Maria K Houtchens
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated, inflammatory, neuro-degenerative disease of the central nervous system, prevalent in women of reproductive age. Today, many women want to start a family after MS diagnosis. There are over 20 treatments for MS, and safely navigating family planning is important. We review updated information on family planning, preconception, and peri-partum considerations, and reproductive concerns in special populations with MS...
April 9, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Wen Zhu, Zongqi Xia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to examine the evidence for disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) discontinuation in older people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We first summarized aging-associated biological changes that influence MS progression and DMT effectiveness, and then summarized recent evidence in evaluating clinical outcomes of discontinuing DMTs in older people with MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings provide mixed evidence regarding the outcomes of DMT discontinuation in older people with MS...
April 4, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Carles Gaig, Lidia Sabater
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anti-IgLON5 disease is characterized by a distinctive sleep disorder, associated with a heterogeneous spectrum of neurological symptoms. Initial autopsies showed a novel neuronal tauopathy predominantly located in the tegmentum of the brainstem. Recently, new diagnostic red flags, biomarkers predictors of response to immunotherapy, and novel insights into the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease have been reported. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or with motor-neuron disease (MND)-like syndrome have been reported to have IgLON5 antibodies, which are the hallmark of anti-IgLON5 disease...
April 2, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Samantha Epstein, Erin E Longbrake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Revisions of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostic criteria enable clinicians to diagnose patients earlier in the biologic disease course. Prompt initiation of therapy correlates with improved clinical outcomes. This has led to increased attention on the earliest stages of MS, including the MS prodrome and radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). Here, we review current understanding and approach to patients with preclinical MS. RECENT FINDINGS: MS disease biology often begins well before the onset of typical MS symptoms, and we are increasingly able to recognize preclinical and prodromal stages of MS...
March 29, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Stephen Krieger, Karin Cook, Carrie M Hersh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been predicated on clinical groupings that do not reflect the underlying biologic heterogeneity apparent within patient populations. This review explicates the various levels of explanation through which the spectrum of disease is described and investigated both above and below the clinical threshold of detection, as framed by the topographical model of MS, to help advance a cogent mechanistic framework. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary evidence has amended the view of MS as consisting of sequential disease phases in favor of a spectrum of disease with an admixture of interdependent and dynamic pathobiological axes driving tissue injury and progression...
March 28, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Julia Krämer, Heinz Wiendl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite availability of high-efficacy therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), many patients experience significant disability worsening due to limited effects of currently available drugs on central nervous system (CNS)-compartmentalized inflammation. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an intracellular signaling molecule involved in regulation of maturation, survival, migration, and activation of B cells and microglia, which are central players in the immunopathogenesis of progressive MS...
March 28, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Yahel Segal, Anastasia Zekeridou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing recognition and diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) is partly due to neural autoantibody testing and discovery. The past two decades witnessed an exponential growth in the number of identified neural antibodies. This review aims to summarize recent rare antibody discoveries in the context of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity and evaluate the ongoing debate about their utility. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 5 years alone 15 novel neural autoantibody specificities were identified...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Alicia Alpuente, Marta Torres-Ferrus, Edoardo Caronna, Patricia Pozo-Rosich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in migraine. Traditionally assessed through specific features, recent adoption of PROMs allows for a more objective and quantifiable evaluation. PROMs, which are standardized questionnaires collecting health information directly from a patients' perspective, cover various aspects, including migraine specific aspects. The review focuses on delineating the applications and interpretation of commonly used PROMs in migraine research, with an emphasis on their integration in clinical care...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Gavin Giovannoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological evidence implicates Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its biological role in the pathogenesis of MS is uncertain. The article provides an overview of the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of MS and makes a case for targeting EBV as a treatment strategy for MS. RECENT FINDINGS: EBV potentially triggers autoimmunity via molecular mimicry or immune dysregulation. Another hypothesis, supported by immunological and virological data, indicates that active EBV infection via latent-lytic infection cycling within the central nervous system or periphery drives MS disease activity...
March 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Michael V Robers, Lilyana Amezcua
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss racial and ethnic disparities in multiple sclerosis (MS), outcomes, and social determinants of health (SDoH). We also provide essential considerations needed to bridge the gap in inequalities, including broader representation of racial and ethnic people in clinical trials and research in general and the inclusion of better measures of living conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence and prevalence of MS have become more diverse in the USA...
