Annals of Medicine

Setor K Kunutsor, Jari A Laukkanen
PURPOSE: Emerging data suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has extrapulmonary manifestations but its renal manifestations are not clearly defined. We aimed to evaluate renal complications of COVID-19 and their incidence using a systematic meta-analysis. DESIGN: Observational studies reporting renal complications in COVID-19 patients were sought from MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library from 2019 to June 2020. The nine-star Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate methodological quality...
July 10, 2020: Annals of Medicine
V Sánchez-López, L Gao, M Ferrer-Galván, E Arellano-Orden, T Elías-Hernández, Jara Palomares, M I Asensio-Cruz, M J Castro-Pérez, F J Rodríguez-Martorell, J L Lobo-Beristain, A Ballaz-Quincoces, J L López-Campos, V Vila-Liante, R Otero-Candelera
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cancer and venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) are complex because the activated coagulation factors are not only involved in thrombosis, but also in malignant processes, such as angiogenesis and metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To compare phenotypes of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and levels of D-dimer, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and antigenic tissue factor (TF) between unprovoked VTD patients, who did not develop cancer during one year follow-up, and those with advanced stage of cancer but not associated with VTD...
July 7, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Priyank Shah, Jack Owens, James Franklin, Akshat Mehta, William Heymann, William Sewell, Jennifer Hill, Krista Barfield, Rajkumar Doshi
Background: There is limited data on outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in rural United States (US). This study aimed to describe the demographics, and outcomes of hospitalized Covid-19 patients in rural Southwest Georgia. Methods: Using electronic medical records, we analyzed data from all hospitalized Covid-19 patients who either diedor survived to discharge between March 2, 2020 and May 6, 2020. Results: Of the 522 patients, 92 died in hospital (17.6%). Median age was 63 years, 58% were females, and 87% African-Americans...
July 3, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Pasquale Ambrosino, Alessandro Di Minno, Mauro Maniscalco, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno
The rapidly increasing number of studies on the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) indicate that this viral agent can cause the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from a mild disease with flu-like symptoms to a life-threatening condition that requires specialized management at Intensive Care Units (ICU). Critical patients with COVID-19 have a high risk of thromboembolic complications, as expressed by a Padua prediction score always ≥4...
July 3, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Matti A Vuori, Kennet Harald, Antti Jula, Liisa Valsta, Tiina Laatikainen, Veikko Salomaa, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Pekka Jousilahti, Teemu J Niiranen
Aims : The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year...
June 30, 2020: Annals of Medicine
T Mark Doherty, William P Hausdorff, Karl G Kristinsson
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health threat. To preserve the effectiveness of antimicrobials, it is important to reduce demand for antimicrobials. Objectives: The objective of the study was to screen the existing peer-reviewed literature to identify articles that addressed the potential impact of influenza or Pneumococcus vaccination on antibiotic usage. Data sources: PubMed, Embase Study eligibility criteria: Clinical studies where antimicrobial prescribing was assessed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations...
June 29, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Aurélie Brunet, Gautier Julien, Amandine Cros, Olivia Beaudoux, Ambre Hittinger-Roux, Firouze Bani-Sadr, Amélie Servettaz, Yohan N'Guyen
We reported two cases of Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis associated with vasculitides and glomerulonephritis respectively, before conducting an online search of previously published similar cases reports. Twenty five references were selected: 15 cases of glomerulonephritis; 2 cases of vasculitis and 8 cases involving both glomerulonephritis and vasculitis. Vasculitides and glomerulonephritis associated with Staphylococcus aureus definite Infective Endocarditis have been reported since 1976. All cases except one described clinical symptoms occurring before or during initial antibiotics treatment...
June 26, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Colin A Graham, Ling Yan Leung, Ronson Sze Long Lo, Chun Yu Yeung, Suet Yi Chan, Kevin Kei Ching Hung
Background: We aim to compare the prognostic value of Quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and the previous Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and along with their combinations in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This single-centre prospective study recruited a convenience sample of unselected ED patients triaged as category 2 (Emergency) and 3 (Urgent). Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to determine the Area Under the Curve (AUC), along with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios for the various scores...
June 25, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Nobutake Yamamichi, Yutaka Yamaji, Takeshi Shimamoto, Yu Takahashi, Kenichiro Majima, Ryoichi Wada, Tohru Mitsushima, Kazuhiko Koike
Introduction: Recent prevalence and trends of gastric/duodenal ulcer (GU/DU) and reflux esophagitis (RE) are inadequate. Methods: We reviewed the records of consecutive 211,347 general population subjects from 1991 to 2015. Results: During the 25 years, the prevalence of GU and DU has gradually decreased (from 3.0% to 0.3% and from 2.0% to 0.3%) whereas that of RE has markedly increased (from 2.0% to 22%). The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has decreased from 49.8% (in 1996) to 31.2% (in 2010)...
June 13, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Françoise Wilhelmi de Toledo, Franziska Grundler, Cesare R Sirtori, Massimiliano Ruscica
In recent years a revival of interest has emerged in the health benefits of intermittent fasting and long-term fasting, as well as of other related nutritional strategies. In addition to meal size and composition a new focus on time and frequency of meals has gained attention. The present review will investigate the effects of the main forms of fasting, activating the metabolic switch from glucose to fat and ketones (G-to-K), starting 12-16 h after cessation or strong reduction of food intake. During fasting the deactivation of mTOR regulated nutrient signalling pathways and activation of the AMP protein kinase trigger cell repair and inhibit anabolic processes...
