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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651226/treating-polymicrobial-infections-in-chronic-diabetic-wounds
#1
REVIEW
Pranali J Buch, Yunrong Chai, Edgar D Goluch
This review provides a comprehensive summary of issues associated with treating polyclonal bacterial biofilms in chronic diabetic wounds. We use this as a foundation and discuss the alternatives to conventional antibiotics and the emerging need for suitable drug delivery systems. In recent years, extraordinary advances have been made in the field of nanoparticle synthesis and packaging. However, these systems have not been incorporated into the clinic for treatments other than for cancer or severe genetic diseases...
April 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651225/phage-therapy-in-the-postantibiotic-era
#2
REVIEW
Fernando L Gordillo Altamirano, Jeremy J Barr
Antibiotic resistance is arguably the biggest current threat to global health. An increasing number of infections are becoming harder or almost impossible to treat, carrying high morbidity, mortality, and financial cost. The therapeutic use of bacteriophages, viruses that infect and kill bacteria, is well suited to be part of the multidimensional strategies to combat antibiotic resistance. Although phage therapy was first implemented almost a century ago, it was brought to a standstill after the successful introduction of antibiotics...
April 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867162/factors-that-influence-the-immune-response-to-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
There is substantial variation between individuals in the immune response to vaccination. In this review, we provide an overview of the plethora of studies that have investigated factors that influence humoral and cellular vaccine responses in humans. These include intrinsic host factors (such as age, sex, genetics, and comorbidities), perinatal factors (such as gestational age, birth weight, feeding method, and maternal factors), and extrinsic factors (such as preexisting immunity, microbiota, infections, and antibiotics)...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814115/candida-parapsilosis-from-genes-to-the-bedside
#4
REVIEW
Renáta Tóth, Jozef Nosek, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Toni Gabaldon, Joseph M Bliss, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Siobhán A Turner, Geraldine Butler, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Attila Gácser
SUMMARYPatients with suppressed immunity are at the highest risk for hospital-acquired infections. Among these, invasive candidiasis is the most prevalent systemic fungal nosocomial infection. Over recent decades, the combined prevalence of non- albicans Candida species outranked Candida albicans infections in several geographical regions worldwide, highlighting the need to understand their pathobiology in order to develop effective treatment and to prevent future outbreaks. Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most frequently isolated Candida species from patients...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760475/echinococcosis-advances-in-the-21st-century
#5
REVIEW
Hao Wen, Lucine Vuitton, Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Jun Li, Dominique A Vuitton, Wenbao Zhang, Donald P McManus
SUMMARYEchinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). This serious and near-cosmopolitan disease continues to be a significant public health issue, with western China being the area of highest endemicity for both the cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) forms of echinococcosis. Considerable advances have been made in the 21st century on the genetics, genomics, and molecular epidemiology of the causative parasites, on diagnostic tools, and on treatment techniques and control strategies, including the development and deployment of vaccines...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760474/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-pathophysiology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Alicia Galar, Ana A Weil, David M Dudzinski, Patricia Muñoz, Mark J Siedner
Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains among the most morbid bacterial infections, with mortality estimates ranging from 40% to 80%. The proportion of PVE cases due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has grown in recent decades, to account for more than 15% of cases of S. aureus PVE and 6% of all cases of PVE. Because no large studies or clinical trials for PVE have been published, most guidelines on the diagnosis and management of MRSA PVE rely upon expert opinion and data from animal models or related conditions (e...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700432/ndm-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-their-bacterial-producers-in-health-care-settings
#7
REVIEW
Wenjing Wu, Yu Feng, Guangmin Tang, Fu Qiao, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is a metallo-β-lactamase able to hydrolyze almost all β-lactams. Twenty-four NDM variants have been identified in >60 species of 11 bacterial families, and several variants have enhanced carbapenemase activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the predominant carriers of bla NDM , with certain sequence types (STs) (for K. pneumoniae , ST11, ST14, ST15, or ST147; for E. coli , ST167, ST410, or ST617) being the most prevalent. NDM-positive strains have been identified worldwide, with the highest prevalence in the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, and the Balkans...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700431/-escherichia-coli-pathobionts-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hengameh Chloé Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Bruce Andrew Vallance, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
SUMMARYGut bacteria play a key role in initiating and maintaining the inflammatory process in the gut tissues of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, by supplying antigens or other stimulatory factors that trigger immune cell activation. Changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in IBD patients compared to that in healthy controls and a reduced diversity of intestinal microbial species are linked to the pathogenesis of IBD. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) has been linked to Crohn's disease (CD) patients, while diffusely adherent E...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700430/the-enterococcus-a-model-of-adaptability-to-its-environment
#9
REVIEW
Mónica García-Solache, Louis B Rice
SUMMARYThe genus Enterococcus comprises a ubiquitous group of Gram-positive bacteria that are of great relevance to human health for their role as major causative agents of health care-associated infections. The enterococci are resilient and versatile species able to survive under harsh conditions, making them well adapted to the health care environment. Two species cause the majority of enterococcal infections: Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Both species demonstrate intrinsic resistance to common antibiotics, such as virtually all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541872/tick-borne-flaviviruses-with-a-focus-on-powassan-virus
#10
REVIEW
Gábor Kemenesi, Krisztián Bányai
The tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be <150, although detection of cases has increased over the past decade. In the United States, the incidence of Powassan virus infections expanded from the estimated 1 case per year prior to 2005 to 10 cases per year during the subsequent decade. The increased detection rate may be associated with several factors, including enhanced surveillance, the availability of improved laboratory diagnostic methods, the expansion of the vector population, and, perhaps, altered human activities that lead to more exposure...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541871/practical-guidance-for-clinical-microbiology-laboratories-viruses-causing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
