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Annals of Medicine

Young Kyung Yoon, Jin Woong Suh, Eun-Ji Kang, Jeong Yeon Kim
Persistent reservoirs of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) that are prevalent in hospital settings and communities can lead to the spread of MDRO. Currently, there are no effective decolonization strategies, especially non-pharmacological strategies without antibiotic regimens. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the eradication of MDRO. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies on the use of FMT for the decolonization of MDRO...
August 30, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Cynthia V Calkin
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting up to 5% of the population. BD can progress over time to a chronic "neuroprogressive" course with cognitive and functional impairment. Currently, there are no validated predictors indicating which patients will develop a neuroprogressive course and there are no specific treatments. This review presents data supporting a novel hypothesis on the mechanisms underlying bipolar neuroprogression. Insulin resistance (IR) is present in 52% of BD patients and is associated with chronic course, treatment nonresponse, adverse brain changes and cognitive impairment...
August 27, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Joosep Kalamägi, Piia Lavikainen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Objectives: We studied the determinants of high healthcare costs (highest decile of hospital care and medication costs) and cost trajectories among all community-dwellers with clinically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD), diagnosed during 2005-2011 in Finland ( N  = 70,531). Methods: The analyses were done separately for hospital care costs, medication costs and total healthcare costs that were calculated for each 6-month period from 5 years before to 3 years after AD diagnosis. Results: Total healthcare costs were driven mainly by hospital care costs...
August 12, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Aleksander Chaibi, Michael Bjørn Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Harold Pikus, Robert Harbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jun Chen, Luqi Dai, Tao Wang, Junyun He, Yashu Wang, Fuqiang Wen
Introduction: C-X-C motif chemokine 5 is primarily chemotactic for neutrophils and previously shown to increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether C-X-C motif chemokine 5 levels correlate with lung function decline in patients or mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not clear. Methods: The mouse model was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Plasma/serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from patients and mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; C-X-C motif chemokine 5 levels were assessed and correlated with lung functions and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels, respectively...
July 16, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Nzechukwu M Isiozor, Setor K Kunutsor, Ari Voutilainen, Sudhir Kurl, Jussi Kauhanen, Jari A Laukkanen
Background: The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prompted the American Heart Association to develop a cardiovascular health (CVH) metric as a measure to assess the cardiovascular status of the population. We aimed to assess the association between CVH scores and the risk of CVD mortality among a middle-aged Finnish population. Methods: We employed the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease cohort study comprising of middle-aged men (42-60 years). CVH scores were computed among 2607 participants at baseline and categorized as optimum (0-4), average (5-9), or inadequate (10-14) CVH...
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jonathan Lacey, Jo Corbett, Lui Forni, Lee Hooper, Fintan Hughes, Gary Minto, Charlotte Moss, Susanna Price, Greg Whyte, Tom Woodcock, Michael Mythen, Hugh Montgomery
Background: Dehydration appears prevalent, costly and associated with adverse outcomes. We sought to generate consensus on such key issues and elucidate need for further scientific enquiry. Materials and methods: A modified Delphi process combined expert opinion and evidence appraisal. Twelve relevant experts addressed dehydration's definition, objective markers and impact on physiology and outcome. Results: Fifteen consensus statements and seven research recommendations were generated. Key findings, evidenced in detail, were that there is no universally accepted definition for dehydration; hydration assessment is complex and requires combining physiological and laboratory variables; "dehydration" and "hypovolaemia" are incorrectly used interchangeably; abnormal hydration status includes relative and/or absolute abnormalities in body water and serum/plasma osmolality (pOsm); raised pOsm usually indicates dehydration; direct measurement of pOsm is the gold standard for determining dehydration; pOsm >300 and ≤280 mOsm/kg classifies a person as hyper or hypo-osmolar; outside extremes, signs of adult dehydration are subtle and unreliable; dehydration is common in hospitals and care homes and associated with poorer outcomes...
June 17, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Marc Strik, Sylvain Ploux, Lior Jankelson, Pierre Bordachar
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective intervention in selected patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and abnormal left ventricular activation time. The non-response rate of approximately 30% has remained nearly unchanged since this therapy was introduced 25 years ago. While intracardiac mapping is widely used for diagnosis and guidance of therapy in patients with tachyarrhythmia, its application in characterization of the electrical substrate to elucidate the mechanisms involved in CRT response remain anecdotal...
May 23, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Enrique Luna, Guadalupe Garcia-Pino, Luz M González, Guillermo Gervasini
AIM: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the main complications after kidney transplantation. It is known that leptin plays an important role in glucose metabolism and mutations in the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) are responsible for different complications in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to analyse the association of polymorphisms in LEPR with the development of PTDM in these patients. METHODS: A total of 315 renal transplant recipients were genotyped for the Lys109Arg, Gln223Arg and Lys656Asn polymorphisms...
