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British Journal of Psychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31006396/pragmatic-neuroscience-for-clinical-psychiatry
#1
J Douglas Steele, Martin P Paulus
SummaryMental health and substance use disorders are the leading cause of long-term disability and a cause of significant mortality, worldwide. However, it is widely recognised that clinical practice in psychiatry has not fundamentally changed for over half a century. The Royal College of Psychiatrists is reviewing its trainee curriculum to identify neuroscience that relates to psychiatric practice. To date though, neuroscience has had very little impact on routine clinical practice. We discuss how a pragmatic approach to neuroscience can address this problem together with a route to implementation in National Health Service care...
April 22, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30975245/the-vulnerability-paradox-in-global-mental-health-and-its-applicability-to-suicide-corrigendum
#2
Michel L A Dückers, Lennart Reifels, Derek P De Beurs, Chris R Brewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968781/the-association-of-late-life-depression-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Jingkai Wei, Ruixue Hou, Xiaotao Zhang, Huiwen Xu, Liyang Xie, Eeshwar K Chandrasekar, Meiling Ying, Michael Goodman
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression has become an important public health problem. Available evidence suggests that late-life depression is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among older adults living in the community, although the associations have not been comprehensively reviewed and quantified.AimTo estimate the pooled association of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examine the associations of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community settings...
April 10, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30957736/randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-narrative-exposure-therapy-with-present-centred-therapy-for-older-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
J C G Lely, J W Knipscheer, M Moerbeek, F J J Ter Heide, J van den Bout, R J Kleber
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based treatment and age-specific services are required to address the needs of trauma-affected older populations. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) may present an appropriate treatment approach for this population since it provides prolonged exposure in a lifespan perspective. As yet, however, no trial on this intervention has been conducted with older adults from Western Europe.AimsExamining the efficacy of NET in a sample of older adults. METHOD: Out-patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), aged 55 years and over, were randomly assigned to either 11 sessions of NET (n = 18) or 11 sessions of present-centred therapy (PCT) (n = 15) and assessed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) pre-treatment, post-treatment and at follow-up...
April 8, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30947755/clinical-and-biological-effects-of-long-term-lithium-treatment-in-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-randomised-clinical-trial
#5
Orestes V Forlenza, Márcia Radanovic, Leda L Talib, Wagner F Gattaz
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies indicate that lithium may facilitate neurotrophic/protective responses in the brain. Epidemiological and imaging studies in bipolar disorder, in addition to a few trials in Alzheimer's disease support the clinical translation of these findings. Nonetheless, there is limited controlled data about potential use of lithium to treat or prevent dementia.AimsTo determine the benefits of lithium treatment in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical condition associated with high risk for Alzheimer's disease...
April 5, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30931869/genetic-cross-disorder-analysis-in-psychiatry-from-methodology-to-clinical-utility
#6
Dick Schijven, Jan H Veldink, Jurjen J Luykx
SummaryGenome-wide association studies have uncovered hundreds of loci associated with psychiatric disorders. Cross-disorder studies are among the prime ramifications of such research. Here, we discuss the methodology of the most widespread methods and their clinical utility with regard to diagnosis, prediction, disease aetiology and treatment in psychiatry.Declaration of interestNone.
April 1, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30929655/occupation-specific-suicide-risk-in-england-2011-2015
#7
Ben Windsor-Shellard, David Gunnell
BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented marked occupational differences in suicide risk, but these estimates are 10 years old and based on potentially biased risk assessments.AimsTo investigate occupation-specific suicide mortality in England, 2011-2015. METHOD: Estimation of indirectly standardised mortality rates for occupations/occupational groups based on national data. RESULTS: Among males the highest risks were seen in low-skilled occupations, particularly construction workers (standardised mortality ratio [SMR] 369, 95% CI 333-409); low-skilled workers comprised 17% (1784/10 688) of all male suicides (SMR 144, 95% CI 137-151)...
