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British Journal of Sports Medicine

Christopher McGrew, Daisy-Scarlett MacCallum, Dustymarie Narducci, Rathna Nuti, Leonard Calabrese, Robert J Dimeff, Stephen Paul, Sourav Poddar, Ashwin Rao, Douglas McKeag
This American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement update is directed towards healthcare providers of patients involved in sport and exercise. There have been significant advances in clinical and scientific research in the understanding of blood-borne pathogens (BBPs), and this update incorporates these advancements. This document is intended as a general guide to clinical practice based on the current state of the evidence, while acknowledging the need for modification as new knowledge becomes available...
March 19, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Min Zhao, Sreenivas P Veeranki, Shengxu Li, Lyn M Steffen, Bo Xi
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of very low or very high volumes of leisure time physical activity (PA) on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of different levels of leisure time PA with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer-specific mortality. METHODS: Data were from 12 waves of the National Health Interview Surveys (1997-2008) linked to the National Death Index records through 31 December 2011...
March 19, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Martin Bæk Blond, Mads Rosenkilde, Anne Sofie Gram, Marie Tindborg, Anders Nymark Christensen, Jonas Salling Quist, Bente Merete Stallknecht
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of active bike commuting or leisure-time exercise of two intensities on peripheral insulin sensitivity (primary outcome), cardiorespiratory fitness and intra-abdominal adipose tissue mass (secondary outcomes). METHODS: 188 physically inactive, healthy women and men (20-45 years) with overweight or class 1 obesity were recruited. In the 6-month trial, 130 participants were randomised to either: no intervention (CON), active commuting (BIKE) or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2 peak) or vigorous (VIG, 70% VO2 peak) intensity...
March 16, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Stuart J Warden, Nicol van Dyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Margo Mountjoy, Astrid Junge, Richard Budgett, Dominik Doerr, Michel Leglise, Stuart Miller, Jane Moran, Jeremy Foster
OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in International Federations' priorities and the barriers to implementing athlete and global health initiatives. Results should influence the work of the International Federation medical committees, the IOC and the Association of Summer Olympic International Federation. METHODS: The 28 Summer and 7 Winter International Federations participating in the most recent Olympic Games (2016; 2018) were surveyed to (i) identify the importance of 27 health topics, (ii) assess their progress on implementation health-related programmes and (iii) the barriers to implementation of these programmes...
March 15, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Astrid Junge, Marine Sorg, Toomas Timpka, Pedro Branco
Illnesses impair athletes' participation and performance. The epidemiology of illness in athletics is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and characteristics of illnesses during international athletics championships (indoor and outdoor), and to analyse differences with regards to athletes' sex and participation in explosive and endurance disciplines. METHODS: During 11 international championships held between 2009 and 2017, physicians from both national medical teams and the local organising committees reported daily on all athlete illnesses using a standardised report form...
March 12, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert Ross, Bret H Goodpaster, Lauren G Koch, Mark A Sarzynski, Wendy M Kohrt, Neil M Johannsen, James S Skinner, Alex Castro, Brian A Irving, Robert C Noland, Lauren M Sparks, Guillaume Spielmann, Andrew G Day, Werner Pitsch, William G Hopkins, Claude Bouchard
There is evidence from human twin and family studies as well as mouse and rat selection experiments that there are considerable interindividual differences in the response of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other cardiometabolic traits to a given exercise programme dose. We developed this consensus statement on exercise response variability following a symposium dedicated to this topic. There is strong evidence from both animal and human studies that exercise training doses lead to variable responses. A genetic component contributes to exercise training response variability...
March 12, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Pauline Mury, Mathilde Mura, Nellie Della-Schiava, Stéphanie Chanon, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Virginie Nicaise, Erica N Chirico, Diane Collet-Benzaquen, Patrick Lermusiaux, Philippe Connes, Antoine Millon, Vincent Pialoux
OBJECTIVE: Carotid atherosclerotic plaques are a source of emboli for stroke. 'Unstable' carotid atherosclerotic plaques may have intraplaque haemorrhages, neovessels, prevalent macrophages, excessive calcium deposits, a large lipid core and a thin fibrous cap. Regular physical activity (PA) may lower the risk of plaques becoming unstable. We evaluated the association of both PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) with carotid plaque histopathology. METHODS: 90 asymptomatic patients who were undergoing carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery narrowing identified on ultrasound reported their PA and SB by questionnaires...
