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American Journal of Epidemiology

Rita Hamad, Akansha Batra, Deborah Karasek, Kaja Z LeWinn, Nicole R Bush, Robert L Davis, Frances A Tylavsky
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides nutritional support for pregnant and postpartum women and young children. The typical food package provided to recipient families was revised in October 2009 to include more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat milk. Little is known about whether these revisions improved nutrition among women during this critical period of the life course. We conducted a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences analysis, comparing WIC-recipients ("treatment" group) before and after the WIC policy change, while accounting for temporal trends among non-recipients ("control" group)...
May 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Forrest W Crawford, Olga Morozova, Ashley L Buchanan, Donna Spiegelman
Some interventions are intended to benefit both individuals and the groups to which they belong. When a treatment to one individual exerts a causal effect on others, the treatment is said to exhibit spillover, dissemination, or interference. However, defining meaningful causal effects under spillover can be challenging. In this commentary, we discuss the meaning of the "individual effect", a quantity proposed to summarize the effect of treatment on the individual who receives it, when spillover may be present...
May 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Philip A Collender, Christa Morris, Rose Glenn-Finer, Andrés Acevedo, Howard H Chang, James A Trostle, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Justin V Remais
Mass gatherings exacerbate infectious disease risks by creating crowded, high-contact conditions, and straining the capacity of local infrastructure. While mass gatherings have been extensively studied in the context of epidemic disease transmission, the role of gatherings in incidence of high-burden, endemic infections has not been previously studied. Here, we examine diarrheal incidence among seventeen communities in Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in relation to recurrent gatherings characterized using ethnographic data collected during and after the epidemiological surveillance period (2004-2007)...
May 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tracy E Crane, Yasmin Abdel Latif, Betsy C Wertheim, Lindsay N Kohler, David O Garcia, Jinnie J Rhee, Rebecca Seguin, Rasa Kazlauskaite, James M Shikany, Cynthia A Thomson
We evaluated the role of seasonality in self-reported diet quality among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). A total of 156,911 women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment (1993-1998). FFQ responses reflected intake over the prior 3-month period, and seasons were defined as spring (March-May), summer (June-August), fall (September-November), and winter (December-February). FFQ data were used to calculate the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), a measure of diet quality that has a score range of 2...
May 13, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Junichi Ishigami, Ron C Hoogeveen, Christie M Ballantyne, Aaron R Folsom, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Kunihiro Matsushita
Whether persons without prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) but elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) are at high risk of infection is unknown. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalization with infection in relation to plasma hs-cTnT and NTproBNP among participants without prevalent CVD, and contrasted with those with prevalent CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke) from 1996 through 2013...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Sara Lodi, Andrew Phillips, Jens Lundgren, Roger Logan, Shweta Sharma, Stephen R Cole, Abdel Babiker, Matthew Law, Haitao Chu, Dana Byrne, Andrzej Horban, Jonathan A C Sterne, Kholoud Porter, Caroline Sabin, Dominique Costagliola, Sophie Abgrall, John Gill, Giota Touloumi, Antonio G Pacheco, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Heiner C Bucher, Alexandra Montoliu Giménez, Inmaculada Jarrin, Linda Wittkop, Laurence Meyer, Santiago Perez-Hoyos, Amy Justice, James D Neaton, Miguel A Hernán
Effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies may not be directly comparable because of differences in study design, other than randomization, and in data analysis. We propose a three-step procedure to facilitate meaningful comparisons of effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies: 1) harmonization of the study protocol (eligibility criteria, treatment strategies, outcome, start and end of follow-up, causal contrast) so that the studies target the same causal effect, 2) harmonization of the data analysis to estimate the causal effect, and 3) sensitivity analyses to investigate the impact of discrepancies that could not be accounted for in the harmonization process...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Hiroshi Mamiya, Alexandra M Schmidt, Erica E M Moodie, Yu Ma, David L Buckeridge
Measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns at high spatial resolution allows public health agencies to identify and monitor communities with an elevated risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Currently, data on diet are obtained primarily through nutrition surveys, which produce measurements at low spatial resolutions. The availability of store-level grocery transaction data provides an opportunity to refine the measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns. We used these data to develop an indicator of area-level latent demand of soda in the Census Metropolitan Area of Montreal in 2012 by applying a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model to data on soda sales from 1,097 chain retail food outlets...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yong Cui, Wanqing Wen, Tao Zheng, Honglan Li, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Mingrong You, Jing Gao, Gong Yang, Wei Zheng, Yong-Bing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu
Influence of antihypertensive medications on cancer survival is inconclusive. Using time-dependent Cox regression models, we examined associations of common antihypertensive medications with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants were from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS; 1996-2000) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS; 2002-2006) in Shanghai, China. Included were 2,891 incident breast, colorectal, lung, and stomach cancer cases...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
David H Chae, Connor D Martz, Thomas E Fuller-Rowell, Erica C Spears, Tianqi Tenchi Gao Smith, Evelyn A Hunter, Cristina Drenkard, S Sam Lim
African American women are disproportionately impacted by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic, potentially debilitating autoimmune disease; and also experience more rapid progression and worse outcomes compared to other groups. This study examined if racial discrimination is associated with disease outcomes among 427 African American women with a validated diagnosis of SLE in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area, recruited to the Black Women's Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study (2015-2017)...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
W Katherine Yih, Martin Kulldorff, Inna Dashevsky, Judith C Maro
The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic allows detection of potential vaccine- or drug-associated adverse events without pre-specifying the specific events or post-exposure risk intervals of concern. It thus opens a promising new avenue for safety studies. The method has been successfully used to evaluate the safety of two vaccines for adolescents and young adults, but its suitability to study vaccines for older adults had not been established. The current study applied the method to assess the safety of live attenuated herpes zoster vaccination during 2011-2017 in U...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Marisa A Hast, Mike Chaponda, Mbanga Muleba, Jean-Bertin Kabuya, James Lupiya, Tamaki Kobayashi, Timothy Shields, Justin Lessler, Modest Mulenga, Jennifer C Stevenson, Douglas E Norris, William J Moss
Malaria transmission in northern Zambia has increased in the past decade despite malaria control activities. Evidence-based intervention strategies are needed to effectively reduce malaria transmission. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province from 2014-2016 using the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. An evaluation of the IRS campaign was conducted by the Southern Africa International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research using actively detected malaria cases in bimonthly household surveys from April 2012 to July 2017...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Luc E Coffeng, Wilma A Stolk, Allison Golden, Tala de Los Santos, Gonzalo J Domingo, Sake J de Vlas
The World Health Organization currently recommends to evaluate elimination of onchocerciasis by testing whether Ov16 antibody prevalence in 0-9-year-old children is below 0.1%. However, the certainty of evidence for this recommendation is considered to be low. We use the established ONCHOSIM model to investigate the predictive value of different Ov16 antibody prevalence thresholds in various age groups for elimination of onchocerciasis in a variety of endemic settings and for various mass drug administration scenarios...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Li Kiang Tan, Swee Ling Low, Haoyang Sun, Yuan Shi, Lilac Liu, Sally Lam, Hwee Huang Tan, Li Wei Ang, Wing Yan Wong, Rachel Chua, Diana Teo, Lee Ching Ng, Alex R Cook
National dengue notifications do not capture all dengue infections and do not reflect the true intensity of disease transmission. To assess the true infections and disease control efforts in Singapore, age-stratified serosurveys were conducted among residents after the largest dengue outbreak in 2013. The age-weighted dengue IgG prevalence among residents was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.4, 51.1) in 2013 and 48.6% (95% CI: 47.0, 50.0) in 2017, with increased prevalence with age. Combining these data with those from previous serosurveys, the year-on-year estimates of dengue force of infection (FOI) from 1930 to 2017 revealed a significant decrease from the late 1960s until mid-1990s, after which it remained stable at around 10 per 1000 per year...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jennifer Q Chadwick, Kenneth C Copeland, Dannielle E Branam, Julie A Erb-Alvarez, Sohail I Khan, Michael T Peercy, Mark E Rogers, Bobby R Saunkeah, Jeanie B Tryggestad, David F Wharton
Research misconduct and consequential harms have been inflicted upon American Indian/Alaska Native communities for decades. To protect their people and culture and to retain oversight over research, many Native communities have established tribal health research and institutional review boards. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study showcases a successful, trusting research collaboration with tribal nations and academic investigators in Oklahoma. In 2006, the TODAY Study investigators proposed a modification of the study protocol to collect biological specimens from participants for genomic analyses and indefinite storage...
