Eric C Tang, Eric Vittinghoff, Susan S Philip, Susanne Doblecki-Lewis, Oliver Bacon, Wairimu Chege, Megan E Coleman, Richard Elion, Susan Buchbinder, Michael A Kolber, Albert Y Liu, Stephanie E Cohen
OBJECTIVE: The optimal screening frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is unclear, with current guidelines recommending screening every three to six months. We aimed to determine the number of STIs for which treatment would have been delayed without quarterly screening. DESIGN: The United States PrEP Demonstration Project was a prospective, open-label cohort study that evaluated PrEP delivery in STI clinics in San Francisco and Miami and a community health center in Washington, DC...
March 19, 2020: AIDS
Nuttada Panpradist, Ingrid A Beck, Parker S Ruth, Santiago Avila-Rios, Claudia Garcia-Morales, Maribel Soto-Nava, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Margarita Matias-Florentino, Hector E Paz-Juarez, Silvia Del Arenal-Sanchez, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Barry R Lutz, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVE: Pre-treatment HIV-drug-resistance (PDR, HIVDR) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is increasing globally. NNRTIs continue to be used as 1st-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in some communities due to the cost of dolutegravir-based ART or dolutegravir-associated adverse events. A simplified version of the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA), "OLA-Simple", is a low-cost, near point-of-care assay that provides ready-to-use lyophilized reagents and reports HIVDR mutations as colored lines on lateral flow strips...
March 19, 2020: AIDS
Rebecca N Kumar, Valentina Stosor
: With current antiretroviral therapy, the lifespan of newly diagnosed persons with HIV (PWH) approaches that of uninfected persons. However, metabolic abnormalities related to both the disease and the virus itself, along with comorbidities of aging, have resulted in end organ disease and organ failure as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Solid organ transplantation is a life-saving therapy for PWH who have organ failure, and the approval of the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act has opened and expanded opportunities for PWH to donate and receive organs...
March 11, 2020: AIDS
Linda Beer, Yunfeng Tie, Dawn K Smith, Jennifer L Fagan, R Luke Shouse
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of U.S. HIV-positive men who report a male HIV-negative/unknown status (HIV-discordant) sexual partner taking PrEP, and the use of multiple HIV prevention strategies within partnerships. DESIGN: The Medical Monitoring Project is a complex sample survey of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV. METHODS: We used data collected during June 2016-May 2018 among sexually-active HIV-positive men who had ≥1 HIV-discordant male partner (N = 1,871) to estimate the weighted prevalence of reporting ≥1 partner taking PrEP...
March 11, 2020: AIDS
M Hentzien, L Cuzin, F Raffi, C Jacomet, J Reynes, D Rey, I Ravaux, A Cheret, M Viguier, F Bani-Sadr
OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease with genetic factors involved in its etiopathogenesis. In non-HIV populations, HLA-B*57:01 has been associated with a higher risk of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate demographic and immunovirological characteristics associated with psoriasis, and to assess whether HLA-B*57:01 is associated with psoriasis among people living with HIV (PLHIV) followed in a large French multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort. METHODS: All PLHIV followed up from January 2000 to December 2018 with an available result for HLA-B*57:01 were included...
March 11, 2020: AIDS
Jeffrey Laurence, Sonia Elhadad, Sandra Gostynska, Zhongxin Yu, Hunter Terry, Rohan Varshney, Kar-Ming Fung, Mary E Choi, Jasimuddin Ahamed
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) with tubular injury and fibrosis occurs in HIV infection treated with certain protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapies. The pathophysiology is unclear. DESIGN: We hypothesized that fibrosis, mediated by platelet-derived transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, underlies PI-associated CKD. We induced this in mice exposed to the PI ritonavir (RTV), and intervened with low-dose inhaled carbon monoxide (CO), activating erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)-associated anti-oxidant pathways...
