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American Journal of Emergency Medicine

Bennett H Lane, Peter J Mallow, Maria B Hooker, Edmond Hooker
BACKGROUND: Demographic shifts and care delivery system evolution affect the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits and associated costs. Recent aggregate trends in ED visit rates and charges between 2010 and 2016 have not been evaluated. METHODS: Data from the National Emergency Department Sample, comprising approximately 30 million annual patient visits, were used to estimate the ED visit rate and charges per visit from 2010 to 2016. ED visits were grouped into 144 mutually exclusive clinical categories...
September 6, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ashley A Foster, Emory M Petrack, Krislyn M Boggs, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo, Joyce Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Diane Dreucean, Kevin Beres, Afton McNierney-Moore, Dante Gravino
Overdose of valproic acid (VPA) or its derivatives can cause significant toxicities such as hyperammonemia or altered mental status. While levocarnitine has been used historically to manage VPA-associated hyperammonemia, no standard of therapy exists to manage VPA toxicity. We present a case of VPA overdose managed with meropenem in addition to levocarnitine. A 38-year old female presented to the emergency department after intentionally ingesting 20 tablets of extended release divalproex sodium. She received a 4-gram loading dose of levocarnitine...
September 4, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Oscar M P Jolobe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Megha R George, Moira Carroll, Reuben J Strayer
OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) utilization is widespread in contemporary Emergency Departments (EDs). CT overuse leads to radiation exposure, contrast toxicity, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. This study explores the prevalence of clinically significant injuries in patients identified as low-risk trauma patients (LRTPs) using newly created criteria that account for the patient's age, trauma mechanism, assessability (which relies on level of consciousness, intoxication, and neurologic deficits), vital signs and other evidence of hypoperfusion, bleeding risk, and past medical history...
September 3, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jack Wei Chieh Tan, Hong Jie Gabriel Tan, Anders Olof Sahlen, Khung Keong Yeo, Woon Loong Calvin Chin, Fei Gao, Eng Hock Marcus Ong, Chin Pin Yeo, Wai Yoong Ng, Swee Han Lim
BACKGROUND: This study compared the performance of a single blood draw of high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and conventional troponin I (cTnI) within a modified HEART score for predicting 30-day MACE at Emergency Department (ED) presentation, and established local reference norms for all three assays by determining the cut-off point which yielded the highest sensitivity and negative predictive value for acute myocardial infarction and 30-day MACE...
August 30, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ruixin Shi, Amie Quinones, Jeremy Bair, Ramona O Hopkins, Allison M Butler, Shannon Inglet, Carolyn Anctil, Jake Woods, Jamison Jones, Joseph R Bledsoe
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) visits associated with prescription opioids have increased in the last ten years. This study describes the opioid utilization of patients discharged from the ED with an opioid prescription for pain, 14 to 21 days post discharge. METHODS: This is a prospective, single-centered, survey-based observational descriptive study conducted from December 2017 to February 2018 in the ED at a tertiary level 1 trauma center. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients with unused opioids and the quantity of opioids remaining 14 to 21 days post ED discharge...
August 30, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Amberly R Johnson, Casey R Tak, Kathleen Anderson, Bradley Dahl, Cathie Smith, Barbara I Crouch
INTRODUCTION: Poison control centers (PCC) are an effective means to prevent unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits associated with poisoning exposures. However, not all patients with poison exposures utilize the PCC. The purpose of this study was to identify unintentional pediatric poisoning exposures presenting to a large US children's hospital that could have been managed onsite (i.e., at home) if consultation with a PCC had occurred prior to the ED visit. METHODS: Using ED encounters from a tertiary children's hospital, unintentional pharmaceutical, chemical, or fume exposures occurring between October 1, 2014 and September 30, 2015 were identified from ICD-9-CM billing codes...
August 27, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kenneth V Iserson, Nathan G Allan, Joel M Geiderman, Rebecca R Goett
Emergency physicians, organizations and healthcare institutions should recognize the value to clinicians and patients of HIPAA-compliant audiovisual recording in emergency departments (ED). They should promote consistent specialty-wide policies that emphasize protecting patient privacy, particularly in patient-care areas, where patients and staff have a reasonable expectation of privacy and should generally not be recorded without their prospective consent. While recordings can help patients understand and recall vital parts of their ED experience and discharge instructions, using always-on recording devices should be regulated and restricted to areas in which patient care is not occurring...
