Annals of Medicine

Ahsan A Khan, Graham N Thomas, Gregory Y H Lip, Alena Shantsila
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia and is associated with poor outcomes. The adverse effects of AF are mediated through multiple pathways, including endothelial dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation. Flow-mediated dilatation has demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in several conditions and is associated with poor outcomes including mortality, yet can be improved with medical therapy. It is thus a useful tool in assessing endothelial function in patients. Endothelial dysfunction is present in patients with AF and is associated with poor outcomes...
January 10, 2020: Annals of Medicine
Lu-Nan Qi, Liang Ma, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Zu-Shun Chen, Jian-Hong Zhong, Wen-Feng Gong, Yan Lu, Bang-De Xiang, Le-Qun Li
Background & Aims: Hepatic resection is the first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. Whether to perform anatomical (AR) or non-anatomical resection (NAR) remains controversial. This retrospective study compares the outcomes according to the number and type of circulating tumor cells (CTC). Methods: The cohort included 136 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with R0 resection between 2015 and 2017. CanPatrol CTC-enrichment technique was use to enrich and classify CTCs according to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype...
December 26, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jarmo Oksi, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Eero Mattila
Clostridioides (formerly: Clostridium ) difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of diarrhea for inpatients as well as outpatients. Usually, CDI is healthcare-associated but the number of community-acquired infections is increasing. CDI is generally associated with changes in the normal intestinal microbiota caused by administration of antibiotics. Elderly and immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for CDI and CDI recurrence. Recently, the treatment options of CDI have undergone major changes: current recommendations speak against using metronidazole for primary CDI, fidaxomicin and bezlotoxumab have been added to the treatment armamentarium and microbial replacement therapies have emerged...
December 5, 2019: Annals of Medicine
C R Sirtori, M Ruscica, L Calabresi, G Chiesa, R Giovannoni, J L Badimon
Epidemiologically, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels have been inversely associated to cardiovascular (CV) events, although a Mendelian Randomization Study had failed to establish a clear causal role. Numerous atheroprotective mechanisms have been attributed to HDL, the main being the ability to promote cholesterol efflux from arterial walls; anti-inflammatory effects related to HDL ligands such as S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate), resolvins and others have been recently identified. Experimental studies and early clinical investigations have indicated the potential of HDL to slow progression or induce regression of atherosclerosis...
November 15, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Fan Pan, Peiyu He, Fei Chen, Xiaobo Pu, Qijun Zhao, Dingchang Zheng
Objectives: It is clinically important to evaluate the performance of a newly developed blood pressure (BP) measurement method under different measurement conditions. This study aims to evaluate the performance of using deep learning-based method to measure BPs and BP change under non-resting conditions. Materials and methods: Forty healthy subjects were studied. Systolic and diastolic BPs (SBPs and DBPs) were measured under four conditions using deep learning and manual auscultatory method. The agreement between BPs determined by the two methods were analysed under different conditions...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Lejia Sun, Huanhuan Yin, Meixi Liu, Gang Xu, Xiaoxiang Zhou, Penglei Ge, Huayu Yang, Yilei Mao
Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein and albumin infusion is commonly used. Conventionally, the biologic and therapeutic effects of albumin have been thought to be due to its oncotic properties. However, albumin has a variety of biologic functions, including molecular transport, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, endothelial stabilisation, anti-thrombotic effects, and the adjustment of capillary permeability. Despite this, the functions of albumin have not been thoroughly investigated. Recent studies have shown non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure to be associated with impairments in albumin function, which are associated with impairments in liver function and disease prognosis...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Benjamin H Natelson, Jin-Mann S Lin, Gudrun Lange, Sarah Khan, Aaron Stegner, Elizabeth R Unger
