journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38226640/-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-vaccines-a-contemporary-overview
#21
REVIEW
Eloise Williams, Kate L Seib, Christopher K Fairley, Georgina L Pollock, Jane S Hocking, James S McCarthy, Deborah A Williamson
Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is an important public health issue, with an annual global incidence of 87 million. N. gonorrhoeae infection causes significant morbidity and can have serious long-term impacts on reproductive and neonatal health and may rarely cause life-threatening disease. Global rates of N. gonorrhoeae infection have increased over the past 20 years. Importantly, rates of antimicrobial resistance to key antimicrobials also continue to increase, with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifying drug-resistant N...
March 14, 2024: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38240603/overcoming-barriers-and-stigma-new-frontiers-in-solid-organ-transplantation-for-people-with-hiv
#22
REVIEW
K Storm, C M Durand
SUMMARYThere is a growing need for solid organ transplantation (SOT) for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV are experiencing increased life expectancies and are, therefore, developing more comorbidities, including end-stage organ disease. In cases of advanced organ failure, SOT is often the best therapeutic option to improve quality of life and overall survival. As organ shortages persist, transplantation of organs from donors with HIV to recipients with HIV has become a potential therapeutic option...
January 19, 2024: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38169283/clonorchiasis-and-opisthorchiasis-epidemiology-transmission-clinical-features-morbidity-diagnosis-treatment-and-control
#23
REVIEW
Men-Bao Qian, Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger, Xiao-Nong Zhou
SUMMARY Clonorchis sinensis , Opisthorchis viverrini , and Opisthorchis felineus are important liver flukes that cause a considerable public health burden in eastern Asia, southeastern Asia, and eastern Europe, respectively. The life cycles are complex, involving humans, animal reservoirs, and two kinds of intermediate hosts. An interplay of biological, cultural, ecological, economic, and social factors drives transmission. Chronic infections are associated with liver and biliary complications, most importantly cholangiocarcinoma...
January 3, 2024: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38038445/wild-type-distributions-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-and-epidemiological-cut-off-values-laboratory-and-clinical-utility
#24
REVIEW
Gunnar Kahlmeter, John Turnidge
The characterization of wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone diameter distributions with the setting of epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs or ECVs) provides a reference for the otherwise relative MIC values in the international system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Distributions of MIC values for a species and an agent follow a log-normal distribution, which in the absence of resistance mechanisms is monomodal and designated wild type (WT). The upper end of the WT distribution, the ECOFF, can be identified with statistical methods...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38032192/micro-nanoemulsion-and-nanoparticle-assisted-drug-delivery-against-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-recent-developments
#25
REVIEW
Simpal Kumar Suman, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, C George Priya Doss
SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and the second most prevalent infectious killer after COVID-19. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and has become increasingly challenging to treat due to drug resistance. The World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency in 1993. Drug resistance in TB is driven by mutations in the bacterial genome that can be influenced by prolonged drug exposure and poor patient adherence. The development of drug-resistant forms of TB, such as multidrug resistant, extensively drug resistant, and totally drug resistant, poses significant therapeutic challenges...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38014977/diagnosis-and-management-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults
#26
REVIEW
Thomas C McHale, David R Boulware, John Kasibante, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Caleb P Skipper, Mahsa Abassi
Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, especially in people with advanced HIV disease. Cryptococcal meningitis is responsible for nearly 20% of all deaths related to advanced HIV disease, with the burden of disease predominantly experienced by people in resource-limited countries. Major advancements in diagnostics have introduced low-cost, easy-to-use antigen tests with remarkably high sensitivity and specificity. These tests have led to improved diagnostic accuracy and are essential for screening campaigns to reduce the burden of cryptococcosis...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37982596/virulence-attributes-of-successful-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-lineages
#27
REVIEW
Jhih-Hang Jiang, David R Cameron, Cara Nethercott, Marta Aires-de-Sousa, Anton Y Peleg
SUMMARYMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of severe and often fatal infections. MRSA epidemics have occurred in waves, whereby a previously successful lineage has been replaced by a more fit and better adapted lineage. Selection pressures in both hospital and community settings are not uniform across the globe, which has resulted in geographically distinct epidemiology. This review focuses on the mechanisms that trigger the establishment and maintenance of current, dominant MRSA lineages across the globe...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37971270/the-potential-for-development-of-clinically-relevant-microbial-resistance-to-rifaximin-%C3%AE-a-narrative-review
#28
REVIEW
Herbert L DuPont
SUMMARYRifaximin-α is a gut-targeted antibiotic indicated for numerous gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Its multifaceted mechanism of action goes beyond direct antimicrobial effects, including alterations in bacterial virulence, cytoprotective effects on host epithelial cells, improvement of impaired intestinal permeability, and reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression via activation of the pregnane X receptor. Rifaximin-α is virtually non-absorbed, with low systemic drug levels contributing to its excellent safety profile...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37966222/experimental-models-for-hiv-latency-and-molecular-tools-for-reservoir-quantification-an-update
#29
REVIEW
Divyadarshini Angamuthu, Sandhya Vivekanandan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
SUMMARYA major impediment for HIV cure is the ability of the virus to integrate its genome in the form of replication-competent proviral DNA into the cellular genome of the host and remain transcriptionally silent and hidden from the host's immune defense mechanisms in latent reservoir cells. These latent reservoirs are highly heterogeneous, long-lived cells that are capable of reactivating to restore the viremic stage in virally suppressed individuals upon treatment interruption, thus necessitating life-long antiretroviral treatment...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37966199/viral-infections-and-pathogenesis-of-glaucoma-a-comprehensive-review
#30
REVIEW
Faraz Ahmad, Nikhil Deshmukh, Aaron Webel, Sandra Johnson, Ayman Suleiman, Rajiv R Mohan, Frederick Fraunfelder, Pawan Kumar Singh
SUMMARYGlaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, caused by the gradual degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. While glaucoma is primarily considered a genetic and age-related disease, some inflammatory conditions, such as uveitis and viral-induced anterior segment inflammation, cause secondary or uveitic glaucoma. Viruses are predominant ocular pathogens and can impose both acute and chronic pathological insults to the human eye. Many viruses, including herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Ebola virus, and, more recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), have been associated with sequela of either primary or secondary glaucoma...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37937997/-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-variants-the-new-threat-to-global-public-health
#31
REVIEW
Li Ding, Siquan Shen, Jing Chen, Zhen Tian, Qingyu Shi, Renru Han, Yan Guo, Fupin Hu
SUMMARY Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) variants, which refer to the substitution, insertion, or deletion of amino acid sequence compared to wild bla KPC type, have reduced utility of ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA), a pioneer antimicrobial agent in treating carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales infections. So far, more than 150 bla KPC variants have been reported worldwide, and most of the new variants were discovered in the past 3 years, which calls for public alarm. The KPC variant protein enhances the affinity to ceftazidime and weakens the affinity to avibactam by changing the KPC structure, thereby mediating bacterial resistance to CZA...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37937988/invasive-fusariosis
#32
REVIEW
Marcio Nucci, Elias Anaissie
SUMMARYInvasive fusariosis is a serious invasive fungal disease, affecting immunocompetent and, more frequently, immunocompromised patients. Localized disease is the typical clinical form in immunocompetent patients. Immunocompromised hosts at elevated risk of developing invasive fusariosis are patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapeutic regimens for remission induction, and those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. In this setting, the infection is usually disseminated with positive blood cultures, multiple painful metastatic skin lesions, and lung involvement...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37937980/human-strongyloidiasis-complexities-and-pathways-forward
#33
REVIEW
Dora Buonfrate, Richard S Bradbury, Matthew R Watts, Zeno Bisoffi
SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a World Health Organization neglected tropical disease usually caused by Strongyloides stercoralis , a parasitic worm with a complex life cycle. Globally, 300-600 million people are infected through contact with fecally contaminated soil. An autoinfective component of the life cycle can lead to chronic infection that may be asymptomatic or cause long-term symptoms, including malnourishment in children. Low larval output can limit the sensitivity of detection in stool, with serology being effective but less sensitive in immunocompromise...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37930182/changes-in-fungal-taxonomy-mycological-rationale-and-clinical-implications
#34
REVIEW
Andrew M Borman, Elizabeth M Johnson