March 21, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Elisabeth Maillart, Kumaran Deiva, Romain Marignier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical landscape associated to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) has undergone a remarkable transformation over the past two decades, primarily driven by advancements in antibody detection techniques that have enhanced both the specificity and sensitivity of assays, enabling the identification of novel clinical phenotypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent pivotal research publications, comprehensive reviews from established research groups, and most notably the first proposed international criteria for MOG-Ab associated disease (MOGAD) have substantially enriched our understanding of the clinical features associated with MOG-Ab...
March 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sergio Muñiz-Castrillo, Jérôme Honnorat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the recent discoveries on genetic predisposition to autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), emphasizing clinical and pathophysiological implications. RECENT FINDINGS: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the most studied genetic factor in autoimmune encephalitis and PNS. The HLA haplotype 8.1, which is widely known to be related to systemic autoimmunity, has been only weakly associated with a few types of autoimmune encephalitis and PNS...
March 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Albert Saiz, Francesc Graus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe relevant advances in nonparaneoplastic autoimmune cerebellar ataxias (ACA) with neuronal antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from metabotropic glutamate receptor 1(mGluR1) antibodies, in recent years, the number of neuronal antibodies against surface antigens in ACA has increased with the description of glutamate kainate receptor subunit 2 (GluK2) antibodies in young patients with cerebellitis. Around 20% of patients with contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) encephalitis also present prominent cerebellar ataxia...
March 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Antonio Farina, Macarena Villagrán-García, Alberto Vogrig, Bastien Joubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) may trigger immune-related adverse events which rarely affect the central nervous system (CNS-irAEs). Over the past few years, cumulative data have led to the characterization of well defined syndromes with distinct cancer and antibody associations as well as different outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequent CNS-irAE is encephalitis, which includes three main groups: meningoencephalitis, a nonfocal syndrome usually responsive to corticosteroids; limbic encephalitis, associated with high-risk paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) antibodies (e...
March 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sarah A Aeschlimann, Antonia Klein, Christoph J Schankin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visual snow syndrome (VSS) is a disorder characterized by persistent visual disturbances, including the visual snow phenomenon, palinopsia, heightened perception of entoptic phenomena, impaired night vision, and photophobia. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings over the past 18 months in VSS research and to summarize the current state of treatment approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Electrophysiological studies have revealed cortical hyperresponsivity in visual brain areas, imaging studies demonstrated microstructural and functional connectivity alterations in multiple cortical and thalamic regions and investigated glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission...
March 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Eugen Trinka, Matthias Koepp, Gudrun Kalss, Teia Kobulashvili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current practices and evidence for the diagnostic accuracy and the benefits of presurgical evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative evaluation of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies and subsequent epilepsy surgery leads to a significant proportion of seizure-free patients. Even those who are not completely seizure free postoperatively often experience improved quality of life with better social integration. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy are available for Video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electric and magnetic source imaging, and functional MRI for lateralization of language and memory...
February 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Matthias Koepp, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Löscher, Pavel Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent progress in preventing epileptogenesis in patients with epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent success of epilepsy prevention and disease modification in tuberous sclerosis using simple EEG biomarkers to guide treatment initiation, and the identification of biomarkers to enrich the targeted patient population has made clinical trials of epilepsy prevention after acquired central nervous system (CNS) insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or infection both feasible and timely...
February 13, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Natalie Beschorner, Maiken Nedergaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of this review is to update the ongoing work in the field of glymphatic and neurodegenerative research and to highlight focus areas that are particularly promising. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple reports have over the past decade documented that glymphatic fluid transport is broadly suppressed in neurodegenerative diseases. Most studies have focused on Alzheimer's disease using a variety of preclinical disease models, whereas the clinical work is based on various neuroimaging approaches...
February 13, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Adriano Bernini, Jonathan Dan, Philippe Ryvlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of seizure detection in ambulatory patients with epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that wrist or arm wearable sensors, using 3D-accelerometry, electrodermal activity or photoplethysmography, in isolation or in combination, can reliably detect focal-to-bilateral and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), with a sensitivity over 90%, and false alarm rates varying from 0.1 to 1.2 per day...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
Andrew Charles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caffeine is known to have both beneficial and adverse effects in individuals with headache disorders. This review describes recent findings regarding caffeine that are relevant to headache disorders and puts these findings into the context of clinical management. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies show that caffeine has complex effects on sleep, brain blood flow, and intracranial pressure that may depend on the timing of caffeine intake relative to the sleep-wake cycle...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Neurology
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