August 27, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Edgar Francisco Carrizales-Sepúlveda, Raymundo Vera-Pineda, Raúl Alberto Jiménez-Castillo, Karla Belén Treviño-García, Alejandro Ordaz-Farías
We present the case of a 25-year-old man with progressive limb weakness. His electrocardiogram showed prominent U waves which made us consider hypokalemia. The final diagnosis was toluene intoxication with severe hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Intravenous potassium administration and hydration effectively corrected the electrolyte and acid-base alterations; weakness resolved and the patient was discharged. The approach to a patient with acute weakness can be challenging. This case reminds us that the electrocardiogram can be a valuable tool in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with these conditions...
August 27, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jovian Collins, Mark O Tessaro, Terrance McGovern
Impacted esophageal foreign bodies typically first present to the emergency department, with coins being most common in children and food boluses most common in adults. Controversy exists regarding the best treatment options in these cases. We report two cases, one pediatric and one adult, where the use of a novel substitute Hurst dilator constructed of materials regularly found in all EDs was successfully used to treat impacted esophageal foreign bodies.
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Frank P Paloucek, Renee Petzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Carlos J Roldan, Uzondu Osuagwu, Marylou Cardenas-Turanzas, Billy K Huh
BACKGROUND: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) originates in the muscle and fascia. MPS presents with referred pain specific for each muscle and a trigger point that reproduces the symptoms. Trigger-point-injection (TPI) is an effective approach to treating MPS. Some TPI agents, however, are associated with systemic and local side effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TPI with a conventional active drug mixture (CADM) vs. that with normal saline solution (NS) alone in patients with MPS presenting to the emergency department (ED)...
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Yun Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jared Ingersoll, Megan Halliday, Daniel J Adams, Jonathan D Auten, Daphne Morrison Ponce
Calcaneal osteomyelitis is an uncommon, but clinically important emergent condition in the differential of the limping child. Early recognition is paramount to prevent complications from delayed diagnosis like formation of periosteal abscesses or growth plate injury. The diagnosis of pediatric osteoarticular infection relies on a combination of clinical exam, imaging and inflammatory markers. Erythrocyte sedation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have reported sensitivities for osteomyelitis of 94% and 95%, respectively...
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Renata Portasio Lerner, Eric Lee
This is the case of a 23-year-old female with a past medical history of ADHD and Depression who was evaluated in the emergency department for perioral cyanosis and hypoxia after application of the eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) local anesthetic prior to a laser-assisted hair removal procedure. This report illustrates a case of methemoglobinemia which is a rare but significant complication of topical anesthetic use.
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Miriam McQuade, Kyle Barbour, Sarah Betstadt, Amy Harrington
Laminaria are cervical dilators inserted for several days preceding second-trimester abortions and other uterine procedures. Our patient was intubated after a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction to laminaria prior to her surgical abortion. Abortions with laminaria dilators are frequently performed outpatient across the United States. Due to stigma, increasing restrictions, and forced closure of family planning clinics, these procedures are often obtained covertly and remotely. Patients may present obtunded, in shock, without records or proxy, and with no external evidence of the allergen's location or continued presence...
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Oscar M P Jolobe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ashley L Lubberdink, Sameer Sharif, Kaif Pardhan
Isolated motor disturbances in the paediatric population are uncommon presentations to the emergency department. Choreiform movements have a broad differential diagnosis and may present insidiously with progressive worsening of asymmetric clumsiness, hypotonia and dysarthria. The incidence of Sydenham's chorea (SC) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is very rare in developed countries. We report a previously healthy, vaccinated 9-year old male who presented to our ED with intermittent and progressive right sided clumsiness for four weeks...
August 24, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jessica L Miller, Amina George, Sarah E Kozmic, Maya Beganovic, Sarah M Wieczorkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Traditional antibiograms use local resistance patterns and susceptibility data to guide empiric antimicrobial therapy selection. However, antibiograms are rarely unit-specific and do not account for patient-specific risk factors. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center descriptive study used culture and susceptibility data from January 1 to December 31, 2016 to develop an Emergency Department (ED)-specific antibiogram and compare the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the most commonly identified organisms to the hospital antibiogram...
August 22, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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