Daniel De Backer, Julian Arias Ortiz, Bruno Levy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the use of vasopressors and inotropes in cardiogenic shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The classic form or cardiogenic shock requires administration of inotropic and/or vasopressor agents to try to improve the impaired tissue perfusion. Among vasopressors various alpha-adrenergic agents, vasopressin derivatives and angiotensin can be used. The first-line therapy remains norepinephrine as it is associated with minimal adverse effects and appears to be associated by the best outcome in network meta-analyses...
March 31, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Giovanni Babini, Laura Ruggeri, Giuseppe Ristagno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current cardiac arrest guidelines are based on a fixed, time-based defibrillation strategy. Rhythm analysis and shock delivery (if indicated) are repeated every 2 min requiring cyclical interruptions of chest compressions. This approach has several downsides, such as the need to temporarily stop cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for a variable amount of time, thus reducing myocardial perfusion and decreasing the chance of successful defibrillation. A tailored defibrillation strategy should identify treatment priority for each patient, that is chest compressions (CCS) or defibrillation, minimize CCs interruptions, speed up the delivery of early effective defibrillation and reduce the number of ineffective shocks...
March 31, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Robert M Kacmarek, Hatus V Wanderley, Jesús Villar, Lorenzo Berra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity prevalence is increasing in most countries in the world. In the United States, 42% of the population is obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30) and 9.2% is obese class III (BMI > 40). One of the greatest challenges in critically ill patients with obesity is the optimization of mechanical ventilation. The goal of this review is to describe respiratory physiologic changes in patients with obesity and discuss possible mechanical ventilation strategies to improve respiratory function...
March 31, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Christopher P Kovach, Sarah M Perman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), led to the declaration of a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. As of February 6, 2021, over 105 million persons have been infected in 223 countries and there have been 2,290,488 deaths. As a result, emergency medical services and hospital systems have undergone unprecedented healthcare delivery reconfigurations. Here, we review the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) epidemiology and systems of care...
March 26, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Fredrik Folke, Linn Andelius, Mads Tofte Gregers, Carolina Malta Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss different approaches to citizen responder activation and possible future solutions for improved citizen engagement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Activating volunteer citizens to OHCA has the potential to improve OHCA survival by increasing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. Accordingly, citizen responder systems have become widespread in numerous countries despite very limited evidence of their effect on survival or cost-effectiveness...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Lauge Vammen, Jesper Fjølner, Kasper Hansen, Asger Granfeldt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an update on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and to describe emerging therapies to optimize perfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: Cadaver studies have shown large inter-individual variations in blood distribution and anatomical placement of the heart during chest compressions. Using advanced CT techniques the studies have demonstrated atrial and slight right ventricular compression, but no direct compression of the left ventricle...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is the most devastating and time-critical medical emergency. Survival after OHCA requires an integrated system of care, of which transport by emergency medical services is an integral component. The transport system serves to commence and ensure uninterrupted high-quality resuscitation in suitable patients who would benefit, terminate resuscitation in those that do not, provide critical interventions, as well as convey patients to the next appropriate venue of care...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Aurora Magliocca, Michael Fries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances about inhaled gases as novel neuroprotective agents in the postcardiac arrest period. RECENT FINDINGS: Inhaled gases, as nitric oxide (NO) and molecular hydrogen (H2), and noble gases as xenon (Xe) and argon (Ar) have shown neuroprotective properties after resuscitation. In experimental settings, the protective effect of these gases has been demonstrated in both in-vitro studies and animal models of cardiac arrest...
March 23, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Matthew R Leach, Lori A Shutter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Each year in the United States there are over 2.5 million visits to emergency departments for traumatic brain injury (TBI), 300,000 hospitalizations, and 50,000 deaths. TBI initiates a complex cascade of events which can lead to significant secondary brain damage. Great interest exists in directly measuring cerebral oxygen delivery and demand after TBI to prevent this secondary injury. Several invasive, catheter-based devices are now available which directly monitor the partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2), yet significant equipoise exists regarding their clinical use in severe TBI...
February 3, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Virginia F J Newcombe, Andrew Chow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the key features and epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how they may be changing, with an emphasis on how this may affect care in the intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: TBI has been traditionally perceived as occurring mainly in a younger, predominantly male population injured in high velocity motor vehicle crashes or assaults. However, there are an increasing number of patients over 65 years who have sustained a TBI secondary to low velocity falls...
