journal

Current Opinion in Neurology

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31688098/update-on-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#1
Samantha K Holden, Brianne M Bettcher, Victoria S Pelak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonamnestic (or atypical) presentations of neurodegenerative dementias are underrecognized and underdiagnosed, including posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) syndrome, which is characterized by prominent visuospatial and visuoperceptual dysfunction at presentation. It is most commonly due to Alzheimer's disease pathology, while Lewy body disease, corticobasal degeneration, and prion disease are neuropathological entities that are less frequently associated with PCA. The diagnosis of PCA is often delayed, to the detriment of the patient, and awareness and understanding of PCA will improve detection, prognostication, and treatment...
November 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31633494/wallerian-degeneration-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Vassilis E Koliatsos, Athanasios S Alexandris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diffuse or traumatic axonal injury is one of the principal pathologies encountered in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the resulting axonal loss, disconnection, and brain atrophy contribute significantly to clinical morbidity and disability. The seminal discovery of the slow Wallerian degeneration mice (Wld) in which transected axons do not degenerate but survive and function independently for weeks has transformed concepts on axonal biology and raised hopes that axonopathies may be amenable to specific therapeutic interventions...
October 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31609736/sugar-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-cognitive-restoration-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Amit Kumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss examples of changes in glucose (sugar) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It will attempt to provide an understanding of what changes in glucose metabolism mean for the injured brain. It will further identify potential therapeutic target(s) emanating from our growing understanding of glucose pathways and their roles in TBI. RECENT FINDINGS: Although a significant fraction of glucose is utilized for the energy production in the brain, a small fraction is utilized in other, often ignored pathways...
October 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31609739/applications-of-artificial-intelligence-in-neuro-oncology
#4
Sanjay Aneja, Enoch Chang, Antonio Omuro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent applications of artificial intelligence within the field of neuro-oncology and highlight emerging challenges in integrating artificial intelligence within clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: In the field of image analysis, artificial intelligence has shown promise in aiding clinicians with incorporating an increasing amount of data in genomics, detection, diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, prognosis, and treatment response...
October 10, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31609738/tumor-treating-fields-for-glioblastoma-should-it-or-will-it-ever-be-adopted
#5
Alissa A Thomas, Paula K Rauschkolb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss how a new treatment modality, tumor treating fields, may be incorporated into the oncologic care for patients with glioblastoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Tumor treating fields are a new treatment modality available to patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Alternating electric fields are delivered via a wearable, removable device affixed to the scalp of patients with supratentorial glioblastoma...
October 10, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31592790/targeting-dna-repair-in-gliomas
#6
Jason M Beckta, Ranjit S Bindra, Anthony J Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gliomas represent a disparate group of malignancies with varying clinical outcomes despite a tremendous amount of time, effort, and resources dedicated to their management and understanding. The most aggressive entity, glioblastoma, has a dismal prognosis with poor local control despite intense local and systemic treatment, including radiation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the heterogeneity in genotype, phenotype, and patient outcomes, researchers and clinicians have turned their attention toward attacking DNA damage response and repair mechanisms in gliomas in an effort to develop novel chemo and radiosensitizers...
October 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31592789/molecular-profiling-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas-predictive-and-prognostic-value
#7
K Grace Ho, Christian Grommes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare but aggressive variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The diagnostic gold standard remains the pathologic review of tumor tissue mainly collected though biopsies. The majority of PCNSL are diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Biopsies are invasive procedures, and there have been efforts to develop minimally invasive diagnostic testing using serum and cerebral spinal fluid. This article reviews multiple markers that could potentially serve as future diagnostic tools and predictors of treatment response...
October 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31577604/complications-associated-with-immunotherapy-for-brain-metastases
#8
Thuy T Tran, Lucia B Jilaveanu, Antonio Omuro, Veronica L Chiang, Anita Huttner, Harriet M Kluger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Median survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases has historically been on the order of months. With the recent development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, intracranial activity and durable responses have been observed in brain metastases on multiple phase 2 clinical trials, which have primarily been conducted in patients with melanoma. Immune-related adverse events related to checkpoint inhibitor therapy of brain metastasis can present unique challenges for the clinician and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary team in the care of these patients...
October 1, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31577603/new-metabolic-imaging-tools-in-neuro-oncology
#9
Zachary A Corbin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current treatment of gliomas dovetails results of decades-old clinical trials with modern trends in chemotherapy. Molecular characterization now plays a pivotal role, and IDH mutations are key characteristics and the subject of active debate. IDH-mutant tumors produce the 'onco-metabolite', 2-hydroxyglutarate. Metabolic changes have become central to the understanding of tumor biology, and tumors display a fundamental metabolic change called the Warburg Effect. The Warburg Effect represents a preference for glycolysis, as opposed to oxidative phosphorylation...
October 1, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31577602/transglutaminases-neuronal-cell-death-and-neural-repair-implications-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-therapeutics
#10
Manuela Basso, Andrea Milelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death in the developed world. Despite advances at the bedside, pharmacological interventions have yet to be successful likely because of the need for a better understanding of disease mechanisms as potential targets for intervention. Recent evidence implicates a family of enzymes, namely transglutaminases, in the pathological mechanisms of TBI. RECENT FINDINGS: Transglutaminases are multifunctional, calcium-dependent enzymes that are significantly upregulated in TBI...
