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Current Opinion in Neurology

Roland Wiest, Roland Beisteiner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging constitutes one of the key pillars in the diagnostic workup after a first seizure as well as for the presurgical workup in epilepsy. The role of imaging in emergency situations, mainly to support the adequate diagnosis, as well as its role in planning of noninvasive image-guided therapies is less well established. Here, we provide an overview on peri-ictal imaging findings to support differential diagnosis in emergency situations and describe recent attempts toward minimal invasive therapy in the treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities based on a combination of imaging techniques with ultrasound...
May 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sabine Hellwig, Katharina Domschke, Philipp T Meyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on recent findings concerning the use of PET for differential diagnosis in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders manifesting on a behavioural level. RECENT FINDINGS: Although accurate differential diagnosis of dementia can be achieved by imaging disease-specific patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism with [F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG)-PET, the diagnostic impact of [F]FDG-PET in primary psychiatric disorders is limited...
May 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sabine Hellwig, Katharina Domschke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on recent imaging studies probing positron emission tomography (PET) as a tool for improving biomarker-guided diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies confirmed the value of imaging of regional neuronal activity and imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and other neuroreceptor function in the diagnostic process of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, depression/bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
May 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hidenori Yamasue, Adi Aran, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research on the pathophysiology of syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has contributed to the uncovering of mechanisms in nonsyndromic ASD. The current review aims to compare recent progress in therapeutics development for ASD with those for fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most frequent monogenic form of ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Although candidates such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and cannabinoids are being tested as novel therapeutics, it remains difficult to focus on a specific molecular target of drug development for ASD core symptoms...
April 30, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hans-Peter Hartung, Jonas Graf, Orhan Aktas, Jan Mares, Michael H Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the new 2017 revisions of the McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis and review first experiences in their application to different patient populations. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017 revisions agreed on by an international expert panel, as the precursors, define criteria needed to fulfill dissemination in time and space in the clinically isolated syndrome after exclusion of alternative diagnoses...
April 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Delphine Magis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cluster headache stands among the worst debilitating pain conditions. Available treatments for cluster headache have often disabling side effects, are not tolerated, or are ineffective. The management of drug-refractory chronic forms is challenging. New treatments are warranted and reported here. RECENT FINDINGS: In cluster headache acute treatment, delivery systems like Demand Valve Oxygen or nonrebreather-type masks could enhance the effectiveness of inhaled oxygen therapy...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Finja Schweitzer, Sarah Laurent, Gereon R Fink, Michael H Barnett, Stephen Reddel, Hans-Peter Hartung, Clemens Warnke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A variety of high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are available for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). After evaluation and approval by regulatory agencies, DMTs are likely to be administered to patients whose characteristics differ from those enrolled in clinical trials. This may contribute to the emergence of unexpected adverse events observed in the real-world setting. Higher age may be a relevant factor that could change the benefit-risk balance of DMTs, as it may associate with lower efficiency and higher frequency of adverse events...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Bruce A C Cree, Jan Mares, Hans-Peter Hartung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically assess the current landscape of disease-modifying agents for multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment algorithms will be discussed and studies for new agents in late development or recently approved are analyzed in terms of their impact on current treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: A real-world study from Wales suggests that early initiation of highly effective therapy may provide more benefit that an escalation approach in relapsing MS...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Chenyu Tim Wang, Michael Barnett, Yael Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Focal white matter lesions are the defining pathological and imaging hallmark of the multiple sclerosis. Until recently, elucidation of the pathophysiology of lesion formation, progression and repair has relied on point neuropathological observations. Here, we review current and emerging concepts of the MRI-defined multiple sclerosis lesion phenotype, advanced longitudinal imaging techniques that permit in-vivo exploration of dynamic microstructural change within lesions and emerging MRI measures of lesion repair...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Matteo Pardini, Gary Cutter, Maria Pia Sormani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent years have seen the approval of more than 15 disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly for its relapsing-remitting form (RRMS). The focus of the MS clinical trials is moving toward clinical trials aimed at progressive patients or based on putatively neuroprotective compounds. Here we reviewed the challenges of this paradigm shift. RECENT FINDINGS: Progressive MS and neuroprotective drugs trials will both need a change in patients' enrollment criteria, outcome selection, and clinical trials design...