Finn Sellebjerg, Martin S Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatments targeting B cells are increasingly used for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We review the mechanisms of action, clinical effectiveness and safety of treatment, with emphasis on recently published studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Several monoclonal antibodies targeting the surface molecule CD20 on B cells are approved or being developed for treatment of MS. Overall, they seem comparable in terms of strongly suppressing radiological disease activity and relapse biology...
March 26, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Arun Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has cast increased attention on emerging infections. Clinicians and public health experts should be aware of emerging infectious causes of encephalitis, mechanisms by which they are transmitted, and clinical manifestations of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of arthropod-borne viral infections -- transmitted chiefly by mosquitoes and ticks -- have emerged in recent years to cause outbreaks of encephalitis. Examples include Powassan virus in North America, Chikungunya virus in Central and South America, and tick-borne encephalitis virus in Europe...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Roland Nau, Fritz Sörgel, Helmut Eiffert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing threat to patients also in nosocomial central nervous system (CNS) infections. The present review focusses on optimizing intravenous treatment in order to achieve sufficient concentrations of antibiotics in the different compartments of the CNS when the causative pathogens have reduced sensitivity to antibiotics or/and the impairment of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood-brain barrier is mild. RECENT FINDINGS: Experience has been gathered with treatment protocols for several established antibiotics using increased doses or continuous instead of intermittent intravenous therapy...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Emma C Wall, Jia Mun Chan, Eliza Gil, Robert S Heyderman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis is a continually changing disease. This review summarises both dynamic epidemiology and emerging data on pathogenesis. Updated clinical guidelines are discussed, new agents undergoing clinical trials intended to reduce secondary brain damage are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Conjugate vaccines are effective against serotype/serogroup-specific meningitis but vaccine escape variants are rising in prevalence...
March 22, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jessica Ailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gender differences exist in headache disorders. A greater understanding of the role of hormones in headache can help the clinician better approach and manage common primary headache disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlight differences in how migraine and cluster headache present in women and men. Updates to the ongoing debate of how to manage the use of hormones in women with migraine, especially with aura, have been well reviewed in the last 18 months...
March 17, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Susana Otero-Romero, Alberto Ascherio, Christine Lebrun-Frénay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on new evidence supporting the global immunization strategy for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs), including the recently available vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: New data strengthen the evidence against a causal link between MS and vaccination. Recent consensus statements agree on the need to start vaccination early...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Rick Dersch, Ameeta E Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurosyphilis (NS) and Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are spirochetal diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of NS remains challenging due to imperfect diagnostic criteria and testing modalities. With LNB, misconceptions about diagnosis and treatment lead to considerable morbidity and drug related adverse effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Although studies continue investigating alternate approaches and new diagnostic tests for NS, few data exist to change current approaches to diagnosis, management or follow up...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ruth Dobson, Kerstin Hellwig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fact that multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affects women has been recognized for many years. As the age at diagnosis is decreasing, and treatment options are becoming more complex, increasing numbers of women are facing decisions about the use of disease modifying therapy (DMT) in and around pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: New data are rapidly becoming available, particularly regarding the safety of therapies in both pregnancy and breastfeeding...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Gagandeep Singh, Alfred K Njamnshi, Ley Sander
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Malaria, Chagas Disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis are vector-borne protozoan illnesses, frequently associated with neurological manifestations. Intriguing but ignored, limited mainly to resource-limited, tropical settings, these disorders are now coming to light because of globalisation and improved diagnosis and treatment. Enhanced understanding of these illnesses has prompted this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Methods of diagnosis have currently transitioned from blood smear examinations to immunological assays and molecular methods...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Robert Kaniecki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinicians frequently face questions from headache patients regarding the roles played by sinus issues, muscle tension, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems. This review highlights new concepts regarding the diagnosis and management of these headache conditions and their differentiation from migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has clarified the roles played by pathology in the paranasal sinuses and TMJ in patients reporting headache...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sarah B Simmons, Sven Schippling, Gavin Giovannoni, Daniel Ontaneda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, which complicates expectant management as well as treatment decisions. This review provides an overview of both well established and emerging predictors of disability worsening, including clinical factors, imaging factors, biomarkers and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to well known clinical predictors (age, male sex, clinical presentation, relapse behaviour), smoking, obesity, vascular and psychiatric comorbidities are associated with subsequent disability worsening in persons with MS...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Finja Schweitzer, Nina N Kleineberg, Yasemin Göreci, Oezguer A Onur, Christiana Franke, Clemens Warnke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview on current knowledge of neurological symptoms and complications of COVID-19, and to suggest management concepts. RECENT FINDINGS: Headache, dizziness, excessive tiredness, myalgia, anosmia/hyposmia, and ageusia/dysgeusia are common nonspecific neurological manifestations during early COVID-19 disease found in the majority of patients. Less frequent but more severe and specific neurological manifestations include Guillain--Barré syndrome, encephalopathy, encephalitis/meningitis, epileptic seizures, and cerebrovascular events...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mark W Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medication overuse headache (MOH)is a disabling problem worldwide with areas of controversy regarding its cause. This article reviews the recent ideas regarding the development of this disorder and its effective management. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been proposed that all acute migraine medications can lead to MOH, with differences in the propensity of different agents to cause the problem. Early data suggests that gepants, which are small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists used for the acute treatment of migraine, may be an exception...
