Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

Leslie C Appiah
According to the National Cancer Institute, ∼300,000 children globally are diagnosed with cancer each year. Advancements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have revolutionized cancer treatment and improved long-term survival. Although many survivors will remain in good health with disease-free prognoses, three fourths will experience short-term and long-term effects from treatment. The cancer care paradigm has now appropriately shifted to include quality of life in survivorship with fertility cited as one of the most important quality of life indicators by survivors...
July 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alexandra G Eller, Michael Sean Esplin
Management of the category II fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing presents a common challenge in obstetrics. Up to 80% of women will have a category II FHR tracing at some point during labor. Here we propose a management algorithm to identify specific features of the FHR tracing that correlate with risk for fetal acidemia, target interventions to address FHR decelerations, and guide clinicians about when to proceed toward operative vaginal delivery or cesarean to achieve delivery before there is a high risk for significant fetal acidemia with potential for neurological injury or death...
July 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cara C Heuser
Fetal heart tracings (FHTs) are useful as a window into the oxygenation status of the fetal brain. Patterns in the FHT reflect the oxygen status of the fetal brain. Fetal adaptive response to progressive hypoxemia and acidosis are detectable and produce recognizable patterns in the fetal heart rate. The basic physiology and adaptive responses that regulate the fetal heart rate and physiological fetal adaptations to stress as reflected in the FHTs are described. Mechanisms of oxygen delivery to the fetus including ways in which those mechanisms can be disrupted are reviewed...
June 30, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Paula J Adams Hillard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Allison C Mayhew, Ariel Cohen, Veronica Gomez-Lobo
Recently, greater attention has been paid to the care of gender dysphoric and gender incongruent individuals. Gynecologists may be called upon to care for individuals who were assigned female at birth throughout or following social, medical, or surgical gender transition. Thus, gynecologists need to be aware of language regarding sex and gender, treatment typically used for the care of gender dysphoric or incongruent individuals, and aspects of well gynecologic care necessary for these individuals. This review highlights these aspects of care for transgender males to aid the general gynecologist in the care and treatment of these individuals...
June 19, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Sean Esplin
The first hour after admission and the last hour before delivery are critical times for identifying and preventing hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. These are times of transition that require coordinated steps to identify fetuses at risk, institute effective plans for fetal heart rate monitoring, and to establish situational awareness. Interpretation and intervention based on fetal heart rate monitoring is an important part of the care provided during these crucial times. We present checklists for the first and last hour of labor for use on labor and delivery to help standardize and optimize the approach to care during these times...
June 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Sean Esplin
The fetal heart rate can be used to assess the current metabolic state of the fetus and predict the risk of the evolution of metabolic acidemia through the course of labor. In this chapter, we will present the pathophysiology of the development of fetal acidemia and provide an organized approach to identifying the risk of worsening acidemia using changes noted in the fetal heart rate pattern to allow for interventions that might alter this course.
June 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Sean Esplin
Despite its ubiquitous use, fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring has not resulted in a significant reduction in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following delivery. This manuscript reviews the reasons for this failure including limitations of FHR to accurately predict hypoxia, low prevalence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and lack of standardization of interpretation and intervention. We propose an alternative goal for FHR monitoring during labor to provide optimal care by early identification of truly concerning features, initiation of appropriate interventions, clear documentation of concerns and plans, and clear communication between team members on labor and delivery, including initiation of the chain of command as needed...
June 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Douglas S Richards
This chapter describes several circumstances in which the interpretation of the intrapartum fetal heart rate pattern falls outside the usual frame of reference. This includes a more extensive discussion of causes of tachycardia and bradycardia. Ways in which a fetal dysrhythmia may manifest itself in the context of heart rate monitoring are described. Finally, the chapter reviews technological innovations designed to clarify the fetal status when compromise is suspected from the fetal heart rate pattern.