March 6, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ivan Lin, Louise Wiles, Rob Waller, Roger Goucke, Yusuf Nagree, Michael Gibberd, Leon Straker, Chris G Maher, Peter P B O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: To identify common recommendations for high-quality care for the most common musculoskeletal (MSK) pain sites encountered by clinicians in emergency and primary care (spinal (lumbar, thoracic and cervical), hip/knee (including osteoarthritis [OA] and shoulder) from contemporary, high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). DESIGN: Systematic review, critical appraisal and narrative synthesis of MSK pain CPG recommendations. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Included MSK pain CPGs were written in English, rated as high quality, published from 2011, focused on adults and described development processes...
March 2, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kerry R O'Bryan, Thomas M Doering, Robert W Morton, Vernon G Coffey, Stuart M Phillips, Gregory R Cox
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation. DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement. DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength...
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mike Tipton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jane Saycell, Mitch Lomax, Heather Massey, Mike Tipton
OBJECTIVES: To provide a rationale for minimum water temperature rules for elite and subelite marathon swim racing and highlight factors that make individuals vulnerable to excessive cooling during open water swimming. METHODS: 12 lean competitive swimmers swam for up to 2 hours, three times in different water temperatures between 14°C and 20°C, wearing standard swimming costumes and hats. Rectal temperature (Tre ), oxygen consumption, perception of cold and performance were measured...
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Emmanuel Stamatakis, Chloë Williamson, Paul Kelly, Tessa Strain, Elaine M Murtagh, Ding Ding, Marie H Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Tania Gardner, Kathryn Refshauge, James McAuley, Markus Hübscher, Stephen Goodall, Lorraine Smith
BACKGROUND: One model of care that has not been tested for chronic low back pain (LBP) is patient-led goal setting. We aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness and healthcare use of a patient-led goal setting approach (intervention) with simple advice to exercise (control) over 12 months. METHODS: An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial. Intervention was education combined with patient-led goal setting compared with a control group receiving a standardised exercise programme...
February 26, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Pekka Oja, Chloë Williamson, Paul Kelly, Elaine M Murtagh, Marie H Murphy, Charlie Foster, Sylvia Titze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ronan Kearney, Brady Desmond Green, Josh Heerey, Aoife Carolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicol van Dyk, Fearghal P Behan, Rod Whiteley
RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) prevent hamstring injuries when included as part of an injury prevention intervention? DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: We considered the population to be any athletes participating in any sporting activity, the intervention to be the NHE, the comparison to be usual training or other prevention programmes, which did not include the NHE, and the outcome to be the incidence or rate of hamstring injuries...
February 26, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Lewis Steell, Frederick K Ho, Anne Sillars, Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Hiu Li, Donald M Lyall, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Paul Welsh, Jana Anderson, Daniel F MacKay, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason Mr Gill, Stuart Robert Gray, Carlos A Celis-Morales
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer mortality and incidence. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 5 02 628 (5.5% response rate) participants recruited by UK Biobank, we included 73 259 (14.6%) participants with available data in this analysis...
February 22, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Martin Schwellnus, Courtney Kipps, William O Roberts, Jonathan A Drezner, Pierre D'Hemecourt, Chris Troyanos, Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg, Jannelene Killops, Jill Borresen, Mark Harrast, Paolo E Adami, Stéphane Bermon, Xavier Bigard, Sergio Migliorini, Esme Jordaan, Mats Borjesson
Mass participation endurance sports events are popular but a large number of participants are older and may be at risk of medical complications during events. Medical encounters (defined fully in the statement) include those traditionally considered 'musculoskeletal' (eg, strains) and those due to 'illness' (eg, cardiac, respiratory, endocrine). The rate of sudden death during mass endurance events (running, cycling and triathlon) is between 0.4 and 3.3 per 100 000 entrants. The rate of other serious medical encounters (eg, exertional heat stroke, hyponatraemia) is rarely reported; in runners it can be up to 100 times higher than that of sudden death, that is, between 16 and 155 per 100 000 race entrants...
February 22, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Wayne Derman, Phoebe Runciman, Esme Jordaan, Martin Schwellnus, Cheri Blauwet, Nick Webborn, Jan Lexell, Peter van de Vliet, James Kissick, Jaap Stomphorst, Young-Hee Lee, Keun-Suh Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of sports injury at the Pyeongchang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games. METHODS: 567 athletes from 49 countries were monitored daily for 12 days over the Pyeongchang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games (6804 athlete days). Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support (41 teams and 557 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (8 teams and 10 athletes) through two electronic data capturing systems...
February 22, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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