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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658886/combination-of-novel-systemic-agents-and-radiotherapy-for-solid-tumors-part-i-an-airo-italian-association-of-radiotherapy-and-clinical-oncology-overview-focused-on-treatment-efficacy
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Arcangeli, Barbara Alicia Jereczek-Fossa, Filippo Alongi, Cynthia Aristei, Carlotta Becherini, Liliana Belgioia, Michela Buglione, Luciana Caravatta, Rolando Maria D'Angelillo, Andrea Riccardo Filippi, Michele Fiore, Domenico Genovesi, Carlo Greco, Lorenzo Livi, Stefano Maria Magrini, Giulia Marvaso, Rosario Mazzola, Icro Meattini, Anna Merlotti, Isabella Palumbo, Stefano Pergolizzi, Sara Ramella, Umberto Ricardi, Elvio Russi, Marco Trovò, Alessandro Sindoni, Vincenzo Valentini, Renzo Corvò
Over the past century, technologic advances have promoted the evolution of radiation therapy into a precise treatment modality allowing for the maximal administration of dose to tumors while sparing normal tissues. In parallel with this technological maturation, the rapid expansion in understanding the basic biology and heterogeneity of cancer has led to the development of several compounds that target specific pathways. Many of them are in advanced steps of clinical development for combination treatments with radiotherapy, and can be incorporated into radiation oncology practice for a personalized approach to maximize the therapeutic gain...
December 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658887/combination-of-novel-systemic-agents-and-radiotherapy-for-solid-tumors-part-ii-an-airo-italian-association-of-radiotherapy-and-clinical-oncology-overview-focused-on-treatment-toxicity
#2
REVIEW
Stefano Arcangeli, Barbara Alicia Jereczek-Fossa, Filippo Alongi, Cynthia Aristei, Carlotta Becherini, Liliana Belgioia, Michela Buglione, Luciana Caravatta, Rolando Maria D'Angelillo, Andrea Riccardo Filippi, Michele Fiore, Domenico Genovesi, Carlo Greco, Lorenzo Livi, Stefano Maria Magrini, Giulia Marvaso, Rosario Mazzola, Icro Meattini, Anna Merlotti, Isabella Palumbo, Stefano Pergolizzi, Sara Ramella, Umberto Ricardi, Elvio Russi, Marco Trovò, Alessandro Sindoni, Vincenzo Valentini, Renzo Corvò
Clinical development and use of novel systemic agents in combination with radiotherapy (RT) is at nowadays most advanced in the field of treatment of solid tumors. Although for many of these substances preclinical studies provide sufficient evidences on their principal capability to enhance radiation effects, the majority of them have not been investigated in even phase I clinical trials for safety in the context of RT. In clinical practice, unexpected acute and late side effects may emerge especially in combination with RT...
November 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661664/advanced-stage-melanoma-therapies-detailing-the-present-and-exploring-the-future
#3
REVIEW
Chelsea Luther, Umang Swami, Jun Zhang, Mohammed Milhem, Yousef Zakharia
Metastatic melanoma therapies have proliferated over the last ten years. Prior to this, decades passed with only very few drugs available to offer our patients, and even then, those few drugs had minimal survival benefits. Many treatment options emerged over the last ten years with diverse mechanisms of action. Further, combination regimens have demonstrated superiority over monotherapy, especially for targeted agents. Each therapeutic combination possesses different advantages and side effect profiles. In this review, we outline the United States Food and Drug Administration-approved melanoma treatment agents and therapies currently in clinical development, focusing on combination approaches...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661663/squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-from-mature-cystic-teratoma-of-the-ovary-a-challenging-question-for-gynecologic-oncologists
#4
REVIEW
Angiolo Gadducci, Maria Elena Guerrieri, Stefania Cosio
Mature cystic teratomas of the ovary have an incidence of 1.2-14.2 cases per 100.000 people per year. Malignant transformation occurs in approximately 2% of the cases, and usually consists of squamous cell carcinoma. The preoperative detection is difficult and the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography is debated. The diagnosis is frequently made in the operating room or on final histological examination. Standard treatment consists of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total hysterectomy and comprehensive surgical staging in early disease and optimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced disease...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661662/rank-rankl-signaling-inhibition-may-improve-the-effectiveness-of-checkpoint-blockade-in-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Peter A van Dam, Yannick Verhoeven, Xuan B Trinh, An Wouters, Filip Lardon, Hans Prenen, Evelien Smits, Marcella Baldewijns, Martin Lammens
Binding between the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) triggers recruitment of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins and activation of downstream pathways. RANK/RANKL signaling is controlled by a decoy receptor called osteoprotegerin (OPG) which interacts with RANKL. Additional networks regulating RANK/RANKL signaling are active in a context specific manner. RANK/RANKL signaling is essential for the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and is deregulated in pathological processes such as postmenopausal osteoporosis or cancer induced bone destruction...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661661/corrigendum-to-bartholin-gland-cancer-crit-rev-oncol-hematol-117-september-2017-1-11
#6
