here, we review recent research on their potential for cognitive prevention and neurorehabilitation of age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32073438/the-cognitive-costs-contraindications-and-complications-of-epilepsy-surgery-in-adults
#9
Sallie Baxendale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Access to epilepsy surgery is rapidly growing throughout the world. While it is an established and effective treatment for seizures, epilepsy surgery has the potential to exacerbate cognitive comorbidities of the condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Not all surgical patients experience a postoperative decline in cognitive function. Postoperative cognitive function depends upon the functional integrity of the tissue to be removed and the functional reserve of the structures that remain in situ...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049743/localizing-the-epileptogenic-zone
#10
Birgit Frauscher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy surgery is the therapy of choice for 30-40% of people with focal drug-resistant epilepsy. Currently only ∼60% of well selected patients become postsurgically seizure-free underlining the need for better tools to identify the epileptogenic zone. This article reviews the latest neurophysiological advances for EZ localization with emphasis on ictal EZ identification, interictal EZ markers, and noninvasive neurophysiological mapping procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: We will review methods for computerized EZ assessment, summarize computational network approaches for outcome prediction and individualized surgical planning...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049742/frontotemporal-dementias-main-syndromes-and-underlying-brain-changes
#11
Olivier Piguet, Fiona Kumfor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a rare dementia, that accounts for about 15% of all dementia cases. Despite consensus diagnostic criteria, FTD remains difficult to diagnose in life because of its complex and variable clinical phenomenology and heterogeneous disorders. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of the main FTD syndromes -- the behavioural variant, semantic variant, and nonfluent/agrammatic variant-- their brain abnormalities and genetic profiles...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049741/what-are-the-epileptic-encephalopathies
#12
Marina Trivisano, Nicola Specchio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evolution of the concept of epileptic encephalopathy during the course of past years and analyze how the current definition might impact on both clinical practice and research. RECENT FINDINGS: Developmental delay in children with epilepsy could be the expression of the cause, consequence of intense epileptiform activity (seizures and EEG abnormalities), or because of the combination of both factors. Therefore, the current International League Against Epilepsy classification identified three electroclinical entities that are those of developmental encephalopathy, epileptic encephalopathy, and developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE)...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049740/clinical-advances-in-the-understanding-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy
#13
Matthew C Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049739/what-has-been-the-impact-of-new-drug-treatments-on-epilepsy
#14
Zhibin Chen, Martin J Brodie, Patrick Kwan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nearly two dozen antiseizure medications (ASMs) with different mechanisms of action have been introduced over the past three decades with the aim of providing better efficacy or safety profile than the previous drugs. Several new ASMs with improvement on a classic drug family or have novel mechanisms of action have been recently approved for epilepsy. The present review explored recent studies or guidelines on new agents and discussed the potential impact of these novel treatments on epilepsy management and future directions of research...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049738/chance-and-risk-in-epilepsy
#15
Maxime O Baud, Timothée Proix, Vikram R Rao, Kaspar Schindler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy is a dynamical disorder of the brain characterized by sudden, seemingly unpredictable transitions to the ictal state. When and how these transitions occur remain unresolved questions in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: Modelling work based on dynamical systems theory proposed that a slow control parameter is necessary to explain the transition between interictal and ictal states. Recently, converging evidence from chronic EEG datasets unravelled the existence of cycles of epileptic brain activity at multiple timescales - circadian, multidien (over multiple days) and circannual - which could reflect cyclical changes in a slow control parameter...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32049737/quantitative-mri-markers-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinsonian-syndromes
#16
Germain Arribarat, Patrice Péran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian disorders, the differential diagnosis is still challenging. We aim to review current developments in MRI quantitative markers and their potential in a clinical and neuroscientific setting. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been efforts to improve MRI acquisition methods and to explore new promising biomarkers. In parallel, technological advances in data analysis (i.e. deep learning) open new ways to use these biomarkers...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31809333/rna-expression-studies-in-stroke-what-can-they-tell-us-about-stroke-mechanism
#17
Sarina Falcione, Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Gina Sykes, Glen C Jickling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of stroke and understanding the mechanism of stroke is critical to implement optimal treatment. RNA expressed in peripheral blood cells is emerging as a precision biomarker to aid in stroke diagnosis and prediction of stroke cause. In this review, we summarize available data regarding the role of RNA to predict stroke, the rationale for these changes, and a discussion of novel mechanistic insight and clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in RNA gene expression in blood have been identified in patients with stroke, including differences to distinguish ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke, and differences between cardioembolic, large vessel atherosclerotic, and small vessel lacunar stroke cause...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31809332/sleep-apnea-and-stroke
#18
Mollie McDermott, Devin L Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroke and sleep apnea are highly prevalent conditions with a physiologically plausible bidirectional relationship. This review addresses prestroke sleep apnea, wake-up stroke and sleep apnea, and poststroke sleep apnea, with an attempt to highlight research published in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep apnea is highly prevalent poststroke. Poststroke sleep apnea is associated with worse poststroke functional and cognitive outcomes and a higher risk of recurrent stroke...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31809331/neuro-protection-and-neuro-regeneration-of-the-optic-nerve-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#19
Kimberly K Gokoffski, Micalla Peng, Basheer Alas, Phillip Lam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic neuropathies refer to a collection of diseases in which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the specialized neuron of the retina whose axons make up the optic nerve, are selectively damaged. Blindness secondary to optic neuropathies is irreversible as RGCs do not have the capacity for self-renewal and have a limited capacity for self-repair. Numerous strategies are being developed to either prevent further RGC degeneration or replace the cells that have degenerated...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31789709/patent-foramen-ovale-and-stroke-current-evidence-and-treatment-options
#20
Christopher G Favilla, Steven R Messé
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent data have changed the landscape of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary stroke prevention. This review synthesizes the data and provides a framework for optimal management of stroke patients with PFO. RECENT FINDINGS: The cumulative evidence indicates that PFO closure reduces the risk of recurrent stroke in carefully selected young cryptogenic stroke patients, with an annualized risk reduction of ∼0.6%. The benefit of PFO closure is particularly evident in patients with embolic appearing strokes, large right-to-left shunt, or an associated atrial septal aneurysm...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
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