Lieven Lagae
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will illustrate the electroclinical description of Dravet syndrome, highlighting the difficulty to understand correlation between the SCN1A mutation and clinical characteristics, including the frequent comorbidities. Therefore, the efficacy of the new treatment options, which now become available, should not only focus on seizure frequency reduction but also on the long-term effects on these comorbidities, such as intellectual disability, motor and sleep problems...
December 31, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Valeria Caso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Diany P Calderon, Nicholas D Schiff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Experimental preclinical models of recovery of consciousness (ROC) and anesthesia emergence are crucial for understanding the neuronal circuits restoring arousal during coma emergence. Such models can also potentially help to better understand how events during coma emergence facilitate or hinder recovery from brain injury. Here we provide an overview of current methods used to assess ROC/level of arousal in animal models. This exposes the need for objective approaches to calibrate arousal levels...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kateryna Antonenko, Maurizio Paciaroni, Larysa Sokolova, Francesca R Pezzella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The European Stroke Organisation published a European Stroke Action Plan (SAP-E) for the years 2018-2030. The SAP-E addresses the entire chain of care from primary prevention through to life after stroke. Within this document digital health tools are suggested for their potential to facilitate greater access to stroke care. In this review, we searched for digital health solutions for every domain of the SAP-E. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently available digital health solutions for the cerebrovascular disease have been designed to support professionals and patients in healthcare settings at all stages...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Brooke T Johnson, Evan Jameyfield, Vinay K Aakalu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a disfiguring disease that can lead to neuro-ophthalmic manifestations including diplopia and optic neuropathy. The aim of this review is to shed light on the diagnosis of TED based on clinical examination findings and diagnostic imaging. We will also discuss gold standard as well as newly emerging therapies for TED. RECENT FINDINGS: We discussed diagnostic criteria for TED and differentiating TED from other causes of binocular diplopia...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Robert G Tauscher, Shira S Simon, Nicholas J Volpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retinal disease can manifest with visual symptoms similar to those which result from central nervous system disorders. We provide a framework for considering retinal causes of common visual complaints presenting to a neurology clinic. RECENT FINDINGS: Technological advances have afforded quicker detection and a more thorough understanding of these retinal entities and are crucial to consider when evaluating visual complaints in the neurology clinic...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hong Jiang, Silvia Delgado, Jianhua Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis is a heterogeneous disorder. Biomarkers to monitor disease activities are highly desirable especially because of the recent shift toward personalized medicine that coincides with the expansion of disease-modifying therapy. The visual system is highly involved in multiple sclerosis, and the rapid advancement of ophthalmic techniques has boosted the development of potential ocular biomarkers for multiple sclerosis management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have found that the rapid thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) occurs in the progressive stage...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Yan Yan, Yaping Joyce Liao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic nerve head elevation can be associated with vision loss. This review provides an update regarding key features of optic disc drusen (ODD) compared with papilledema from increased intracranial pressure and optic disc edema from other causes. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical history and funduscopic examination are not sufficient to correctly diagnose different causes of optic nerve head elevation. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging is noninvasive and should be used as first-line diagnostic testing to distinguish optic disc edema or papilledema from pseudoedema...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hanne Christensen, Francesca Romana Pezzella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the background, principles and implementation of the Stroke Action Plan for Europe 2018--2030 (SAP-E) in the perspective of the current COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: SAP-E sets targets for the implementation of evidence-based preventive actions and stroke services to 2030. A recent mapping of stroke care in Europe has documented massive inequalities and even in high-income European countries access to reperfusion therapy and mortality after ischaemic stroke varies significantly...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Giancarlo Logroscino, Ettore Beghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the epidemiology, cause and clinical characteristics of incident stroke in different settings and populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have shown that there are three main themes in the epidemiology of stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic: COVID-19 seems to be associated with stroke in a significant number of patients. This association has been reported in several clinical series, mainly from China...