Violante Di Donato, Assunta Casorelli, Erlisa Bardhi, Flaminia Vena, Claudia Marchetti, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661660/prognostic-value-and-clinical-feature-of-sf3b1-mutations-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Yaqiong Tang, Miao Miao, Shiyu Han, Jiaqian Qi, Hong Wang, Changgeng Ruan, Depei Wu, Yue Han
SF3B1 gene mutations are the most frequent mutations found in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and the prognostic implication of these mutations remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies assessing the prognostic impact and clinical feature of SF3B1 mutations in MDS patients. The overall hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.60-1.35, P = 0.61) in MDS patients with SF3B1 mutations compared to those without. Lower leukemia-free survival was associated with SF3B1 mutations...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661659/targeting-homologous-repair-deficiency-in-breast-and-ovarian-cancers-biological-pathways-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#8
REVIEW
Elodie Chartron, Charles Theillet, Séverine Guiu, William Jacot
Mutation or epigenetic silencing of homologous recombination (HR) repair genes is characteristic of a growing proportion of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Defects in HR lead to genome instability, allowing cells to acquire the multiple genetic alterations essential for cancer development. However, this deficiency can also be exploited by using DNA damaging agents or by targeting compensatory repair pathways. A noteworthy example is treatment of TNBC and epithelial ovarian cancer harboring BRCA1/2 germline mutations using platinum salts and/or PARP inhibitors...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661658/the-potential-therapeutic-effects-of-creatine-supplementation-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
C M Fairman, K L Kendall, N H Hart, D R Taaffe, D A Galvão, R U Newton
Low muscle mass in individuals with cancer has a profound impact on quality of life and independence and is associated with greater treatment toxicity and poorer prognosis. Exercise interventions are regularly being investigated as a means to ameliorate treatment-related adverse effects, and nutritional/supplementation strategies to augment adaptations to exercise are highly valuable. Creatine (Cr) is a naturally-occurring substance in the human body that plays a critical role in energy provision during muscle contraction...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661657/erratum-to-lipid-metabolism-and-lung-cancer-crit-rev-oncol-hematol-112-april-2017-31-40
#10
María Merino Salvador, Marta Gómez de Cedrón, Juan Moreno Rubio, Sandra Falagán Martínez, Ruth Sánchez Martínez, Enrique Casado, Ana Ramírez de Molina, María Sereno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661656/a-systematic-review-examining-clinical-markers-and-biomarkers-of-analgesic-response-to-radiotherapy-for-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#11
REVIEW
Kirstyn Gardner, Barry J A Laird, Marie T Fallon, Tonje A Sande
INTRODUCTION: Cancer frequently spreads to bone, causing cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) which affects quality of life. The best treatment is radiotherapy (XRT), but response is variable. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that predict analgesic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines, Medline (1946-2018), Embase Classic + Embase (1947-2018) and Cochrane (setup-2018) databases were searched. Eligible studies examined adult patients receiving external beam XRT for CIBP with clinical marker and/or biomarkers evaluated...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661655/immunotherapy-in-advanced-gastric-cancer-is-it-the-future
#12
REVIEW
C Coutzac, S Pernot, N Chaput, A Zaanan
The prognosis of advanced gastric cancer remains extremely poor despite the use of standard therapies such as chemotherapy and biological agents. Blocking immune checkpoint especially programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1 or B7-H1), has proven efficacy in several solid cancers, and seems to become a potential option in gastric cancer treatment. This review will focus on data describing the immune microenvironment of gastric tumors on which blocking PD-1/PD-L1 axis may have an anti-tumor efficacy...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661654/complexity-of-genome-sequencing-and-reporting-next-generation-sequencing-ngs-technologies-and-implementation-of-precision-medicine-in-real-life
#13
REVIEW
Stefania Morganti, Paolo Tarantino, Emanuela Ferraro, Paolo D'Amico, Giulia Viale, Dario Trapani, Bruno Achutti Duso, Giuseppe Curigliano
The finalization of the Human Genome Project in 2003 paved the way for a deeper understanding of cancer, favouring a faster progression towards "personalized" medicine. Research in oncology has progressively focused on the sequencing of cancer genomes, to better understand the genetic basis of tumorigenesis and identify actionable alterations to guide cancer therapy. Thanks to the development of next-generation-sequencing (NGS) techniques, sequencing of tumoral DNA is today technically easier, faster and cheaper...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661653/-shades-of-gray-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-reappraisals-on-resectability-criteria-debated-indications-for-surgery-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
P Lombardi, S Silvestri, D Marino, M Santarelli, D Campra, P De Paolis, M Aglietta, F Leone