Objective: To determine if presence of co-existing medically unexplained syndromes or psychiatric diagnoses affect symptom frequency, severity or activity impairment in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Patients: Sequential Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients presenting in one clinical practice. Design: Participants underwent a psychiatric diagnostic interview and were evaluated for fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and/or multiple chemical sensitivity. Main Measures: Structured Clinical Interview [SCID] for DSM-IV; SF-36, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Short Form; Patient Health Questionnaire-8; Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), CDC Symptom Inventory Results: Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis was common (68%) increasing mental fatigue/health but no other illness variables and not with diagnosis of other medically unexplained syndromes...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Kalle Sipilä, Antti Tikkakoski, Sanni Alanko, Atte Haarala, Jussi Hernesniemi, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Jari Viik, Terho Lehtimäki, Tuomo Nieminen, Kjell Nikus, Mika Kähönen
Aims: We investigated the combination of low systolic blood pressure (SBP) response, low exercise capacity (EC) and slow heart rate recovery (HRR) during an exercise test in mortality prediction. Patients and methods: Our population consisted of 3456 patients from the Finnish Cardiovascular Study. A failure of SBP to increase >42 mmHg was defined as a low response. Low EC was defined as  < 8 metabolic equivalents. 1-minute HRR ≤18 bpm from maximum was defined as slow HRR. Results: During a median follow up of 10...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jianping Liu, Juan Xia, Gaowu Yan, Yongheng Zhang, Jing Ge, Lin Cao
Aim: This meta-analysis study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of TEVAR versus OCSR for TBAD patients. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library to identify studies compared the effectiveness of TEVAR and OCSR in TBAD patients from the inception up to July 2019. The summary results were calculated using a random-effects model. Results: The electronic search identified 1,894 studies, and 18 studies with 9,664 TBAD patients were included. We noted patients received TEVAR were associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality, acute renal failure, respiratory failure, and bleeding as compared with OCSR, whereas no significant differences between groups for the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, paraplegia, mesenteric ischaemia/infarction, reinterventions, sepsis, and spinal cord ischaemia...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Young Kyung Yoon, Jin Woong Suh, Eun-Ji Kang, Jeong Yeon Kim
Persistent reservoirs of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) that are prevalent in hospital settings and communities can lead to the spread of MDRO. Currently, there are no effective decolonization strategies, especially non-pharmacological strategies without antibiotic regimens. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the eradication of MDRO. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies on the use of FMT for the decolonization of MDRO...
November 2019: Annals of Medicine
Cynthia V Calkin
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting up to 5% of the population. BD can progress over time to a chronic "neuroprogressive" course with cognitive and functional impairment. Currently, there are no validated predictors indicating which patients will develop a neuroprogressive course and there are no specific treatments. This review presents data supporting a novel hypothesis on the mechanisms underlying bipolar neuroprogression. Insulin resistance (IR) is present in 52% of BD patients and is associated with chronic course, treatment nonresponse, adverse brain changes and cognitive impairment...
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Aleksander Chaibi, Michael Bjørn Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Joosep Kalamägi, Piia Lavikainen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Objectives: We studied the determinants of high healthcare costs (highest decile of hospital care and medication costs) and cost trajectories among all community-dwellers with clinically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD), diagnosed during 2005-2011 in Finland ( N  = 70,531). Methods: The analyses were done separately for hospital care costs, medication costs and total healthcare costs that were calculated for each 6-month period from 5 years before to 3 years after AD diagnosis. Results: Total healthcare costs were driven mainly by hospital care costs...
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jun Chen, Luqi Dai, Tao Wang, Junyun He, Yashu Wang, Fuqiang Wen
Introduction: C-X-C motif chemokine 5 is primarily chemotactic for neutrophils and previously shown to increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether C-X-C motif chemokine 5 levels correlate with lung function decline in patients or mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not clear. Methods: The mouse model was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Plasma/serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from patients and mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; C-X-C motif chemokine 5 levels were assessed and correlated with lung functions and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels, respectively...