April 1, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30924435/seasonal-variation-in-antidepressant-prescriptions-environmental-light-and-web-queries-for-seasonal-affective-disorder
#8
Thomas Lansdall-Welfare, Stafford Lightman, Nello Cristianini
SummaryThe state of an individual's mental health depends on many factors. Determination of the importance of any particular factor within a population needs access to unbiased data. We used publicly available data-sets to investigate, at a population level, how surrogates of mental health covary with light exposure. We found strong seasonal patterns of antidepressant prescriptions, which show stronger correlations with day length than levels of solar energy. Levels of depression in a population can therefore be determined by proxy indicators such as web query logs...
March 29, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919791/neurocognitive-functioning-in-community-youth-with-suicidal-ideation-gender-and-pubertal-effects
#9
Ran Barzilay, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Rhonda C Boyd, Jason D Jones, Tami D Benton, Maria A Oquendo, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: Although there are extensive data on clinical psychopathology in youth with suicidal ideation, data are lacking regarding their neurocognitive function.AimsTo characterise the cognitive profile of youth with suicidal ideation in a community sample and evaluate gender differences and pubertal status effects. METHOD: Participants (N = 6151, age 11-21 years, 54.9% females) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a non-help-seeking community sample, underwent detailed clinical evaluation...
March 28, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900968/pursuing-parity-genetic-tests-for-psychiatric-conditions-in-the-uk-national-health-service
#10
David Curtis, Katherine Adlington, Kamaldeep S Bhui
SummarySchizophrenia and anorexia nervosa were recently added to the list of conditions for which whole genome sequencing might be indicated as part of the 100 000 Genomes Project, reflecting the remarkable recent progress in findings emerging from psychiatric genetics research. Genetic testing methods may offer increased opportunities for diagnosis and estimation of familial risk and could have implications for management and treatment options. They also present ethical and philosophical questions about the role of testing and storage of genetic information...
March 22, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898177/self-management-interventions-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Melanie Lean, Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Alyssa Milton, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Bronwyn Harrison-Stewart, Amina Yesufu-Udechuku, Tim Kendall, Sonia Johnson
BACKGROUND: Self-management is intended to empower individuals in their recovery by providing the skills and confidence they need to take active steps in recognising and managing their own health problems. Evidence supports such interventions in a range of long-term physical health conditions, but a recent systematic synthesis is not available for people with severe mental health problems.AimsTo evaluate the effectiveness of self-management interventions for adults with severe mental illness (SMI)...
March 22, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895922/cross-sectional-and-prospective-relationships-of-passive-and-mentally-active-sedentary-behaviours-and-physical-activity-with-depression
#12
Mats Hallgren, Thi-Thuy-Dung Nguyen, Neville Owen, Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Andreas Lundin, David Dunstan, Rino Bellocco, Ylva Trolle Lagerros
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour can be associated with poor mental health, but it remains unclear whether all types of sedentary behaviour have equivalent detrimental effects.AimsTo model the potential impact on depression of replacing passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours and with light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. An additional aim was to explore these relationships by self-report data and clinician diagnoses of depression. METHOD: In 1997, 43 863 Swedish adults were initially surveyed and their responses linked to patient registers until 2010...
March 21, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30894243/experiences-of-in-patient-mental-health-services-systematic-review
#13
Sophie Staniszewska, Carole Mockford, Greg Chadburn, Sarah-Jane Fenton, Kamaldeep Bhui, Michael Larkin, Elizabeth Newton, David Crepaz-Keay, Frances Griffiths, Scott Weich
BACKGROUND: In-patients in crisis report poor experiences of mental healthcare not conducive to recovery. Concerns include coercion by staff, fear of assault from other patients, lack of therapeutic opportunities and limited support. There is little high-quality evidence on what is important to patients to inform recovery-focused care.AimsTo conduct a systematic review of published literature, identifying key themes for improving experiences of in-patient mental healthcare. METHOD: A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL) for primary research published between January 2000 and January 2016...