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and, currently, surgery is the only curative treatment. Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) can benefit from a multidisciplinary approach and R0 resection, and can achieve the same outcome as resectable patients treated with upfront surgery. However, the definition of BRPC changes according to different classifications with a heterogeneous distribution of patients, and it is thus difficult to compare clinical evidence...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661652/safety-and-efficacy-of-combined-radiotherapy-immunotherapy-and-targeted-agents-in-elderly-patients-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Liliana Belgioia, Isacco Desideri, Angelo Errico, Ciro Franzese, Antonino Daidone, Lorenza Marino, Michele Fiore, Paolo Borghetti, Daniela Greto, Alba Fiorentino
PURPOSE: Aim of the present review is to assess present data about the use of the association of Radiotherapy (RT) and targeted therapy/immunotherapy (TT/IT) in elderly people. DESIGN: PubMed database was searched for English literature published up to December 2017 using the keywords "radiotherapy" combined with "bevacizumab", "cetuximab", "trastuzumab", "erlotinib", "gefitinib", "sorafenib", "sunitinib", "vismodegib", "sonidegib", "ipilimumab", "pembrolizumab", "nivolumab"...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661651/congenital-neutropenia-and-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan Spoor, Hamid Farajifard, Nima Rezaei
Neutropenia is a dangerous and potentially fatal condition that renders patients vulnerable to recurrent infections. Its severity is commensurate with the absolute count of neutrophil granulocytes in the circulation. In paediatric patients, neutropenia can have many different aetiologies. Primary causes make up but a small portion of the whole and are relatively unknown. In the past decades, a number of genes has been discovered that are responsible for congenital neutropenia. By perturbation of mitochondrial energy metabolism, vesicle trafficking or synthesis of functional proteins, these mutations cause a maturation arrest in myeloid precursor cells in the bone marrow...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661650/clinical-implications-of-measurable-residual-disease-in-aml-review-of-current-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Ine Moors, Karl Vandepoele, Jan Philippé, Dries Deeren, Dominik Selleslag, Dimitri Breems, Nicole Straetmans, Tessa Kerre, Barbara Denys
Despite the fact that 80% of adult acute myeloid leukaemia patients reach complete morphological remission after induction chemotherapy, many of them relapse. Many studies have shown that detection of minimal residual disease (defined as 'any detectable evidence of persistent leukaemic cells during complete morphological remission') has an added value in prediction of relapse and survival, and is more than just a surrogate marker for already known risk factors in AML. As such, the behaviour of the disease during treatment might become equally or even more important to decide whether or not an upgrade of treatment (such as an allogeneic stem cell transplantation) is necessary to improve outcome...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661649/metabolic-syndrome-as-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#18
REVIEW
V G Pluimakers, M van Waas, S J C M M Neggers, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink
Over the past decades, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably from 5 to 30% in the early seventies to current rates exceeding 80%. This is due to the development of effective chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation, combined with an optimized stratification of therapy and better supportive care regimens. As a consequence, active surveillance strategies of late sequelae have been developed to improve the quality of survival. Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased incidence of (components of) metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease in childhood cancer survivors (CCS)...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661648/bone-marrow-versus-peripheral-blood-as-a-graft-source-for-haploidentical-donor-transplantation-in-adults-using-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Xiaotong Yu, Liping Liu, Zhenwei Xie, Chongya Dong, Libo Zhao, Jingru Zhang, Jian Gu, Hong-Hu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral-blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) are both widely used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, it is unclear whether PB or BM produces a more satisfactory outcome in haploidentical HSCT, particularly for patients using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), which is the standard therapy. However, to date, no meta-analysis focusing on this issue has been published. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the ClinicalTrials...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661647/retuning-the-immune-system-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-from-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-vaccination-strategies-and-non-myeloablative-hemopoietic-cell-transplant
#20
REVIEW
Claudio Fozza
Several findings suggest that the pathogenesis and clinical history of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is influenced by a variety of immune pathways and mechanisms. Coherently several therapeutic approaches based on the idea of modulating the immune system have been exploited in this clinical setting. The present review will first consider more consolidated strategies such as antithymocyte globulin and immunomodulatory (IMiDs) analogues. Less explored approaches, such as anti tumor necrosis factor antibodies, cyclosporin and bortezomib will be also evaluated...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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