Muhamad Faizal Zainudin, Cha Mei Yee, Khin Nyein Yin
OBJECTIVE: Morbid hunger and hyperphagia (MHH) is a rare neurological disorder that can manifest following damage to the right frontal and temporal lobes. It can lead to detrimental short and long-term complications such as electrolyte imbalances, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. This report details the case of a young male patient who developed MHH five months post-traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Single-case report. The patient exhibited colossal appetite, overeating, food-demanding behavior, and rapid weight gain...
July 17, 2024: Brain Injury
Kristen Keech, Jessica Asiello
BACKGROUND: Forty percent of individuals within the Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) spectrum are misdiagnosed as in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) when in fact they are minimally conscious or emerged, underscoring a need to optimize evaluation techniques and interprofessional care management. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Conscious Care is a proposed care model that aims to improve interprofessional care of patients with DoC in the hospital setting...
July 17, 2024: Brain Injury
Catherine Gagnon, Laurence Trépanier, Stéphany Denault, Maude Laguë-Beauvais, Rajeet Saluja, Jennifer Massad, Michel Abouassaly, Elaine de Guise
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to identify whether the presence of a pre-injury psychiatric history, subacute post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and personality traits were predictive of less favorable social reintegration for 3 months following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHOD: A total of 76 patients with mTBI were included, and the presence of a pre-injury psychiatric history was identified from the medical chart. One-month post-accident, these patients completed the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory, 3rd Edition assessing personality traits and the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire to measure subacute PCS...
July 17, 2024: Brain Injury
Rodrigo Costa, Danielle Salmon, Simon Walters, Marelise Badenhorst
OBJECTIVE: Concussion is a serious concern in sport, with the potential to cause short- and long-term health consequences. These concerns highlight the need for the translation of concussion management guidelines into use in real-world sports settings. This qualitative study explores community rugby players' concussion experiences as part of New Zealand Rugby's concussion management pathway. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 rugby players (35 males and 1 female; 22 played at school and 14 at club-level; mean age 19...
July 15, 2024: Brain Injury
Victoria C Merritt, Alicia W Chen, Clara-Lea Bonzel, Chuan Hong, Rahul Sangar, Sara Morini Sweet, Scott F Sorg, Catherine Chanfreau-Coffinier
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an algorithm for identifying Veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record using VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) data. Manual chart review ( n  = 200) was first used to establish 'gold standard' diagnosis labels for TBI ('Yes TBI' vs. 'No TBI'). To develop our algorithm, we used PheCAP, a semi-supervised pipeline that relied on the chart review diagnosis labels to train and create a prediction model for TBI...
July 14, 2024: Brain Injury
Hongbin Cao, Genrui Guo
We present a case of a child with a suprasellar arachnoid cyst and hydrocephalus who developed a massive traumatic epidural hematoma following a fall. This represents the first reported case of such a condition. The case is characterized by a progressive increase in hemorrhage leading to a massive hematoma, yet with relatively mild clinical symptoms. The hemorrhage originated from extensive blood seepage from the dura mater. Intraoperative hemostasis was challenging, and there was a large residual cavity of the epidural hematoma without repositioning of brain tissue after removal of the hematoma...
July 14, 2024: Brain Injury
Adam William Cox, Myra A Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Memory and affective processing were compared in young adults with a remote mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), to healthy younger and older adults. We evaluated memory performance when encoding was done under multi-tasking (divided attention) conditions, likely to exacerbate cognitive and psychological symptoms in mTBI. METHODS: Participants studied pairs of unrelated words under either full or divided attention conditions. Memory for single words (item memory) and for pairs of words (associative memory) was then assessed in sequential independent recognition tests, under full attention...
July 12, 2024: Brain Injury
Yongwen Deng, Shengli Sun
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that Runx1 engaged in IS progression, but the detailed mechanism of Runx1 in IS is still unclear. METHODS: Mice and HT22 cells were subjected to the process of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), respectively. Infract volume was tested using TTC staining. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were investigated using ELISA assay. Cell viability was examined utilizing MTS...
July 12, 2024: Brain Injury
Louise Bassingthwaighte, Louise Gustafsson, Matthew Molineux, Ryan Bell, William Pinzon Perez, Darshan Shah
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between on-road driving remediation and achieving fitness to drive following acquired brain injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary hospital outpatient driver assessment and rehabilitation service, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five participants (54.3% male), aged 18-65 years, 41 days-20 years post-acquired brain injury (including stroke, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury) recommended for on-road driving remediation following occupational therapy driver assessment were randomly assigned to intervention ( n  = 18) and waitlist control ( n  = 17) groups...
July 12, 2024: Brain Injury
María Cecilia González, F Leguizamón, L Dei Vecchi, M Andreu, M Ferrea
OBJECTIVE: To estimate rates and time to reach emergence of consciousness from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS), and explore factors associated with improved recovery in children and adolescents with disorders of consciousness (DoC) following severe traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Analytical, retrospective, cohort study. Clinical records of consecutively referred patients admitted in VS/UWS to a neurological rehabilitation institute in Argentina, between 2005 and 2021 were reviewed...
