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Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

Joann V Pinkerton, Edward A Conner, Andrew M Kaunitz
Hormone therapy remains the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms but decisions are complex, requiring an assessment of benefits and risks and determination of best treatment type, dose, and duration. Benefits exceed risks for most women with bothersome menopausal symptoms or high risk for fracture if initiated under age 60 years or within 10 years since menopause. Long-term mortality and safety data from the Women's Health Initiative is reassuring, with no increase in deaths from cardiovascular disease or cancer compared with placebo after 18 years of follow-up and a trend towards less mortality in those who initiate hormone therapy ages 50 to 59 years...
September 9, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
William Parker, Eliazabeth Pritts, David Olive
Morcellation is necessary for many women with fibroids who choose to undergo laparoscopic myomectomy or hysterectomy. After open and laparoscopic myomectomy, myometrial cells can be detected in the abdomen and pelvis. After morcellation, careful inspection for and removal of tissue fragments and copious irrigation and suctioning of fluid can remove residual tissue with or without the use of containment bags. Leiomyosarcoma has a poor prognosis because of early hematogenous metastasis and has a high propensity for recurrence despite the performance of total abdominal hysterectomy...
September 6, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Stephanie J Handler, Amy E Rosenman
Urinary incontinence is a major public health issue in the United States with physical, mental, social, and economic repercussions. History and in-office evaluation are paramount to diagnosis and formation of an appropriate treatment plan. Lifestyle modifications, which include pelvic floor muscle training and behavioral changes, are appropriate for initial management. Patients with overactive bladder syndrome whose symptoms are not adequately controlled with conservative treatment can be offered medical or procedural management...
September 4, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Patrick Duff
Opportunistic infections are those that are either more frequent or more severe as a result of the patient's immunosuppressed condition. Opportunistic infections are, of course, the distinguishing feature of HIV infection, and they can be the cause of serious morbidity and even mortality. Some opportunistic infections can be prevented by vaccination, for example, pneumococcal infection, meningococcal infection, influenza, hepatitis A and B, and varicella. Other major opportunistic infections require prophylactic antibiotics or antiviral medications...
August 19, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Patrick Duff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
Among nearly all gynecologic cancers, knowing whether the cancer has metastasized to lymph nodes impacts the ultimate management of the cancer. Lymph node status assists in cancer staging, prognostication, guidance of surgical intervention and adjuvant therapy, and removal of positive lymph nodes may be therapeutic in some cancers. Surgical staging through lymph node removal and pathologist assessment is standard of care for most gynecologic cancers. This section reviews the anatomic lymphatic drainage patterns of each gynecologic organ and the evolution and current practice of surgical lymph node assessment along the spectrum of gynecologic cancers...
July 19, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fouad Atallah, Dena Goffman
Obstetric hemorrhage remains a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. The National Partnership for Maternal Safety Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Hemorrhage presented a framework to help focus standardization and improvements efforts for obstetric hemorrhage. The critical elements of readiness, recognition and prevention, response, and reporting/systems learning, are described and salient points within each are highlighted. New York state implementation efforts, tools that may help translate the bundle into practice, and remaining challenges, are described...
July 12, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ama Bus-Kwofie, Catherine Chan, Ryan Kahn, Kevin Holcomb
Through the implementation of systematic cervical cancer screening in the mid-20th century, the United States and other developed countries have seen death rates from cervical cancer decreased by ≥70%.The purpose of this article is to address several of the most controversial issues associated with cervical cancer screening recommendations in light of historical and evolving data. In this article, we will explore the controversies around the age at which to initiate and exit screening, human papilloma virus testing alone as a primary screening approach, and the impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on cervical cancer rates...
July 11, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Susan Modesitt, Holly J Pederson, Royce T Adkins
There have been rapid advances in precision medicine since the Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, including several noteworthy advances in Women's Health. This includes significant advances in predicting individualized cancer risk based on hereditary cancer genetic testing, with the number of known cancer-predisposition genes extending well beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2. This has been coupled with gene-specific management guidelines for several gynecologic cancers. In addition, genetic testing can also inform therapy selection for women with gynecologic cancers...
July 11, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jennifer W Janelle, Vidhu Kariyawasam
Advances in the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection during pregnancy have led to improved maternal health and significant declines in rates of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. A critical contributor to this success has been the development of better tolerated, safer, and more convenient antiretroviral medication regimens. Today, 12 fixed-dose, single-tablet combination antiretroviral regimens are available in the United States. These regimens are commonly used in nonpregnant individuals...