March 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Arne May, Jan Hoffmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trigeminal neuralgia is a well-known facial pain syndrome with several treatment options. In contrast, non-neuralgiform idiopathic facial pain syndromes are relatively rare, reflected by the fact that, until 2020, no internationally accepted diagnostic classification existed. Like trigeminal neuralgia, these non-dental facial pain syndromes need to be managed by neurologists and pain specialists, but the lack of pathophysiological understanding has resulted in an underrepresented and undertreated patient group...
March 3, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sofiati Dian, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Arjan van Laarhoven
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is the most devastating form of tuberculosis (TB), with mortality and or neurological sequelae in over half of individuals. We reviewed original research and systematic reviews published since 1 January 2019 for new developments in CNS TB pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Insight in the pathophysiology is increasing steadily since the landmark studies in 1933, focussing on granuloma type classification, the relevance of the M...
March 3, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Nouchine Hadjikhani, Maurice Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers several aspects our understanding of episodic manifestations and unusual symptoms that may be associated with migraine aura. RECENT FINDINGS: The episodic manifestation of migraine aura is typically visual in nature, although five other types are currently recognized: sensory, speech and/or language, motor, brainstem, and retinal. Other transitory perceptions or experiences such as emotional, olfactory, or auditory have been reported as possible migraine auras...
March 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Massimiliano Calabrese, Damiano Marastoni, Francesco Crescenzo, Antonio Scalfari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the introduction of new diagnostic criteria, the sensibility for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis increased and the number of cases with the clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) decreased. Nevertheless, a misdiagnosis might always be around the corner, and the exclusion of a 'better explanation' is mandatory.There is a pressing need to provide an update on the main prognostic factors that increase the risk of conversion from CIS or from radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) to MS, and on the potential 'red flags' to consider during the diagnostic workup...
March 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Chun-Yu Chen, Jong-Ling Fuh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thunderclap headache (TCH) is an abrupt-onset of severe headache that needs to be thoroughly investigated because the most common secondary cause is subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There has been no consensus guideline regarding the diagnostic workup. This review aims to provide an update on the evaluation of TCH. RECENT FINDINGS: The most important update in the 2019 American College of Emergency Physicians guideline for evaluation of acute headache in the emergency department is that a negative noncontrast brain computed tomography (CT) findings within 6 h from ictus essentially excludes SAH...
March 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Rupal I Mehta, Julie A Schneider
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Beta-amyloid with paired helical filaments (PHF)-tau neurofibrillary tangles define hallmark Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic changes (AD-NC). Yet persons with Alzheimer's dementia, defined broadly as an amnestic multidomain progressive dementia, often exhibit postmortem evidence of other neuropathologies including other neurodegenerative (Lewy body disease and transactive response DNA-binding protein disease) and vascular (vessel disease and tissue injuries) brain lesions...
February 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
Claudia H Kawas, Nienke Legdeur, María M Corrada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People over 90 are the fastest growing segment of the population with the highest rates of dementia. This review highlights recent findings that provide insight to our understanding of dementia and cognition at all ages. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia differ by age, with some factors, like the development of hypertension, actually becoming protective in the oldest-old. At least half of all dementia in this age group is due to non AD pathologies, including microinfarcts, hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43...
February 3, 2021: Current Opinion in Neurology
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