October 1, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31577601/progress-in-rare-central-nervous-system-tumors
#11
Marta Penas-Prado, Terri S Armstrong, Mark R Gilbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors are rare, certain tumor types each represent less than 2% of the total and an annual incidence of about 1000 patients or less. Most of them are disproportionally diagnosed in children and young adults, but older adults can also be affected and are rarely recruited to clinical trials. Recent new molecular techniques have led to reclassification of some of these tumors and discovery of actionable molecular alterations...
October 1, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567549/autonomic-dysfunction-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Cali C M Callaway, Barry E Kosofsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Between 1.6 and 3.6 million concussions, or mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), occur each year, nearly half of which go unreported and untreated. Despite the high incidence, practitioners currently lack both objective gold-standard diagnostic tools and evidence-based treatments to enable optimal care of concussed individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: This article aims to review recent research on the topic, emphasizing the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in concussion...
September 24, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567548/the-path-forward-for-anti-programmed-death-1-therapy-in-gliomas
#13
Nazanin Majd, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, John de Groot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) represent the forefront of novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of solid cancers. However, the clinical development of CPIs in glioblastoma (GBM) has been challenging owing to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and, possibly, low tumor mutation burden. Here, we review possible mechanisms responsible for the success of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade in patients with hypermutated GBM, recent clinical trials of anti-PD-1 monotherapy, trials incorporating neoadjuvant strategies, and trials of immunotherapy combination approaches in GBM...
September 24, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567547/exercise-factors-as-potential-mediators-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Joseph S Stephan, Sama F Sleiman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize what is known about how exercise mediates cognitive rehabilitation post traumatic brain injury (TBI). RECENT FINDINGS: TBI is a devastating condition that leads to cognitive, motor and social deficits with significant social and economic burdens. Physical exercise has been shown to mediate cognitive rehabilitation post-TBI. The therapeutic effects of exercise are related in part to its ability to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression in the hippocampus...
September 24, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567546/enhancing-rehabilitation-and-functional-recovery-after-brain-and-spinal-cord-trauma-with-electrical-neuromodulation
#15
Anna-Sophie Hofer, Martin E Schwab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses recent advances in the rehabilitation of motor deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) using neuromodulatory techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Neurorehabilitation is currently the only treatment option for long-term improvement of motor functions that can be offered to patients with TBI or SCI. Major advances have been made in recent years in both preclinical and clinical rehabilitation. Activity-dependent plasticity of neuronal connections and circuits is considered key for successful recovery of motor functions, and great therapeutic potential is attributed to the combination of high-intensity training with electrical neuromodulation...
September 24, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567431/novel-synaptic-plasticity-enhancer-drug-to-augment-functional-recovery-with-rehabilitation
#16
Takuya Takahashi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroke is a devastating illness which severely attenuates quality of life because of paralysis. Despite recent advances in therapies during acute phase such as thrombolytic therapy, clinical option to intervene the process of rehabilitation is limited. No pharmacological intervention that could enhance the effect of rehabilitation has not been established. Recent articles, which are summarized in the review article, reported novel small compound which accelerates training-dependent motor function recovery after brain damage...
September 23, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567500/alternative-routes-for-recovery-of-hand-functions-after-coticospinal-tract-injury-in-primates-and-rodents
#17
Tadashi Isa, Masahiro Mitsuhashi, Reona Yamaguchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies on various corticospinal tract (CST) lesions have shown the plastic changes at a variety of motor systems after the lesion. This review provides the alternative routes associated with the motor functional recovery after the CST lesions at various levels in nonhuman primates and rodents. RECENT FINDINGS: In the case of the motor cortical lesions, the perilesional area compensates for the lesion. In contrast, sprouting of the corticoreticular tracts was observed after the lesions involving sensorimotor cortical areas...
September 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31688166/alternative-routes-for-recovery-of-hand-functions-after-corticospinal-tract-injury-in-primates-and-rodents
#18
Tadashi Isa, Masahiro Mitsuhashi, Reona Yamaguchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies on various corticospinal tract (CST) lesions have shown the plastic changes at a variety of motor systems after the lesion. This review provides the alternative routes associated with the motor functional recovery after the CST lesions at various levels in nonhuman primates and rodents. RECENT FINDINGS: In the case of the motor cortical lesions, the perilesional area compensates for the lesion. In contrast, sprouting of the corticoreticular tracts was observed after the lesions involving sensorimotor cortical areas...
December 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31609737/editorial-the-voluminous-axon-as-an-organizing-principle-for-traumatic-brain-injury-therapeutics-novel-molecular-metabolic-and-circuit-strategies
#19
Yutaka Yoshida, Rajiv R Ratan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31567499/novel-sensory-paradigms-for-neuromodulation-in-disorders-of-consciousness-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Luca Padua, Cristina Cuccagna, Costanza Pazzaglia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. In cases of severe TBI, disorders of consciousness (DoC) can occur and therapeutic options for these conditions are few and of limited efficacy. Sensory stimulation, an instrument to improve arousal and awareness, is frequently applied in the neurorehabilitation of DoC, but scientific evidence supporting its efficacy is limited. Our aim is to review the recent literature concerning novel sensory paradigms used in sensory stimulation protocols in DoC following TBI...
December 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
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