July 5, 2024: Brain Injury
Si Jie Tang, Jonas Holle, Nicholas B Dadario, Mark Ryan, Olivia Lesslar, Charles Teo, Michael Sughrue, Jacky Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and proof of concept of a parcel-guided, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in patients who develop a heterogeneous array of symptoms, known collectively as post-concussive syndrome (PCS), following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of off-label, individualized, parcel-guided rTMS in 19 patients from December 2020 to May 2023. Patients had at least one instance of mild, moderate, or severe TBI and developed symptoms not present prior to injury...
July 4, 2024: Brain Injury
Abhiraj D Bhimani, Daniel D Cummins, Roshini Kalagara, Sumanth Chennareddy, Zachary L Hickman
OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present the occurrence of HSVE in a 36-year-old immunocompetent patient following craniotomy for a traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). METHODS: Imaging after four days of progressive headache following a fall with head-strike demonstrated a 1 cm thick left holohemispheric ASDH with significant cerebral compression, edema, and 8 mm of left-to-right midline shift, and an emergent craniotomy and ASDH evacuation were performed, with additional treatment needed for reaccumulation...
July 4, 2024: Brain Injury
K Glendon, G Blenkinsop, A Belli, M T G Pain
INTRODUCTION: Early Exercise Intolerance (EEI) is associated with delayed recovery and longer time to Return To Play (RTP), but this has not been established.Participants; ( n  = 52, male n  = 30) UK university-aged rugby-union student-athletes. METHODS: Student-athletes completed baseline screening (July-October 2021 and 2022). The test battery was repeated within 48 h, 4, 8 and 14 days after a Sports-Related Concussion (SRC) with the Buffalo Concussion Bike or Treadmill Test to set sub-symptom heart rate threshold...
June 23, 2024: Brain Injury
Lixin Cai, Wei He
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find out the efficacy of using Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) over mannitol in the management of TBI by comparing their performance in improving different outcomes. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the impact of HSS vs. mannitol on ICP in patients who suffered TBI. Outcomes of interest were mortality, neurologic functional outcomes, risk ratio (RR) of successful ICP treatment, reduction in ICP after 30-60 and 90-120 min, improvement in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at 30-60 and 90-120 min, and also treatment failure...
June 10, 2024: Brain Injury
Yan-Qian Ge, Si-Yuan Ma, Hui Yu, Xing Lu, Li Ding, Jia-Yan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to evaluate the impact of grading and zoning nursing management on traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients' emergency treatment outcomes. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 200 TBI patients. They were treated with a conventional care (control group, n  = 100) and a novel grading and zoning approach (study group, n  = 100), respectively. This innovative model organized care into levels based on urgency and complexity, facilitating targeted medical response and resource allocation...
June 6, 2024: Brain Injury
Julia Chequer de Souza, Geoffrey P Dobson, Celine J Lee, Hayley L Letson
OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe differences in demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes between rural and urban patients suffering brain injury. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Emcare, MEDLINE, and Scopus. REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing epidemiology and outcomes of rural and urban brain trauma was conducted in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. RESULTS: 36 studies with ~ 2...
June 5, 2024: Brain Injury
Eleanor S Birch, Brielle C Stark, Dawn Neumann
OBJECTIVE: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), deficits in social cognition are common. Social inferencing is a crucial component of social cognition that enables an individual to understand the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of a communication partner when this information is not explicitly stated. Existing literature suggests a variety of factors contribute to social inferencing success (e.g. biological sex, executive functioning), yet findings are not conclusive, largely because these factors have been examined in isolation...
June 4, 2024: Brain Injury
Sara Gallow, Jack Beard, Jennifer McGinley, John Olver, Gavin Williams
OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessment and training in the early sub-acute phase of recovery (≤3 months) following moderate-to-extremely severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A systematic review was completed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies investigating adults and adolescents ≥15 years with moderate-to-extremely severe TBI were considered for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the McMaster Guidelines for Critical Review Form - Quantitative Studies...
June 3, 2024: Brain Injury
Irene Conradsen, Victoria Eva Bang-Hansen, Alexander N Sørensen, Hana Malá Rytter
OBJECTIVE: To examine challenges in return to work (RTW) for persons with persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS) experienced by the affected employees and their managers. METHODS: A survey of employees (S-E) and two surveys of managers (S-M1, S-M2) executed 4 months apart to capture the time perspective. Inclusion: Adults aged 18-66 with PPCS > 4 weeks, employed at the time of mTBI who returned to work within the previous year. Managers involved in their RTW process...
June 3, 2024: Brain Injury
Ying Fang, Peng Shen, Longsheng Xu, Yunchao Shi, Liyan Wang, Maoxian Yang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a severe complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Emerging studies have revealed the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on improving surgery-induced cognitive impairment. The major aim of the study was to investigate whether PDTC protected against ARDS-induced cognitive dysfunction and to identify the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: The rat model of ARDS was established by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by treatment with PDTC...
June 3, 2024: Brain Injury
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