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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31313705/neuropathies-and-paraproteins
#1
Michael P Lunn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasingly recognized association between haematological and neurological disease. This is especially true in the peripheral nervous system in which, to an extent, proof of a link is easier to achieve. The most sensitive low level paraprotein detection methods should always be employed in which a paraprotein is suspected. Peripheral nerves can be damaged not only by the immunological targeting of the myelin by the paraprotein, but by deposition (light chain amyloid and cryoglobulins) or direct infiltration (neurolymphomatosis)...
July 15, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31313704/update-on-classification-epidemiology-clinical-phenotype-and-imaging-of-the-nonsystemic-vasculitic-neuropathies
#2
Michael P Collins, P James B Dyck, Robert D M Hadden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Single-organ vasculitis of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is often designated nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN). Several variants or subtypes have been distinguished, including migratory sensory neuropathy, postsurgical inflammatory neuropathy, diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies, skin-nerve vasculitides, and, arguably, neuralgic amyotrophy. NSVN often presents as nondiabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (LRPN). This review updates classification, clinical features, epidemiology, and imaging of these disorders...
July 15, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31306212/the-challenges-of-diabetic-polyneuropathy-a-brief-update
#3
Douglas W Zochodne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review addresses one of the most common neurological disorders, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). DPN is debilitating, irreversible and dwarfs the prevalence of most other chronic disorders of the nervous system. Its complications include foot ulceration, amputation, falling and intractable neuropathic pain. Moreover, tight control of hyperglycemia reduces the incidence of DPN in type 1 diabetes mellitus but its role in type 2 diabetes mellitus is less clear...
July 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31306211/new-insights-on-the-disease-contribution-of-neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Aude Chiot, Christian S Lobsiger, Séverine Boillée
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease with a strong neuroinflammatory component. This review summarizes how the connection between neurodegeneration and the immune system is strengthened by new discoveries from ALS genetics and the analysis of subpopulations of immune cells in ALS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent genes identified in ALS encode for proteins with direct immune roles, which when mutated lead to deregulation of immune functions, potentially influencing the disease...
July 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31306214/toxic-neuropathies-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#5
Paola Alberti, Guido Cavaletti, David R Cornblath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and distressing side-effect of many chemotherapy regimens. Currently, aside from symptomatic treatments for neuropathic pain, there are no treatments to prevent CIPN or treat established CIPN. We discuss recent articles addressing clinimetric issues and treatment of CIPN. RECENT FINDINGS: There are important clinimetric issues that need to be addressed so that robust clinical trials in CIPN can be performed...
July 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31306213/autoantibodies-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy
#6
Elba Pascual-Goñi, Lorena Martín-Aguilar, Luis Querol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder that includes diverse clinical presentations and immunopathological mechanisms. Antibodies targeting proteins of the node of Ranvier are present in a subset of CIDP patients. These autoantibodies are pathogenic and associate with specific clinical phenotypes and therapeutic peculiarities. This review summarizes the novel insights that the discovery of novel autoantibodies has brought to the understanding of CIDP...
July 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31232715/neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#7
Doris A Trauner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31232714/gene-targeting-approaches-for-movement-disorders-recent-advances
#8
Michael G Kaplitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current state of art of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Introduction of the gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) into the subthalamic nucleus was successful in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial and recent data from PET imaging identified novel brain networks underlying both sham surgery and therapeutic responses in treated participants. Two other approaches use viral vectors to increase dopamine transmission in the striatum...
June 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219826/update-on-movement-disorders
#9
Per Svenningsson, Steven J Frucht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31188151/gba1-associated-parkinsonism-new-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
Emory Ryan, Gurpreet Seehra, Pankaj Sharma, Ellen Sidransky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: GBA1 mutations, which result in the lysosomal disorder Gaucher disease, are the most common known genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The pathogenesis of this association is not fully understood, but further elucidation of this link could lead to new therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: The characteristic clinical phenotype of GBA1-PD resembles sporadic Parkinson disease, but with an earlier onset and more severe course...
June 10, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31145128/corticobasal-degeneration-advances-in-clinicopathology-and-biomarkers
#11
Per Svenningsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative tauopathy diagnosed postmortem by pathological examination. The clinical presentation of corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is an apraxic, dystonic, and rigid limb with asymmetrical cortical signs and myoclonus. However, less than half of the patients with CBS receive a CBD diagnosis. As tau-lowering therapies have entered clinical trials, improved antemortem diagnosis of CBD is needed. Here, clinicopathological, neuroimaging, and biofluid data in CBS and/or CBD patients are briefly summarized and some knowledge gaps identified...
