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Brain Injury: [BI]

Mario Estévez-Báez, Calixto Machado, Benjamín García-Sánchez, Valia Rodríguez, Reynaldo Alvarez-Santana, Gerry Leisman, José Mario Estévez Carrera, Adam Schiavi, Julio Montes-Brown, Eduardo Arrufat-Pié
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the functional state of the autonomic nervous system in healthy individuals and in individuals in coma using measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and to evaluate its efficiency in predicting mortality. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective group comparison study of patients in coma classified into two subgroups, according to their Glasgow coma score, with a healthy control group. HRV indices were calculated from 7 min of artefact-free electrocardiograms using the Hilbert-Huang method in the spectral range 0...
February 12, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jay Meythaler, John Fath, Darren Fuerst, Hashem Zokary, Kristina Freese, Heidi Baird Martin, Joshua Reineke, Jean Peduzzi-Nelson, P Tyler Roskos
BACKGROUND: Minocycline is a pleomorphic neuroprotective agent well studied in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and brain ischemia. METHODS: To test the hypothesis that administration of minocycline in moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Score 3-12). Fifteen patients were enrolled in a two-dose escalation study of minocycline to evaluate the safety of twice the recommended antibiotic dosage; tier 1 n = 7 at a loading dose of 800 mg followed by 200 mg twice a day (BID) for 7 days; tier 2 n = 8 at a loading dose of 800 mg followed by 400 mg BID for 7 days...
February 12, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Preeti Sunderaraman, Stephanie Cosentino, Karen Lindgren, Angela James, Maria T Schultheis
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Financial Capacity (FC) is known to be impaired in the acute and subacute stages of brain injury. The current study sought to examine FC in the context of chronic, moderate to severe acquired brain injury (CABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: The Financial Competence Assessment Inventory (FCAI), developed in Australia, was adapted to examine the integrity of FC in an American sample. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Healthy comparison (HC) participants were recruited from the community, whereas participants with CABI were recruited from a community-based rehabilitation center...
February 3, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Adrian M Svingos, Breton M Asken, Russell M Bauer, Steven T DeKosky, Gabrielle A Hromas, Michael S Jaffee, Ronald L Hayes, James R Clugston
OBJECTIVE: Explore changes in micro-RNA (miRNA) expression in blood after sport-related concussion (SRC) in collegiate athletes. METHODS: Twenty-seven collegiate athletes (~41% male, ~75% white, age 18.8 ± 0.8 years) provided both baseline and post-SRC blood samples. Serum was analyzed for expression of miR-153-3p (n = 27), miR-223-3p (n = 23), miR-26a-5p (n = 26), miR-423-3p (n = 23), and miR-let-7a-5p (n = 23) at both time points via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
January 31, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Michelle L Weber, David Welch Suggs, Laura Bierema, L Stephen Miller, Fred Riefsteck, Julianne D Schmidt
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether sex, years of sport eligibility completed, and sport contact level influenced student-athletes' concussion reporting intentions and behaviours. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Student-athletes (n = 828) reported their sex, years of sport eligibility completed, sport, and completed concussion reporting intentions and behaviours surveys. Nonparametric statistics were conducted to compare intentions and behaviours between groups (alpha = 0...
January 31, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ruei Ern Chea, Natalie Munro, Suzi Drevensek, Candice Brady, Kimberley Docking
BACKGROUND: Vocabulary deficits are the most frequently documented communication difficulty following childhood acquired brain injury (ABI). Given the adverse consequences of limited vocabulary on academic success, it is critical to identify the presence and nature of vocabulary impairments to provide effective intervention for children with ABI. METHOD: Eleven children (7;6-11;11) with moderate/severe ABI (>12 months post-injury) and individually matched typically developing (TD) controls completed an Australian adaptation of a vocabulary assessment based on a three-tiered framework: tier 1 (basic words), tier 2 (high-frequency, cross-curricular words), and tier 3 (curriculum-based words)...