March 21, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30894229/longitudinal-associations-of-affective-symptoms-with-mid-life-cognitive-function-evidence-from-a-british-birth-cohort
#14
Amber John, Sarah-Naomi James, Urvisha Patel, Jennifer Rusted, Marcus Richards, Darya Gaysina
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders are associated with poorer cognition in older adults; however, whether this association can already be observed in mid-life remains unclear.AimsTo investigate the effects of affective symptoms over a period of 30 years on mid-life cognitive function. First, we explored whether timing (sensitive period) or persistence (accumulation) of affective symptoms predicted cognitive function. Second, we tested how different longitudinal trajectories of affective symptoms were associated with cognitive function...
March 21, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890196/the-vulnerability-paradox-in-global-mental-health-and-its-applicability-to-suicide
#15
Michel L A Dückers, Lennart Reifels, Derek P De Beurs, Chris R Brewin
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified a vulnerability paradox in global mental health: contrary to positive associations at the individual level, lower vulnerability at the country level is accompanied by a higher prevalence in a variety of mental health problems in national populations. However, the validity of the paradox has been challenged, specifically for bias from modest sample sizes and reliance on a survey methodology not designed for cross-national comparisons.AimsTo verify whether the paradox applies to suicide, using data from a sizable country sample and an entirely different data source...
March 20, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30880661/resting-state-neural-network-disturbances-that-underpin-the-emergence-of-emotional-symptoms-in-adolescent-girls-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Gin S Malhi, Pritha Das, Tim Outhred, Richard A Bryant, Vince Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Subsyndromal emotional symptoms in adolescence may represent precursors for full-blown emotional disorders in early adulthood. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that drive this development is essential for prevention.AimsSelf-referential processing and emotion regulation are remodelled substantively during adolescence, therefore this study examined integration of key neural networks involved in these processes. METHOD: At baseline, clinical and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected for 88 adolescent girls (mean age 15 years), and 71 of these girls underwent repeat clinical assessment after 2 years...
March 18, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873926/extremism-and-common-mental-illness-cross-sectional-community-survey-of-white-british-and-pakistani-men-and-women-living-in-england
#17
Kamaldeep Bhui, Michaela Otis, Maria Joao Silva, Kristoffer Halvorsrud, Mark Freestone, Edgar Jones
BACKGROUND: Mental illnesses may explain vulnerability to develop extremist beliefs that can lead to violent protest and terrorism. Yet there is little evidence.AimsTo investigate the relationship between mental illnesses and extremist beliefs. METHOD: Population survey of 618 White British and Pakistani people in England. Extremism was assessed by an established measure of sympathies for violent protest and terrorism (SVPT). Respondents with any positive scores (showing sympathies) were compared with those with all negative scores...
March 15, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868991/factors-deterring-and-prompting-the-decision-to-attempt-suicide-on-the-railway-networks-findings-from-353-online-surveys-and-34-semi-structured-interviews-addendum
#18
Lisa Marzano, Jay-Marie Mackenzie, Ian Kruger, Jo Borrill, Bob Fields
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868981/aluminium-and-fluoride-in-drinking-water-in-relation-to-later-dementia-risk
#19
Tom C Russ, Lewis O J Killin, Jean Hannah, G David Batty, Ian J Deary, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.AimsIn the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia. METHOD: We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005-2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005...
March 14, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864533/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depressive-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-among-nursing-home-residents-without-dementia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Michele Fornaro, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Francesco Monaco, Stefano Novello, Andrea Fusco, Annalisa Anastasia, Domenico De Berardis, André F Carvalho, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Eduard Vieta
BACKGROUND: The elderly population and numbers of nursing homes residents are growing at a rapid pace globally. Uncertainty exists regarding the actual rates of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as previous evidence documenting high rates relies on suboptimal methodology.AimsTo carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and correlates of MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorder among nursing homes residents without dementia...
March 13, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
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