December 4, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Tomas Dobrocky, Johannes Kaesmacher, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Jan Gralla, Urs Fischer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the aftermath of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. RECENT FINDINGS: The outbreak of the COVID-19 has had effect of unprecedented magnitude on the social, economic and personal aspects around the globe. Healthcare providers were forced to expand capacity to provide care to the surging number of symptomatic COVID-19 patients, while maintaining a fully operating service for all non-COVID patients...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Megha Kaushik, Cristina Ponte, Susan P Mollan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to present the latest advances in giant cell arteritis (GCA) care, and recent national and international rheumatology societies guidance which influences clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Cranial ultrasound reduces diagnostic delay and improves clinical outcomes. Immediate high dose glucocorticoids remain the standard treatment for GCA. Controlled trial evidence using Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, shows good clinical efficacy with steroid-sparing effects...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Tolga Dittrich, Alexandros Polymeris, Gian Marco De Marchis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are crucial for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Drug adherence by the patient but also adherence to guidelines by the physician are suboptimal. This review highlights aspects of DOAC treatment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and selected challenging scenarios. RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with a newly diagnosed indication for oral anticoagulation, a new interim clinical guidance recommends starting DOAC instead of vitamin K antagonists if DOAC are not contraindicated...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Gordian J Hubert, Francesco Corea, Felix Schlachetzki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges many healthcare systems. This review provides an overview of the advantages of telemedicine during times of pandemic and the changes that have followed the outbreak of the COVID-19 disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Telemedicine has been utilized during infectious outbreaks for many years. COVID-19 has induced a variety of changes in laws (i.e. data privacy protection) and reimbursement procedures to accelerate new setups of telemedicine...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Arhem F Barkatullah, Lakshmi Leishangthem, Heather E Moss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Negative findings on neuroimaging are part of the diagnostic criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Some positive neuroimaging findings are associated with increased ICP, but their role in diagnosis of IIH has not been established. We provide an overview of these findings and their relevance for diagnosis of raised intracranial pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: MRI acquisition techniques have significantly improved in the last few decades leading to better characterization of the intracranial changes associated with IIH, including empty sella turcica, optic nerve tortuosity, distension of the optic nerve sheath, posterior globe flattening, slit-like ventricles, and venous sinus stenosis...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Elizabeth L Saionz, Steven E Feldon, Krystel R Huxlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Homonymous visual field defects are a common sequela of stroke, and are assumed to be permanent within a few weeks of the event. Because consensus about the efficacy of rehabilitation is lacking, visual therapy is rarely prescribed. Here, we review current rehabilitation options and strategies in the translational pipeline that could change these perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstays of available therapy for homonymous visual defects are compensation training and substitution, which allow patients to better use their spared vision...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ali G Hamedani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to summarize the evidence for visual impairment as a risk factor for visual hallucinations in neurologic disease and recent advances in our understanding of the central visual pathways that mediate this association. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have described the prevalence Charles Bonnet syndrome and questioned its lack of association with cognitive impairment, used advanced neuroimaging to show that disinhibition of the occipital lobe is involved in the pathogenesis of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, and demonstrated that visual impairment because of eye disease is a consistent risk factor for visual hallucinations across a number of different neurodegenerative disease populations...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Yin Allison Liu, Melissa W Ko, Heather E Moss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Telemedicine for neuro-ophthalmology (tele-neuro-ophthalmology) has the potential to increase access to neuro-ophthalmic care by improving efficiency and decreasing the need for long-distance travel for patients. Requirements for decreased person-to-person contacts during the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated adoption of tele-neuro-ophthalmology. This review highlights the challenges and opportunities with tele-neuro-ophthalmology. RECENT FINDINGS: Tele-neuro-ophthalmology programs can be used for triage, diagnostic consultation, and long-term treatment monitoring...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Melinda Y Chang, Mark S Borchert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is the leading cause of pediatric visual impairment in developed countries. Currently, there is no standardized method of visual assessment in these children, who usually cannot participate in tests designed for typically developing children. A reproducible method of visual assessment that accurately reflects the multitude of visual deficits in CVI is critical to evaluate proposed therapies for this disorder. This review analyzes current research on methods of visual assessment in children with CVI...
November 20, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Odysseas Kargiotis, Georgios Tsivgoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Single antiplatelet therapy represents an established treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). In contrast with coronary artery disease, the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for secondary prevention in patients with acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) remains under debate. In this narrative review, we present and analyse the most recent findings concerning the potential efficacy and safety of DAPT therapy after ischemic strokes or TIA...
November 12, 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
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