March 11, 2020: AIDS
Linda Chelico, Alexandra King, Jann Ticknor, Michael McDonald, Ron Rosenes, Jason Mercredi, Jack Saddleback, Geri Bailey, Malcolm King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2020: AIDS
Qiang Xia, Sungwoo Lim, Baohua Wu, Lisa A Forgione, Aldo Crossa, Alexandra B Balaji, Sarah L Braunstein, Demetre C Daskalakis, Benjamin W Tsoi, Graham Harriman, Lucia V Torian, Ruiguang Song
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prevention of ongoing transmission and development of HIV-related illness. The purpose of this study is to develop an outcome indicator to monitor the progress in early HIV diagnosis. METHODS: Persons diagnosed with HIV in New York City and their first CD4 test results were used to estimate the distribution of HIV diagnosis delay, based on a CD4 count depletion model. The distribution was then used to estimate the probability of diagnosis within 1 year of HIV acquisition, which is the number of cases diagnosed in a given calendar year for which diagnosis occurred within 1 year of acquisition divided by the number of incident cases in that calendar year...
February 20, 2020: AIDS
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Zainab Albar, Emily Bowman, Danielle Labbato, Abdus Sattar, Christine Karungi, Rashida Nazzinda, Nicholas Funderburg, Cissy Kityo, Victor Musiime, Grace A McComsey
INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology of immune activation and its mechanisms in children living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied. METHODS: We enrolled 101 children living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) and 96 HIV negative controls (HIV-). All participants were between 10-18 years of age with no known active infections. PHIVs were on ART with HIV-1 RNA level ≤400 copies/mL. We measured plasma and cellular markers of monocyte activation, T-cell activation (expression of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4+ and CD8+), oxidized lipids, markers of gut integrity and fungal translocation...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Jerel Adam Fields, Mary K Swinton, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Aliyah Carson, Cristian L Achim
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite the widespread implementation of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). As people with HIV (PWH) age on ART regimens, the risk of age-related comorbidities such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) may increase. However, questions remain as to whether HIV or ART will alter such risks. Beta amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) proteins are associated with AD and their levels are altered in the CSF of AD cases. METHODS: To better understand how these AD-related markers are affected by HIV-infection and ART, postmortem CSF collected from 70 well-characterized HIV+ decedents was analyzed for Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40, and p-tau levels...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Lolade Shipeolu, Kari Sampsel, Allegra Reeves, Farriss Blaskovits, Melissa Heimerl, Katherine Muldoon
OBJECTIVE: Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) programs offer antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV following at-risk exposures like sexual assault. We investigated the levels of elective nPEP uptake among sexual assault cases presenting for emergency medical care. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: The analysis included over 3 years (1Jan2015 to 30Sep2018) of clinic information from the Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP) at The Ottawa Hospital, the regional emergency department care point following sexual assault...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
José-Manuel Ramos, Carmen de Mendoza, Antonio Aguilera, Pablo Barreiro, Rafael Benito, Jose M Eiros, Vicente Soriano
OBJETIVE: To examine the clinical burden and disease spectrum, as well as time trends for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 hospital admissions. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. METHODS: Information for the diagnostic codes HTLV, -1 and -2 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was retrieved from the national public registry since 1997 to 2015...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Valeria Avdoshina, Matthew Mahoney, Sean F Gilmore, Erin D Wenzel, Albert Anderson, Scott L Letendre, Tomozumi Imamichi, Nicholas O Fischer, Italo Mocchetti
OBJECTIVE: Postmortem brains of subjects diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exhibit loss of dendrites. However, the mechanisms by which synapses are damaged are not fully understood. DESIGN: Dendrite length and remodeling occurs via microtubules (MTs) the dynamics of which are regulated by microtubule binding proteins, including MT associated protein 2 (MAP2). The HIV protein gp120 is neurotoxic and interferes with neuronal MTs...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Guan-Han Li, Dragan Maric, Eugene O Major, Avindra Nath