January 31, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Suzanne Barker-Collo, Alice Theadom, Nicola J Starkey, Michael Kahan, Kelly Jones, Valery Feigin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the Rivermead Post-Concussive Questionnaire(RPQ)'s factor structure were conducted within 1 year post-injury. Post-concussive symptoms may persist, and are common in the general population, so determining if the factor structure in mild-TBI and controls differ is important. This study examined factor structure of the RPQ in adults 4 years post-mild-TBI and in age-/gender-matched controls. METHOD: A total of 232 adults 4 years post-mild-TBI and 232 age-/gender-matched controls completed the RPQ...
January 30, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Joshua Wiener, Amanda McIntyre, Shannon Janzen, Magdalena Mirkowski, Heather M MacKenzie, Robert Teasell
BACKGROUND: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), optimization of cerebral physiology is recommended to promote more favourable patient outcomes. Accompanying pain and agitation are commonly treated with sedative and analgesic agents, such as opioids. However, the impact of opioids on certain aspects of cerebral physiology is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the evidence on the effect of opioids on cerebral physiology in TBI during acute care...
January 29, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Magda Nowicki, Lisa Pearlman, Craig Campbell, Rhiannon Hicks, Douglas D Fraser, Jamie Hutchison
Agitation following TBI commonly occurs during the acute recovery phase. The ABS is a valid measure of agitation in adults following TBI. The objective of the study was to determine if ABS scores accurately measure acute agitation in pediatric patients recovering from TBI. The ABS was completed twice daily for 4 days and mean ABS scores were calculated. Physicians assessed patients' agitation daily using a VAS. In addition, interventions for agitation were recorded. The association between ABS and VAS scores was assessed using Spearman's correlation...
January 29, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Sonya Kim, Marianne Mortera, Xiaolei Hu, Shilpa Krishnan, Lilian Hoffecker, Amy Herrold, Lauren Terhorst, Laurie King, Joseph Machtinger, Jennifer M Zumsteg, Ahmed Negm, Patricia Heyn
The purpose of this study was to conduct an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) to appraise the published evidence related to pharmacological interventions after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Searches were conducted with Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed. 780 retrieved SRs underwent a two-level screening to determine inclusion. Data extracted included participant characteristics, TBI severity, study design, pharmacological interventions, and outcomes. SRs were assessed for methodological quality by using the AMSTAR measurement tool...
January 29, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
S Mehta, S Janzen, A Cotoi, D Rice, K Owens, R Teasell
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the available assessment questionnaires for substance abuse studied within a brain injury population. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Embase databases. Articles published in English from inception through March 2018 on the screening questionnaires used to identify substance abuse post brain injury were reviewed. Eligible primary studies had to include: adults (participants ≥18 years old) post brain injury; and report measures of diagnostic accuracy (e...
January 26, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Lorna Wales, Peter Sidebotham, Carol Hawley
Impaired self-awareness is a common consequence following a brain injury that affects engagement in rehabilitation and results in poor long term functional outcomes. Literature regarding self-awareness following a brain injury in childhood is lacking. The aim of this research study was to understand the self-awareness of deficits from a developmental perspective. METHODS: A multiple case study design with fully integrated mixed methodology (QUAN+QUAL). Fifteen children/young people (CYP) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (5-17 years; 10 male) were recruited and data were collected from CYP, their parents and teachers...
January 25, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Caron Gan, F Virginia Wright
OBJECTIVE: To adapt the well-validated 37-item adult Family Needs Questionnaire to make it suitable for families of children and youth with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: Measurement construction employed a modified Delphi technique to identify the most relevant content items for the pediatric Family Needs Questionnaire (FNQ-P). The Delphi process involved a panel of 11 ABI-team clinicians and seven family caregivers of children/youth with an ABI and four rounds of anonymous voting on each item's importance...