May 2, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Timo Mäkikallio, Maina P Jalava, Annastiina Husso, Marko Virtanen, Teemu Laakso, Tuomas Ahvenvaara, Tuomas Tauriainen, Pasi Maaranen, Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Sebastian Dahlbacka, Jussi Jaakkola, Juhani Airaksinen, Vesa Anttila, Mikko Savontaus, Mika Laine, Tatu Juvonen, Antti Valtola, Peter Raivio, Markku Eskola, Matti Niemelä, Fausto Biancari
Aim: We investigated the outcomes of transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in Finland during the last decade. Methods: The nationwide FinnValve registry included data from 6463 patients who underwent TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for aortic stenosis from 2008 to 2017. Results: The annual number of treated patients increased three-fold during the study period. Thirty-day mortality declined from 4.8% to 1.2% for TAVR ( p  = .011) and from 4.1% to 1.8% for SAVR ( p  = .048)...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jun-Beom Lee, Ho Geol Woo, Yoonkyung Chang, Yoon Mi Jin, Inho Jo, Jinkwon Kim, Tae-Jin Song
Background: The Klotho protects the cardiovascular system by protecting against cell apoptosis, inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species, and modulating inflammation. We aimed to investigate relationship of plasma Klotho concentrations with functional outcome at 3 months after acute cerebral infarction. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 262 first-ever acute cerebral infarction patients from whom a blood sample was acquired within 24 h of admission. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for evaluating plasma Klotho concentration...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Yi-Chuan Chen, Chen-Ju Chuang, Kuang-Yu Hsiao, Leng-Chieh Lin, Ming-Szu Hung, Huan-Wen Chen, Shung-Chieh Lee
Background: Massive transfusion in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was not investigated. We developed a new scoring system to predict massive transfusion and to enhance care and early resource mobilization. Methods: Massive transfusion was defined as transfusion with ≥10 units of red blood cells within the first 24 h. Data were extracted from a 10-year, six-hospital database. Logistic regression was applied to derive a risk score for massive transfusion using data from 2006 to 2010, in 24,736 patients (developmental cohort)...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Christos Voukalis, Eduard Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Microparticles are a distinctive group of small vesicles, without nucleus, which are involved as significant modulators in several physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Plasma microparticles from various cellular lines have been subject of research. Data suggest that they are key players in development and manifestation of cardiovascular diseases and their presence, in high levels, is associated with chronic inflammation, endothelial damage and thrombosis. The strong correlation of microparticle levels with several outcomes in cardiovascular diseases has led to their utilization as biomarkers...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Luis M Pérez-Belmonte, Julio Osuna-Sánchez, Mercedes Millán-Gómez, María D López-Carmona, Juan J Gómez-Doblas, Lidia Cobos-Palacios, Jaime Sanz-Cánovas, Miguel A Barbancho, José P Lara, Manuel Jiménez-Navarro, M Rosa Bernal-López, Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas
INTRODUCTION: The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in hospitalized patients is an area of active research. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the basal-bolus insulin regimen versus linagliptin-basal insulin in non-critically ill non-cardiac surgery patients in a real-world setting. METHODS: We enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized in non-cardiac surgery departments with admission glycated haemoglobin level <8%, admission blood glucose concentration <240 mg/dL, and no at-home injectable treatments who were treated with basal-bolus (n = 347) or linagliptin-basal (n = 190) regimens between January 2016 and December 2017...
April 30, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jussi A Hernesniemi, Shadi Mahdiani, Juho A Tynkkynen, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Pashupati P Mishra, Terho Lehtimäki, Markku Eskola, Kjell Nikus, Kari Antila, Niku Oksala
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the clinical potential of extensive phenotype data and machine learning (ML) in the prediction of mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The value of ML and extensive clinical data was analyzed in a retrospective registry study of 9066 consecutive ACS patients (January 2007 to October 2017). Main outcome was six-month mortality. Prediction models were developed using two ML methods, logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (xgboost)...
April 27, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jose María Bastida, Sara Morais, Veronica Palma-Barqueros, Rocio Benito, Nuria Bermejo, Mutlu Karkucak, Maria Trapero-Marugan, Natalia Bohdan, Mónica Pereira, Ana Marin-Quilez, Jorge Oliveira, Yusuf Yucel, Rosario Santos, Jose Padilla, Kamila Janusz, Catarina Lau, Marta Martin-Izquierdo, Eduarda Couto, Juan Francisco Ruiz-Pividal, Vicente Vicente, Jesus Maria Hernández-Rivas, Jose Ramon González-Porras, Maria Luisa Lozano, Margarida Lima, Jose Rivera
BACKGROUND: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare inherited platelet disorder characterized by bleeding diathesis, oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and a myriad of often-serious clinical complications. METHODS: We established the clinical and laboratory phenotype and genotype of six unrelated pedigrees comprising ten patients with clinical suspicion of HPS; including platelet aggregation, flow cytometry, platelet dense granule content, electron microscopy and high-throughput sequencing (HTS)...
April 16, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Tian Zhu, Yiman Wang, Hongzhong Jin, Li Li
Exosomes have generated significant interest in the last few decades owing to their important roles in a diverse range of biological pathways. They are nano-sized lipid bilayer membrane vesicles of endosomal origin, and are produced by a vast number of cell types. They are released into the extracellular environment and are found in most biological fluids. Exosomes can contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The cargo of exosomes allows them to play roles in cell communication, antigen presentation, as biomarkers, and in immune regulation...
April 9, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Aleksander Chaibi, Michael Bjørn Russell
Cervical artery dissection refers to a tear in the internal carotid or the vertebral artery that results in an intramural haematoma and/or an aneurysmal dilatation. Although cervical artery dissection is thought to occur spontaneously, physical trauma to the neck, especially hyperextension and rotation, has been reported as a trigger. Headache and/or neck pain is the most common initial symptom of cervical artery dissection. Other symptoms include Horner's syndrome and lower cranial nerve palsy. Both headache and/or neck pain are common symptoms and leading causes of disability, while cervical artery dissection is rare...
March 19, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Klas Winell, Arto Pietilä, Veikko Salomaa
Aims: To quantify the incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to examine the 1-year survival after the diagnosis of HF. Materials and methods: All cases of HF ( n  = 295,990) and T2DM in Finland were identified from national electronic health care registers for the period 1996-2012. The annual incidence and prevalence rates of HF and 1-year survival after the first diagnosis of HF were calculated for persons with T2DM and without diabetes using Poisson regression for the event rates...
March 2019: Annals of Medicine
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