OBJECTIVE: Astrocytes are proposed to be a critical reservoir of HIV in the brain. However, HIV infection of astrocytes is inefficient in vitro except for cell-to-cell transmission from HIV-infected cells. Here, we explore mechanisms by which cell-free HIV bypasses entry and post-entry barriers leading to a productive infection. METHODS: HIV infection of astrocytes was investigated by a variety of techniques including transfection of CD4-expressing plasmid, treatment with lysosomotropic agents or using a transwell culture system loaded with HIV-infected lymphocytes...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Steady J D Chasimpha, Estelle M Mclean, Albert Dube, Valerie Mccormack, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Judith R Glynn
OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of self-reported HIV status, and investigate factors that influence accurate reporting of HIV-positive status, in a population tested and informed of their HIV test result. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We compared self-reported HIV status to biomarker-confirmed HIV test status among participants of Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northern Malawi. We linked information on HIV test results to subsequent self-reported HIV status, and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for self-reported HIV status (considered as a diagnostic test)...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Paul G Ashigbie, Richard O Laing, Veronika J Wirtz, Nathaniel Nkrumah, Anthony Kemboi, Jude Nwokike
: This study examines registration timelines of antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) in Ghana and Kenya, to assess whether prior reviews by the US Food and Drug Administration Tentative Approval or World Health Organization prequalification (WHO/PQP) affect in-country approval timelines.Data were collected from online and national databases. Median in-country review period in Ghana was nine months compared to 25 in Kenya. ARVs with Tentative Approval and WHO/PQP status did not benefit from shorter in-country review periods...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Nur Afiqah Mohd Salleh, Jenna Van Draanen, Ekaterina Nosova, Rolando Barrios, M-J Milloy, Lindsey Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between poverty, operationalized using a novel material security measure, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a context of universal access to HIV care. DESIGN: We analyzed data from a community-recruited prospective cohort in Vancouver, Canada (n = 623), from 2014 - 2017. METHODS: We used multivariable generalized mixed-effects analyses to estimate longitudinal factors associated with mean material security score...
February 17, 2020: AIDS
Noah A Haber, Catherine R Lesko, Matthew P Fox, Kimberly A Powers, Guy Harling, Jessie Edwards, Joshua Salomon, Sheri A Lippman, Jacob Bor, Angela Y Chang, Andrew Anglemyer, Audrey Pettifor
OBJECTIVES: The UNAIDS 90-90-90 and other cross-sectional metrics can lead to potentially counterintuitive conclusions when used to evaluate health systems' performance. This study demonstrates how time and population dynamics impact UNAIDS 90-90-90 metrics in comparison with a longitudinal analogue. DESIGN: A simplified simulation representing a hypothetical population was used to estimate and compare inference from UNAIDS 90-90-90 metrics and a longitudinal metrics based on Kaplan-Meier-estimated 2-year probability of transition between stages...
February 10, 2020: AIDS
John Zaunders, Cynthia Mee Ling Munier, Helen McGuire, Hannah Law, Annett Howe, Yin Xu, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth, Peter Schofield, Daniel Christ, Brad Milner, Solange Obeid, Wayne B Dyer, Nitin K Saksena, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: CD4 T-cells that express the chemokine receptor, CCR5, are the most important target of HIV-1 infection, but their functions, phenotypes and anatomical locations are poorly understood. We aimed to use multiparameter flow cytometry to better define the full breadth of these cells. METHODS: High-parameter fluorescence flow and mass cytometry were optimized to analyse subsets of CCR5+ memory CD4 T-cells, including CD25CD127 Tregs, CXCR3+CCR6- Th1, CCR6+CD161+CXCR3- Th17, integrins α4+ß7+ gut-homing, CCR4+ skin-homing, CD62L+ lymph node-homing, CD38+HLA-DR+ activated cells, and CD27-CD28- cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), in a total of 22 samples of peripheral blood, ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies of lymph nodes and excised tonsils...
February 10, 2020: AIDS
Jessie K Edwards, Peter Arimi, Freddie Ssengooba, Michael Herce, Grace Mulholland, Milissa Markiewicz, Susan Babirye, Steven Ssendagire, Sharon S Weir
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate HIV testing yield under several candidate strategies for outreach testing at venues (i.e., places where people socialize and meet new sex partners) in East Africa cross-border areas. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional biobehavioral survey of people who had not been previously diagnosed with HIV found in venues. METHODS: We identified participants who would have been tested for HIV under each of 10 hypothetical outreach testing strategies and calculated the proportion who would have newly tested positive for HIV under each strategy...
February 10, 2020: AIDS
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