Carmen L Charlton, Esther Babady, Christine C Ginocchio, Todd F Hatchette, Robert C Jerris, Yan Li, Mike Loeffelholz, Yvette S McCarter, Melissa B Miller, Susan Novak-Weekley, Audrey N Schuetz, Yi-Wei Tang, Ray Widen, Steven J Drews
Respiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease , published in 1986...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487167/persistent-infection-and-long-term-carriage-of-typhoidal-and-nontyphoidal-salmonellae
#12
REVIEW
Ohad Gal-Mor
The ability of pathogenic bacteria to affect higher organisms and cause disease is one of the most dramatic properties of microorganisms. Some pathogens can establish transient colonization only, but others are capable of infecting their host for many years or even for a lifetime. Long-term infection is called persistence, and this phenotype is fundamental for the biology of important human pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Salmonella enterica Both typhoidal and nontyphoidal serovars of the species Salmonella enterica can cause persistent infection in humans; however, as these two Salmonella groups cause clinically distinct diseases, the characteristics of their persistent infections in humans differ significantly...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487166/diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Bharat S Parekh, Chin-Yih Ou, Peter N Fonjungo, Mireille B Kalou, Erin Rottinghaus, Adrian Puren, Heather Alexander, Mackenzie Hurlston Cox, John N Nkengasong
HIV diagnostics have played a central role in the remarkable progress in identifying, staging, initiating, and monitoring infected individuals on life-saving antiretroviral therapy. They are also useful in surveillance and outbreak responses, allowing for assessment of disease burden and identification of vulnerable populations and transmission "hot spots," thus enabling planning, appropriate interventions, and allocation of appropriate funding. HIV diagnostics are critical in achieving epidemic control and require a hybrid of conventional laboratory-based diagnostic tests and new technologies, including point-of-care (POC) testing, to expand coverage, increase access, and positively impact patient management...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487165/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-the-rapid-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Marina Oviaño, Germán Bou
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied in recent years for first-line identification of pathogens in clinical microbiology because it is simple to use, rapid, and accurate and has economic benefits in hospital management. The range of clinical applications of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial isolates is increasing constantly, from species identification to the two most promising applications in the near future: detection of antimicrobial resistance and strain typing for epidemiological studies...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30209035/treatment-of-toxoplasmosis-historical-perspective-animal-models-and-current-clinical-practice
#15
REVIEW
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Oliver Liesenfeld, Jose G Montoya
Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually subclinical, but cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present in some patients. Active infection is characterized by tachyzoites, while tissue cysts characterize latent disease. Infection in the fetus and in immunocompromised patients can cause devastating disease. The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (pyr-sulf), targeting the active stage of the infection, is the current gold standard for treating toxoplasmosis, but failure rates remain significant...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30209034/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-molecular-characterization-evolution-and-epidemiology
#16
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Kunyan Zhang
Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, has a collection of virulence factors and the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics. This ability is further augmented by constant emergence of new clones, making S. aureus a "superbug." Clinical use of methicillin has led to the appearance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The past few decades have witnessed the existence of new MRSA clones. Unlike traditional MRSA residing in hospitals, the new clones can invade community settings and infect people without predisposing risk factors...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30158301/recent-development-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatments-successes-pitfalls-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Fabiana Alves, Graeme Bilbe, Séverine Blesson, Vishal Goyal, Séverine Monnerat, Charles Mowbray, Gina Muthoni Ouattara, Bernard Pécoul, Suman Rijal, Joelle Rode, Alexandra Solomos, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Monique Wasunna, Susan Wells, Eduard E Zijlstra, Byron Arana, Jorge Alvar
SUMMARYResearch in visceral leishmaniasis in the last decade has been focused on how better to use the existing medicines as monotherapy or in combination. Systematic research by geographical regions has shown that a universal treatment is far from today's reality. Substantial progress has been made in the elimination of kala-azar in South Asia, with a clear strategy on first- and second-line therapy options of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B and a combination of paromomycin and miltefosine, respectively, among other interventions...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30158300/nonsuppurative-aseptic-meningoencephalomyelitis-associated-with-neurovirulent-astrovirus-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#18
REVIEW
Gábor Reuter, Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros
SUMMARYAstroviruses are thought to be enteric pathogens. Since 2010, a certain group of astroviruses has increasingly been recognized, using up-to-date random amplification and high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, as potential neurovirulent (Ni) pathogens of severe central nervous system (CNS) infections, causing encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis. To date, neurovirulent astrovirus cases or epidemics have been reported for humans and domesticated mammals, including mink, bovines, ovines, and swine...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30158299/epidemiology-biology-and-impact-of-clonal-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Michael D Parkins, Ranjani Somayaji, Valerie J Waters
Chronic lower airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Whereas it was long presumed that each patient independently acquired unique strains of P. aeruginosa present in their living environment, multiple studies have since demonstrated that shared strains of P. aeruginosa exist among individuals with CF. Many of these shared strains, often referred to as clonal or epidemic strains, can be transmitted from one CF individual to another, potentially reaching epidemic status...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30158298/human-pathogenic-entomophthorales
#20
REVIEW
Raquel Vilela, Leonel Mendoza
The pathogenic entomophthoralean fungi cause infection in insects and mammalian hosts. Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species can be found in soil and insect, reptile, and amphibian droppings in tropical and subtropical areas. The life cycles of these fungi occur in these environments where infecting sticky conidia are developed. The infection is acquired by insect bite or contact with contaminated environments through open skin. Conidiobolus coronatus typically causes chronic rhinofacial disease in immunocompetent hosts, whereas some Conidiobolus species can be found in immunocompromised patients...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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