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Marta Torres-Ferrus, Alicia Alpuente, Patricia Pozo-Rosich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a prevalent and extremely disabling brain disorder, with an impact on the individual, family, workplace and society. This review focuses on describing Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies (CGRP-mABs) efficacy on improving the quality of life (QoL) and decreasing the disability and impact of migraine measured with patient related outcomes (PROs), on patients who participated in clinical trials with erenumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab and eptinezumab...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Melinda Magyari, Per Soelberg Sorensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief update of new research findings on the changing epidemiology, disease course, and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence not only continues to support the female predominance in incidence and prevalence of the disease but also supports an increase in incidence of MS in geographic areas that were previously considered to be low incidence for the disease. SUMMARY: An increased interest in population-based registries and databases will provide more valid epidemiological measures and observational studies conducted in well-defined study populations...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Claire Perrinjaquet, Nicolas Desbaillets, Andreas F Hottinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) and chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) represent novel therapies recently approved to treat a number of human cancers. As both approaches modulate the immune system, they can generate a number of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including a large spectrum of novel neurological toxicities. These are of special interest given their potential severity and risk of compromising further oncologic treatment. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and discuss their optimal management...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hans Lassmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and therapy is to a large extent driven by results obtained in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This approach provided deep insights into the mechanism of brain inflammation and immune mediated tissue injury and, thus, most of our currently established therapies for MS patients have been developed with profound contributions of experimental autoimmune research. Recent data, which are summarized in this review article, however, show important differences between EAE and MS...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kazuo Fujihara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been revised in the past 20 years and pathological and therapeutic data have been accumulated. This review provides an overview of evolution and broadening of the concept of NMOSD. RECENT FINDINGS: NMOSD encompassing brain syndrome as well as optic neuritis and acute myelitis is now classified into aquaporine-4 (AQP)-antibody-seropositive and aquaporine-4 (AQP)-antibody-seronegative diseases, detecting more patients earlier than before...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Irene de Boer, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Gisela M Terwindt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a primary headache disorder and one of the most common and disabling neurological diseases worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified ≈40 genetic loci associated with migraine. How these and other genetic findings are used to expand our knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanism of common migraine and rare migraine variants will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic load, based on common polygenic variation, is higher in familial migraine cases than in nonfamilial cases, and higher for migraine with aura and hemiplegic migraine...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Cristina Tassorelli, Rosaria Greco, Stephen D Silberstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a common, highly disabling disorder. Its treatment involves acute and preventive therapy. Many of available preventive medications are not well tolerated, which results in poor compliance and limited effectiveness. Cannabinoids have been proposed for the treatment of migraine but their efficacy and tolerability are controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: Cannabinoids modulate functions and activity of signaling pathways that have a key role in pain control...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Maike Möller, Arne May
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The trigeminal autonomic reflex is a physiological reflex with an important protective function which also plays a role in pathophysiological conditions, such as primary headache. It is not understood whether the autonomic symptoms in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and migraine are the consequence of severe trigeminal discharge or indeed directly driven by central generators as part of the pathophysiology, underlying these syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Modulating this reflex, and particularly the parasympathetic reflex arc, has been shown to be effective in treating headache...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
David Kremer, Peter Göttle, Jose Flores-Rivera, Hans-Peter Hartung, Patrick Küry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) effectively reduce relapse rate, mitigate disability progression and improve MRI measures of inflammation. However, they have virtually no impact on remyelination which is the major mechanism preventing MS-associated neurodegeneration. Stimulating the generation of myelin-(re)producing cells is therefore a central focus of current MS research and a yet unmet clinical need. Here, we present and evaluate key scientific studies from the field of (therapeutic) remyelination research covering the past 1...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
James L Mitchell, Susan P Mollan, Vivek Vijay, Alexandra J Sinclair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article appraises the recent developments in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), with particular attention to novel therapeutic avenues and advanced clinical assessment and monitoring with optical coherence tomography and telemetric intracranial pressure devices. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of IIH is increasing. The first consensus guidelines for IIH have been published detailing investigation and management algorithms for adult IIH...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
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