June 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rebecca J Gordon, Catherine M Gordon
Adolescence is a critical time for the acquisition of peak bone mass. There are modifiable factors that may influence bone health in an adolescent. For those at risk for bone fragility, initial management includes optimization of calcium and vitamin D, weight-bearing exercise, and maintenance of a normal body weight. In certain scenarios, bisphosphonate treatment is indicated, as is reviewed. How hormonal contraceptives affect bone mineral density is unclear, but in patients with risk factors or known bone fragility, prescribers should consider their skeletal effects...
June 8, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Colby E Smith, Frank M Biro
Onset of puberty, as defined by breast stage 2, appears to be starting at younger ages since the 1940s. There is an ongoing controversy regarding what is normative, as well as what is normal, and the evaluation that is deemed necessary for girls maturing before 8 years of age. There are potential implications of earlier pubertal timing, including psychosocial consequences during adolescence, as well as longer term risks, such as breast cancer and cardiometabolic risks. There are additional consequences derived from slower pubertal tempo, for age of menarche has not decreased as much as age of breast development; these include longer interval between sexual initiation and intentional childbearing, as well as a broadened window of susceptibility to endocrine-related cancers...
May 29, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yasmin Z Bahar, Melanie A Gold
Unintended teen pregnancy continues to be a problem in the United States which has the highest rate of adolescent pregnancy among developed nations. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has much higher continuation rates compared with moderately effective reversible contraception; however, moderately effective reversible contraception is more commonly used by adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend LARC as first-line contraception for adolescents...
May 22, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Katherine E Debiec, Anne-Marie E Amies Oelschlager
Congenital gynecologic anomalies result from interruption of embryologic development of the female reproductive tract. The anomalies may be hymenal, vaginal, cervical, or uterine. The impact of these anomalies is variable: some are asymptomatic, incidental findings that require no intervention, others require simple surgical management, while some complex anomalies may require a multidisciplinary approach with extensive surgical expertise for optimal outcomes. Uterovaginal anomalies may occur in isolation or in association with other malformations, such as renal anomalies...
May 22, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ashley M Ebersole, Andrea E Bonny
The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents is complicated by the overlap of normal puberty with features of PCOS. To address this difficulty, recent diagnostic guidelines have worked to modify adult diagnostic criteria for use in adolescents. These guidelines stress that a definitive diagnosis of PCOS is not needed to initiate treatment. Deferring diagnosis, while providing symptom treatment and regular follow-up, is one recommended option. Treatment options for PCOS should be individualized to the presentation, needs, and preferences of each patient...
May 6, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joyce A Adams
The medical evaluation of a child who may have been sexually abused can be a challenge for physicians who are unfamiliar with the wide variation in normal genital anatomy in prepubertal girls. Signs of injury are rarely found, unless the child is examined within 72 hours of the event. This article will provide some history about how guidelines for medical care of these children have been developed, and list some of the findings that are normal or normal variants, caused by other conditions, or due to trauma or infection...
May 1, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Geri Hewitt
Dysmenorrhea is common in adolescents. Most have primary dysmenorrhea and respond to empiric treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or hormonal therapies. Infrequently, patients have persistent symptoms requiring further evaluation including a pelvic examination, ultrasonography, and/or diagnostic laparoscopy. The most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea in adolescents is endometriosis. Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, inflammatory condition with no surgical or medical cure. Treatment is individualized and typically includes surgical diagnosis with resection and/or ablation limited to visible lesions followed by hormonal suppressive therapy in an attempt to relieve symptoms, limit disease progression, and protect fertility...
May 1, 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Christina Paidas Teefey, Shelly Soni, Nahla Khalek
Congenital malformations occur in about 3% of all live births and are a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. An evolving understanding of the developing human fetus, advances in imaging, availability of cutting-edge instrumentation, and enhanced understanding of fetal pathophysiology, have allowed for prenatal surgical interventions to improve fetal diseases and neonatal outcomes. Fetal surgical therapy is no longer restricted to life-threatening prenatal diagnoses and can be categorized into either open surgical techniques or minimally invasive endoscopic/ultrasound-guided techniques...
June 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jack Ludmir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2020: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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