June 10, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Amaya García-Fernández, María Asunción Esteve-Pastor, Inmaculada Roldán Rabadán, Javier Muñiz, Martín Ruiz Ortiz, Ángel Cequier, Vicente Bertomeu-Martínez, Lina Badimón, Déborah Otero, Manuel Anguita, Gregory Y H Lip, Francisco Marín
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with diabetes (DM) are at increased risk of cardiovascular events and have higher related morbidity and mortality. PURPOSE: To compare clinical characteristics, cardiovascular adverse outcomes and quality of anticoagulation in AF patients with and without DM. METHODS: AF patients from the Spanish national, multicentric, prospective FANTASIIA registry were included. Patients received oral anticoagulation (vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC)) for at least 6 months before inclusion...
June 5, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Hanna-Riikka Lehto, Arto Pietilä, Teemu J Niiranen, Jyri Lommi, Veikko Salomaa
Aims: To compare diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) needing revascularization to corresponding non-diabetic patients in terms of revascularization methods, comorbidities and urgency of procedure. We also examined the impact of patient characteristics and comorbidities on the revascularization method. Methods: We identified all diabetic ( n  = 33,018) and non-diabetic ( n  = 106,224) patients with first-ever, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from electronic health records in Finland between 2000 and 2015...
June 2, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Hafiz Imran, William Nestor, Islam Y Elgendy, Marwan Saad
Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the burden of HF continues to rise. There has been an interest in sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for their role in reducing HF hospitalizations in pivotal trials. Since their approval by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of diabetes mellitus, multiple small trials and analyses have tried to explain the underlying beneficial mechanisms in HF across different subgroups. In this review, we discuss different mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors play hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular roles in different HF phenotypes...
May 12, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Michael S Pulia, Terrence P O'Brien, Peter C Hou, Andrew Schuman, Robert Sambursky
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by novel enveloped single stranded RNA coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for an ongoing global pandemic. While other countries deployed widespread testing as an early mitigation strategy, the U.S. experienced delays in development and deployment of organism identification assays. As such, there is uncertainty surrounding disease burden and community spread, severely hampering containment efforts. COVID-19 illuminates the need for a tiered diagnostic approach to rapidly identify clinically significant infections and reduce disease spread...
May 6, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Joonas Lehto, Tuomas Kiviniemi
Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is a well-known complication after cardiac surgery. The syndrome results in prolonged hospital stay, readmissions, and invasive interventions. Previous studies have reported inconsistent results concerning the incidence and risk factors for PPS due to the differences in the applied diagnostic criteria, study designs, patient populations, and procedure types. In recent prospective studies the reported incidences have been between 21 and 29% in adult cardiac surgery patients...
May 2, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Mervi Holappa, Heikki Vapaatalo, Anu Vaajanen
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the oldest and most extensively studied human peptide cascades, well-known for its role in regulating blood pressure. When aldosterone is included, RAAS is involved also in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. There are two main axes of RAAS: (1) Angiotensin (1-7), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and Mas receptor (ACE2-Ang(1-7)-MasR), (2) Angiotensin II, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ACE1-AngII-AT1R). In its entirety, RAAS comprises dozens of angiotensin peptides, peptidases and seven receptors...
April 30, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Jinho Shin, Yonggu Lee, Jin-Kyu Park, Jeong-Hun Shin, Young-Hyo Lim, Heo Ran, Hyun-Jin Kim, Hwan-Cheol Park
Background : We investigated the predictive values of myocardial injury-related findings (MIFs)including ST-T wave abnormalities (STA) and pathologic Q waves (PQ) in electrocardiography for long-term cardiovascular outcomes in an asymptomatic general population. Methods : We observed8,444 subjects without cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms biennially over a 12-year period. Major cardiovascular adverse events (MACEs) weredefined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and stroke...
April 27, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Mi Liang, Lei Wang, Min Xiao, Jie Xiong, Jin Wang, Zhiqiong Wang, Wei Huang, Jianfeng Zhou
Objective: To analyze the clinical and biological significance of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) whose PML-RARa transcripts increased after induction therapy. Methods: We analyzed 9 cases of APL whose PML-RARa transcripts increased after induction treatment and compare them with APL whose PML-RARa transcripts decreased. Results: The only factor affecting increased PML-RARa transcripts was the induction protocol. The cases of increased PML-RARa transcripts received induction treatment mainly based on ATRA and ATO...
April 23, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Elizabeth Mostofsky, Suzanne M Bertisch, Angeliki Vgontzas, Catherine Buettner, Wenyuan Li, Michael Rueschman, Murray A Mittleman
Purpose: To determine whether alcohol intake is associated with occurrence of headaches on the following day. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, adults with episodic migraine completed electronic diaries every morning and evening for at least six weeks in March 2016-October 2017. Every day, participants reported alcohol intake, lifestyle factors, and details about each headache. We constructed within-person fixed-effect models adjusted for time-varying factors to calculate odds ratios for the association between 1,2,3,4, or 5+ servings of alcohol and headache the following day...
April 20, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Andreja Rehberger Likozar, Mark Zavrtanik, Miran Šebeštjen
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) was discovered more than 50 years ago, and a decade later, it was recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, it has gained importance only in the past 10 years, with emergence of drugs that can effectively decrease its levels. Lp(a) is a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with an added apolipoprotein(a) attached to the apolipoprotein B component via a disulphide bond. Circulating levels of Lp(a) are mainly genetically determined. Lp(a) has many functions, which include proatherosclerotic, prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory roles...
August 2020: Annals of Medicine
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