May 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31135458/the-atypical-social-brain-network-in-autism-advances-in-structural-and-functional-mri-studies
#12
Wataru Sato, Shota Uono
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review advances in structural and functional MRI studies regarding the neural underpinnings of social atypicalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECENT FINDINGS: According to the hypothesis that the social brain network, which includes brain regions, such as the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus, may be atypical in ASD, recent structural MRI studies have identified regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the social brain regions in ASD groups compared with the typically developing groups...
May 22, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31116117/x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism-recent-advances
#13
D Cristopher Bragg, Nutan Sharma, Laurie J Ozelius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our understanding of X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) has advanced considerably in recent years because of a wealth of new data describing its genetic basis, cellular phenotypes, neuroimaging features, and response to deep brain stimulation (DBS). This review provides a concise summary of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: XDP is associated with a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA)-type retrotransposon insertion within the TAF1 gene. This element includes a hexameric DNA repeat expansion, (CCCTCT)n, the length of which varies among patients and is inversely correlated to age of disease onset...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31116116/acute-imaging-for-evidence-based-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#14
Götz Thomalla, Christian Gerloff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke treatment relied on reported information on the known time of symptom onset and was limited to treatment within a narrow time window. New trials have provided evidence for imaging-based effective reperfusion treatment in an extended time window and unknown-onset stroke. This review summarizes evidence from recent clinical trials and suggests a simple algorithm for the choice of imaging modalities to guide evidence-based reperfusion treatment of acute stroke...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31083013/update-on-pet-imaging-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#15
Sabine Hellwig, Katharina Domschke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on recent imaging studies probing positron emission tomography (PET) as a tool for improving biomarker-guided diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies confirmed the value of imaging of regional neuronal activity and imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and other neuroreceptor function in the diagnostic process of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, depression/bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
May 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31260418/pain-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-concepts-in-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#16
Katarina Rukavina, Valentina Leta, Carolina Sportelli, Yazead Buhidma, Susan Duty, Marzia Malcangio, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the most recent evidence on mechanisms underlying pathological nociceptive processing in Parkinson's disease patients, as well as novel treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: In Parkinson's disease, specific neurodegenerative changes may cause alterations in nociceptive processing at multiple levels. Optimization of dopaminergic therapies should always be the first step in the management of Parkinson's disease pain. Reportedly, rotigotine transdermal patch, a monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor safinamide (as an add-on therapy to levodopa), subcutaneous apomorphine and intrajejunal levodopa infusion therapy may have a beneficial effect on pain sensations in Parkinson's disease patients...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31246704/editorial-update-on-movement-disorders
#17
Per Svenningsson, Steven J Frucht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31169559/a-nation-wide-initiative-for-brain-imaging-and-clinical-phenotype-data-federation-in-swiss-university-memory-centres
#18
Bogdan Draganski, Ferath Kherif, Daniel Damian, Jean-Francois Demonet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of our nation-wide initiative is to provide clinicians intuitive and robust tools for accurate diagnosis, therapy monitoring and prognosis of cognitive decline that is based on large-scale multidomain data. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe a federation framework that allows for statistical analysis of aggregated brain imaging and clinical phenotyping data across memory clinics in Switzerland. The adaptation and deployment of readily available data capturing and federation modules is paralleled by developments in ontology, quality and regulatory control of brain imaging data...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31157644/primary-familial-brain-calcifications-genetic-and-clinical-update
#19
Ana Westenberger, Alexander Balck, Christine Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last 7 years, changes in five genes [SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, and MYORG] have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), allowing for genetic delineation of this phenotypically complex neurodegenerative disorder. This review explores how the ensuing plethora of reported PFBC patients and their disease-causing variants improved our understanding of disease, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and penetrance. RECENT FINDINGS: In PFBC patients, pathogenic changes have been most frequently described in SLC20A2, accounting for approximately the same number of patients as the variants in the other four PFBC genes combined...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31135460/sex-differences-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#20
Tamara May, Ife Adesina, Jane McGillivray, Nicole J Rinehart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There continues to be more males than females diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders, which may provide clues about their cause. This review will focus on the two most common neurodevelopmental disorders - autism spectrum disorder (autism) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and explore recent research to understand recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Biological mechanisms including genetics, hormones and their interaction with other risk factors, such as stress and lead exposure, point to complex causal pathways for neurodevelopmental disorders...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
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