January 28, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Lee-Anne S Chapple, Mark P Plummer, Marianne J Chapman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progress has been made in our understanding of gut dysfunction in critical illness. This review will outline new findings and give perspectives based on previous knowledge and concurrent advances in nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationship between gut dysfunction and poor outcomes in critical illness has received considerable interest. It remains uncertain whether gut dysfunction is merely a marker of illness severity or if it is directly responsible for prolonged critical illness and increased mortality...
January 21, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Edward J Kimball
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and its deleterious effects are present in at least one-third of ICU patients. Increased recognition of IAH has led to significant reduction in the incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Many questions remain regarding what therapeutic interventions truly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with IAH/ACS. Recent research sheds new light on the effects of IAH in individual organ systems and unique disease states. This paper will review recent research in IAH/ACS recognition, treatment, and management...
January 18, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Adrian Wong, Gibran Timothy Yusuf, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the utilization and most recent developments with regard to the use of ultrasound when imaging the abdomen and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the use of ultrasound to assess the anatomy of the various abdominal organs is well established within radiology and critical care, its use as part of functional and physiological assessment is still evolving. Recent developments have extended the use of ultrasound beyond standard B-mode/2D imaging techniques to incorporate more functional and haemodynamic assessment...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Pirouz Piran, Robert D Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coexistence of neurological injury and respiratory failure is common in intensive care. This article provides a contemporary overview of the safety and efficacy of different strategies for mechanical ventilation and adjunctive respiratory approaches in patients with acute brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Available evidence indicates that lung-protective ventilation (LPV) can be implemented safely in a range of patients with concurrent respiratory failure and brain injury of different etiologies; however, the clinical efficacy of LPV in this setting needs to be established...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Pieter Sinonquel, Wim Laleman, Alexander Wilmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a potentially life-threatening course, acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases requiring hospitalization and often necessitating intensive care. Based on recent insights and recommendations, this review provides an overview on clinical management of AP patients with a focus on intensive care unit care. RECENT FINDINGS: Possible benefits of percutaneous paracentesis and/or drainage on outcome or inflammation have been further explored...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Jan J de Waele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Verena Rass, Raimund Helbok
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) complicates the clinical course of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in 20--30% and substantially worsens outcome. In this review, we describe a multimodal diagnostic approach based on underlying mechanisms of DCI and provide treatment options with a special focus on the most recently published literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Symptomatic vasospasm refers to clinical deterioration in the presence of vasospasm whereas DCI constitutes multiple causes...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Ashley A Miniet, Jocelyn R Grunwell, Craig M Coopersmith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the gut microbiome plays a crucial role in the maintenance of health, it is hypothesized to drive morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This review describes the relationship between the gut microbiome and the immune system in critical illness. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiome is converted to a pathobiome in the ICU, characterized by decreased microbial diversity and pathogen predominance. These changes are induced by a pathologic microenvironment and are further exacerbated by common medical treatments initiated in the ICU...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Jussi P Posti, Rahul Raj, Teemu M Luoto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview on recent advances in the field of assessment and monitoring of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) in neurocritical care from a neurosurgical point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries, monitoring of patients with sTBI heavily relies on multimodal neurocritical parameters, nonetheless clinical assessment still has a solid role in decision-making. There are guidelines and consensus-based treatment algorithms that can be employed in both absence and presence of multimodal monitoring in the management of patients with sTBI...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Paul E Wischmeyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Existing data and all ICU nutrition guidelines emphasize enteral nutrition (EN) represents a primary therapy leading to both nutritional and non-nutritional benefits. Unfortunately, iatrogenic malnutrition and underfeeding is virtually ubiquitous in ICUs worldwide for prolonged periods post-ICU admission. Overcoming essential challenges to EN delivery requires addressing a range of real, and frequently propagated myths regarding EN delivery. RECENT FINDINGS: Key recent data addresses perceived challenges to EN including: Adequately resuscitated patients on vasopressors can and likely should receive trophic early EN and this was recently associated with reduced mortality; Patients paralyzed with neuromuscular blocking agents can and should receive early EN as this was recently associated with reduced mortality/hospital length of stay; Proned patients can safely receive EN; All ICU nutrition delivery, including EN, should be objectively guided by indirect calorimetry (IC) measures...
April 1, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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