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Nzechukwu M Isiozor, Setor K Kunutsor, Ari Voutilainen, Sudhir Kurl, Jussi Kauhanen, Jari A Laukkanen
Background: The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prompted the American Heart Association to develop a cardiovascular health (CVH) metric as a measure to assess the cardiovascular status of the population. We aimed to assess the association between CVH scores and the risk of CVD mortality among a middle-aged Finnish population. Methods: We employed the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease cohort study comprising of middle-aged men (42-60 years). CVH scores were computed among 2607 participants at baseline and categorized as optimum (0-4), average (5-9), or inadequate (10-14) CVH...
August 2019: Annals of Medicine
Harold Pikus, Robert Harbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Enrique Luna, Guadalupe Garcia-Pino, Luz M González, Guillermo Gervasini
AIM: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the main complications after kidney transplantation. It is known that leptin plays an important role in glucose metabolism and mutations in the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) are responsible for different complications in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to analyse the association of polymorphisms in LEPR with the development of PTDM in these patients. METHODS: A total of 315 renal transplant recipients were genotyped for the Lys109Arg, Gln223Arg and Lys656Asn polymorphisms...
May 2, 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jonathan Lacey, Jo Corbett, Lui Forni, Lee Hooper, Fintan Hughes, Gary Minto, Charlotte Moss, Susanna Price, Greg Whyte, Tom Woodcock, Michael Mythen, Hugh Montgomery
Background: Dehydration appears prevalent, costly and associated with adverse outcomes. We sought to generate consensus on such key issues and elucidate need for further scientific enquiry. Materials and methods: A modified Delphi process combined expert opinion and evidence appraisal. Twelve relevant experts addressed dehydration's definition, objective markers and impact on physiology and outcome. Results: Fifteen consensus statements and seven research recommendations were generated. Key findings, evidenced in detail, were that there is no universally accepted definition for dehydration; hydration assessment is complex and requires combining physiological and laboratory variables; "dehydration" and "hypovolaemia" are incorrectly used interchangeably; abnormal hydration status includes relative and/or absolute abnormalities in body water and serum/plasma osmolality (pOsm); raised pOsm usually indicates dehydration; direct measurement of pOsm is the gold standard for determining dehydration; pOsm >300 and ≤280 mOsm/kg classifies a person as hyper or hypo-osmolar; outside extremes, signs of adult dehydration are subtle and unreliable; dehydration is common in hospitals and care homes and associated with poorer outcomes...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Timo Mäkikallio, Maina P Jalava, Annastiina Husso, Marko Virtanen, Teemu Laakso, Tuomas Ahvenvaara, Tuomas Tauriainen, Pasi Maaranen, Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Sebastian Dahlbacka, Jussi Jaakkola, Juhani Airaksinen, Vesa Anttila, Mikko Savontaus, Mika Laine, Tatu Juvonen, Antti Valtola, Peter Raivio, Markku Eskola, Matti Niemelä, Fausto Biancari
Aim: We investigated the outcomes of transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in Finland during the last decade. Methods: The nationwide FinnValve registry included data from 6463 patients who underwent TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for aortic stenosis from 2008 to 2017. Results: The annual number of treated patients increased three-fold during the study period. Thirty-day mortality declined from 4.8% to 1.2% for TAVR ( p  = .011) and from 4.1% to 1.8% for SAVR ( p  = .048)...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
Jun-Beom Lee, Ho Geol Woo, Yoonkyung Chang, Yoon Mi Jin, Inho Jo, Jinkwon Kim, Tae-Jin Song
Background: The Klotho protects the cardiovascular system by protecting against cell apoptosis, inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species, and modulating inflammation. We aimed to investigate relationship of plasma Klotho concentrations with functional outcome at 3 months after acute cerebral infarction. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 262 first-ever acute cerebral infarction patients from whom a blood sample was acquired within 24 h of admission. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for evaluating plasma Klotho concentration...
May 2019: Annals of Medicine
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