SUMMARYNumerous fungal species of medical importance have been recently subjected to and will likely continue to undergo nomenclatural changes as a result of the application of molecular approaches to fungal classification together with abandonment of dual nomenclature. Here, we summarize those changes affecting key groups of fungi of medical importance, explaining the mycological (taxonomic) rationale that underpinned the changes and the clinical relevance/importance (where such exists) of the key nomenclatural revisions...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37909789/micrornas-in-infectious-diseases-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#35
REVIEW
Muneyoshi Kimura, Sagar Kothari, Wajiha Gohir, Jose F Camargo, Shahid Husain
SUMMARYMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that play a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and neurological, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Several recent studies have suggested that miRNAs are key players in regulating the differentiation, maturation, and activation of immune cells, thereby influencing the host immune response to infection. The resultant upregulation or downregulation of miRNAs from infection influences the protein expression of genes responsible for the immune response and can determine the risk of disease progression...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37812003/biofilm-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-where-are-we-and-where-could-we-be-going
#36
REVIEW
Tom Coenye
Our knowledge about the fundamental aspects of biofilm biology, including the mechanisms behind the reduced antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilms, has increased drastically over the last decades. However, this knowledge has so far not been translated into major changes in clinical practice. While the biofilm concept is increasingly on the radar of clinical microbiologists, physicians, and healthcare professionals in general, the standardized tools to study biofilms in the clinical microbiology laboratory are still lacking; one area in which this is particularly obvious is that of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST)...
December 20, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38095438/wastewater-based-surveillance-as-a-tool-for-public-health-action-sars-cov-2-and-beyond
#37
REVIEW
Michael D Parkins, Bonita E Lee, Nicole Acosta, Maria Bautista, Casey R J Hubert, Steve E Hrudey, Kevin Frankowski, Xiao-Li Pang
SUMMARYWastewater-based surveillance (WBS) has undergone dramatic advancement in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The power and potential of this platform technology were rapidly realized when it became evident that not only did WBS-measured SARS-CoV-2 RNA correlate strongly with COVID-19 clinical disease within monitored populations but also, in fact, it functioned as a leading indicator. Teams from across the globe rapidly innovated novel approaches by which wastewater could be collected from diverse sewersheds ranging from wastewater treatment plants (enabling community-level surveillance) to more granular locations including individual neighborhoods and high-risk buildings such as long-term care facilities (LTCF)...
December 14, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37439685/fungal-endocarditis-pathophysiology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-management
#38
REVIEW
George R Thompson, Jeffrey D Jenks, John W Baddley, James S Lewis, Matthias Egger, Ilan S Schwartz, Johannes Boyer, Thomas F Patterson, Sharon C-A Chen, Peter G Pappas, Martin Hoenigl
Fungal endocarditis accounts for 1% to 3% of all infective endocarditis cases, is associated with high morbidity and mortality (>70%), and presents numerous challenges during clinical care. Candida spp. are the most common causes of fungal endocarditis, implicated in over 50% of cases, followed by Aspergillus and Histoplasma spp. Important risk factors for fungal endocarditis include prosthetic valves, prior heart surgery, and injection drug use. The signs and symptoms of fungal endocarditis are nonspecific, and a high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with the judicious use of diagnostic tests is required for diagnosis...
September 21, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37306571/-bordetella-bronchiseptica-and-bordetella-pertussis-similarities-and-differences-in-infection-immuno-modulation-and-vaccine-considerations
#39
REVIEW
Beatriz Miguelena Chamorro, Karelle De Luca, Gokul Swaminathan, Stéphanie Longet, Egbert Mundt, Stéphane Paul
Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica belong to the genus Bordetella , which comprises 14 other species. B. pertussis is responsible for whooping cough in humans, a severe infection in children and less severe or chronic in adults. These infections are restricted to humans and currently increasing worldwide. B. bronchiseptica is involved in diverse respiratory infections in a wide range of mammals. For instance, the canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC), characterized by a chronic cough in dogs...
September 21, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37249467/erratum-for-nyaruaba-et-al-digital-pcr-applications-in-the-sars-cov-2-covid-19-era-a-roadmap-for-future-outbreaks
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Raphael Nyaruaba, Caroline Mwaliko, David Dobnik, Pavel Neužil, Patrick Amoth, Matilu Mwau, Junping Yu, Hang Yang, Hongping Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2023: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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