April 24, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Riaz Qureshi, Jimmy Lê, Tianjing Li, Michel Ibrahim, Kay Dickersin
Women comprise about half of senior epidemiologists, but little is known about whether they are also viewed as leaders (i.e., authorities) in the field. We believe editorial roles are markers of leadership in a field. Our objective was to describe the distribution of gender across authorship of editorials published in five high-impact epidemiology journals over the past eight years. We included editorials and commentaries published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, European Journal of Epidemiology, Epidemiology, International Journal of Epidemiology, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology between 2010 and 2017...
April 17, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Anusha M Vable, Mathew V Kiang, M Maria Glymour, Joseph Rigdon, Emmanuel F Drabo, Sanjay Basu
Matching methods are assumed to reduce the likelihood of a biased inference compared to ordinary least squares regression. Using simulations, we compare inferences from propensity score matching, coarsened exact matching, and un-matched covariate-adjusted ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to identify which methods, in which scenarios, produced unbiased inferences at the expected type I error rate of 5%. We simulated multiple datasets and systematically varied common support, discontinuities in the exposure and / or outcome, exposure prevalence, and analytic model misspecification...
April 17, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Anthony Cousien, Sylvie Abel, Alice Monthieux, Alessio Andronico, Isabelle Calmont, Minerva Cervantes, Raymond Césaire, Pierre Gallian, Xavier de Lamballerie, Cédric Laouénan, Fatiha Najioullah, Sandrine Pierre-François, Mathilde Pircher, Henrik Salje, Quirine A Ten Bosch, André Cabié, Simon Cauchemez
Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused large epidemics in the Americas. Households are natural targets for control interventions, but quantifying the contribution of household transmission to overall spread is needed to guide policy. Here, we developed a modelling framework to evaluate this contribution and key epidemic features of the ZIKV epidemic in Martinique in 2015-2016 from the joint analysis of a household transmission study (N=68 households), a study in symptomatic pregnant women (N=281) and seroprevalence surveys in blood donors (N=457)...
April 17, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ermioni Tsarna, Marije Reedijk, Laura Ellen Birks, Mònica Guxens, Ferran Ballester, Mina Ha, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Leeka Kheifets, Aitana Lertxundi, Hyung-Ryul Lim, Jorn Olsen, Llúcia González Safont, Madhuri Sudan, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid, Tanja Vrijkotte, Anke Huss, Roel Vermeulen
Previous studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency fields from cell phones on birth outcomes are inconsistent. We explored if maternal cell phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. We used information from 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008) and Korea (2006-2011). Based on self-reported number of cell phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (reference level), intermediate, and high...
April 17, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Theodore R Holford, Huann-Sheng Chen, David Annett, Martin Krapcho, Asya Dorogaeva, Eric J Feuer
Cohort or period components of trend can provide a rationale for new research or point to clues of effectiveness for control strategies. Graphical display of trends guides models that quantify the experience of a population. A method for smoothing rates by single years of age and year are developed and displayed to show the contribution of period and cohort on trend. The magnitude of the contribution of period and/or cohort in a model for trends may be assessed by percent deviance explained and relative contribution of cohort and period individually, C-P Score...
April 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alexis Robert, W John Edmunds, Conall H Watson, Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Pierre-Stéphane Gsell, Elizabeth Williamson, Ira M Longini, Keïta Sakoba, Adam J Kucharski, Alhassane Touré, Sévérine Danmadji Nadlaou, Boubacar Diallo, Mamamdou Saidou Barry, Thierno Oumar Fofana, Louceny Camara, Ibrahima Lansana Kaba, Lansana Sylla, Mohamed Lamine Diaby, Ousmane Soumah, Abdourahime Diallo, Amadou Niare, Abdourhamane Diallo, Rosalind M Eggo
Understanding risk factors for Ebola transmission is key for effective prediction and design of interventions. We used data on 860 cases in 129 chains of transmission from the latter half of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Using negative binomial regression, we determined characteristics associated with the number of secondary cases resulting from each infected individual. We found that attending an Ebola Treatment Unit was associated with a 38% decrease in secondary cases (Incident rate ratio (IRR) 0...
April 3, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
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