January 24, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Sandra Braaf, Shanthi Ameratunga, Nicola Christie, Warwick Teague, Jennie Ponsford, Peter A Cameron, Belinda J Gabbe
TITLE: Care coordination experiences of people with traumatic brain injury and their family members 4-years after injury: A qualitative analysis. AIM: To explore experiences of care coordination in the first 4-years after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A qualitative study nested within a population-based longitudinal cohort study. Eighteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted 48-months post-injury with six adults living with severe TBI and the family members of 12 other adults living with severe TBI...
January 23, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Alana Rogers, Audrey McKinlay
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigated the long-term effect of childhood Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) on adulthood Relationship Quality (RQ), examining injury severity, age of injury, and markers of prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning, apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. RESEARCH DESIGN: Longitudinal, between-subjects, cross-sectional design using retrospective and current data. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants (N = 169; 61 mild TBI (mTBI); 65 moderate to severe TBI (MSTBI); 43 orthopaedic injury (OI); Injury age: 1-17 years; Testing age: 18-31 years) completed a structured interview regarding their injury, demographic characteristics and RQ, the National Adults Reading Test, and Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale...
January 21, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Tatyana Mollayeva, David Stock, Angela Colantonio
BACKGROUND: Fatigue severity in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has received little research attention, despite its typically positively skewed nature. Investigation of covariates across a range of fatigue severity may provide insight into important contributors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative significance of a priori-hypothesized covariates of physiological and pathological (mental and physical) fatigue in persons with mTBI/concussion, applying ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regression (QR) approaches...
January 20, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Gavin Williams, Anthony G Schache
OBJECTIVES: 1) To compare lower-limb joint mechanics during running for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to equivalent data obtained from a group of healthy controls (HCs); and 2) To determine if deficits identified in biomechanical variables during running for people with TBI responded to a six-month period of rehabilitation. METHODS: Running biomechanics data were recorded from 12 people with TBI who were attending a large metropolitan rehabilitation hospital for mobility limitations, and a comparative sample of 10 HCs at baseline and six-month follow-up...
January 20, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Molly E Hubbard, Abdullah Bin Zahid, Kathleen Vonderhaar, David Freeman, Rachel M Nygaard, Andrew Kiragu, Daniel Guillaume
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem, particularly in children. Prognostication of injury severity at the time of presentation is difficult. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a commonly used anatomical-based coding system created to classify and describe injury severity after initial presentation, once test results are able to better define the anatomical characteristics of the injury. We hypothesize that the Head AIS can predict discharge destination in children after TBI...
January 19, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ying Zhang, Jing Wang, Caroline Schnakers, Minhui He, Hong Luo, Lijuan Cheng, Fuyan Wang, Yunzhi Nie, Wangshan Huang, Xiaohua Hu, Steven Laureys, Haibo Di
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the Chinese version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). METHODS: One hundred sixty-nine patients were assessed with both the CRS-R and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), diagnosed as being in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, formerly known as vegetative state), minimally conscious state (MCS), or emergence from MCS (EMCS). A subgroup of 50 patients has been assessed twice by the same rater, within 24 h. Patient outcome was documented six months after assessment...
January 19, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Allen W Brown, Christopher R Pretz, Kathleen R Bell, Flora M Hammond, David B Arciniegas, Yelena G Bodien, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Joseph T Giacino, Tessa Hart, Douglas Johnson-Greene, Robert G Kowalski, William C Walker, Alan Weintraub, Ross Zafonte
OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive relationship among persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) between an objective indicator of injury severity (the adapted Marshall computed tomography [CT] classification scheme) and clinical indicators of injury severity in the acute phase, functional outcomes at inpatient rehabilitation discharge, and functional and participation outcomes at 1 year after injury, including death. PARTICIPANTS: The sample involved 4895 individuals who received inpatient rehabilitation following acute hospitalization for TBI and were enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database between 1989 and 2014...
January 19, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
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