July 3, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Bharti Jasra, Laila Samiian, Andrew M Kaunitz
Because of conflicting guidelines, providing appropriate breast cancer screening recommendations to our patients has become challenging. Given the high prevalence of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) overall, and among breast cancer survivors, and the understandable reluctance of physicians to prescribe effective hormonal treatments to survivors with this condition, addressing the needs of breast cancer survivors with bothersome GSM is both a common and controversial issue. In this review, we detail current breast cancer screening recommendations, breast cancer risk assessment, and management of GSM in breast cancer survivors...
June 27, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Victor R Klein
This article will review the basic principles of risk management, the role of the risk manager, and the importance of risk management in the patient safety movement as it pertains to obstetrics and gynecology. Several tools that are used by risk managers including risk assessments and root cause analyses will be used to illustrate positive patient safety measures that can be initiated to decrease adverse outcomes and reduced risk to an organization. The dramatic reduction in adverse outcomes and claims after the introduction of patient safety initiatives in a major obstetrical service will be reviewed...
June 27, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Amy L Garcia
Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) are possible in the office. Approaching AUB evaluation from an etiology-based perspective allows the gynecologist to focus evaluation efforts on the most probable causes of AUB for a particular patient and therefore customize the management accordingly. Developing skills with imaging such as transvaginal ultrasound, saline infusion sonography, and diagnostic hysteroscopy are important for AUB etiology diagnosis. Operative hysteroscopy experience can be developed for AUB management in the office and endometrial ablation provides a minimally invasive solution for some patients...
June 27, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eleftheria Kalogera, Sean C Dowdy
Enhanced recovery pathways were first developed in colorectal surgery and have since been adapted to other surgical subspecialties including gynecologic surgery. Mounting evidence has shown that the adoption of a standardized perioperative pathway based on evidence-based literature reduces length of hospital stay, reduces cost, reduces opioid requirements with stable to improved pain scores, and accelerates return to normal function as measured by validated patient reported outcomes measurements. The many elements of enhanced recovery may be distilled into 3 concepts: (1) optimizing nutrition before and after surgery, recognizing that nutritional status directly impacts healing; (2) opioid-sparing analgesia, considering the current American prescription opioid crisis and the importance of pain control to regaining functional recovery; and (3) maintenance of euvolemia before, during, and after surgery...
June 21, 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Philip F Binkley, Edward Levine
Burnout afflicts a significant number of academic faculty and clinicians. There are many efforts the individual can undertake to prevent or lessen burnout. However, it not likely these will be successful without the institutional environment that promotes and atmosphere that assures self-efficacy, a sense of value and meaning and clear communication between leaders and members of the organization. This review discusses the factors that organizations and their leaders can leverage to create such an environment...
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wayne M Sotile, Rebecca S Fallon, Gary R Simonds
We contend that work ambivalence is a key building block in fostering physician burnout and its sequalae, while engagement in meaningful work and receiving family support for that work enhances resilience. No singular approach to curbing burnout in OBGYN physicians has received empirical support. Clinical experience suggests that curbing physician burnout requires a combination of workplace redesigns, positive leadership behaviors, and resilience training that teaches practical applications from the fields of resilience, emotional intelligence, positive psychology, and relationship systems...
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Melissa G Rosenstein
Although there is no shortage of guidelines and toolkits outlining clinical practices that are evidence-based and have been shown to improve outcomes, many hospitals, and L&D units struggle to figure out exactly how to implement strategies that have been shown to work. This paper will describe suggestions to help obstetrics and gynecology units successfully implement evidence-based strategies to improve quality and safety based on the theoretical framing structures of implementation science, including theories such as the Health Beliefs Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, Ecological Perspectives, COM-B, CFIR, and tools such as Driver Diagrams...
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
John P Keats, Joseph C Gambone
Patient safety remains a concern for practice in traditional office settings as well as emerging forms of telehealth. Effective leadership is required to establish a culture of safety in office practice, with all staff undergoing appropriate credentialing and privileging. Key areas of focus for office safety are documentation and follow-up of patient encounters, medication safety, and surgical safety. Medication safety standards include prescribed medications, office administered injections and samples given to patients...
September 2019: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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