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Kimberly Marsh, Jeffrey W Eaton, Mary Mahy, Keith Sabin, Christine Autenrieth, Ian Wanyeki, Juliana Daher, Peter D Ghys
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and partners set the 90-90-90 target for the year 2020: diagnose 90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV); treat 90% of people who know their status; and suppress the virus in 90% of people on treatment. In 2015, countries began reporting to UNAIDS on progress against 90-90-90 using standard definitions and methods. METHODS: We used data submitted to UNAIDS from 170 countries to assess country-specific progress towards 90-90-90 through 2018...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
Perrine Courlet, Felix Stader, Monia Guidi, Susana Alves Saldanha, Marcel Stoeckle, Matthias Cavassini, Manuel Battegay, Thierry Buclin, Laurent Arthur Decosterd, Catia Marzolini
OBJECTIVES: The pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs may differ in elderly people living with HIV (PLWH) due to age related physiological changes. We aimed to assess the PK of several antiretroviral drugs in aging PLWH enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort (SHCS). DESIGN: Full PK profiling nested in a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study. Additional collection of single point PK data during SHCS follow-up visits (unselected PLWH). METHODS: PLWH were eligible for the full PK investigation if they were over the age of 55 years, on a stable boosted darunavir- or dolutegravir-containing regimen...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
Kartik Kailas Venkatesh, Mona Farhad, Terry Fenton, Dhayendre Moodley, Shilpa Naik, Clemensia Nakabiito, Lee Fairlie, Mary Glenn Fowler, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Benjamin H Chi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preterm birth (PTB), when defined by gold standard antenatal ultrasound versus newborn exam. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of the PROMISE 1077BF/1077FF randomized controlled trial, which compared antiretroviral strategies to reduce perinatal HIV transmission and improve maternal health. The trial used newborn exam (i.e., New Ballard Score, NBS) to assess gestational age. This analysis included liveborn singleton pregnancies with both newborn exam and ultrasound data...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Sanghyuk S Shin, Qiao Wang, Nicola Zetola, Kesaobaka Molebatsi, Judith Nnawa, Botshelo T Kgwaadira, Lesedi Bewlay, Tony Chebani, Thato Iketleng, Tuelo Mogashoa, Joseph Makhema, Rosemary M Musonda, Max Essex, Ishmael Kasvosve, Simani Gaseitsiwe
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among people living with HIV. We sought to estimate the incidence of TB in a national database of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of HIV-infected adult patients (≥18years) who initiated ART between 2011 and 2015 in the Botswana ART program. METHODS: Multivariable analysis using Cox regression included sex, age, viral load and CD4 counts...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
Neal Yuan, Rebecca Scherzer, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jeffrey Martin, Smruti Rahalkar, Priscilla Hsue
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with HIV suffer a higher burden of cardiovascular diseases. Traditional cardiovascular risk scores consistently underestimate cardiovascular risk in this population. Subsets of microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed among individuals with cardiovascular disease and individuals infected with HIV. However, no study has clarified whether specific miRNAs may be biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in individuals with HIV. DESIGN/METHODS: We compared the miRNA expression profiles of 34 HIV positive individuals who had experienced clinically adjudicated Type I myocardial infarctions (MI) with the profiles of 76 HIV positive controls matched by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV-specific measures...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
George Otieno, Yohance Omar Whiteside, Thomas Achia, Daniel Kwaro, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Sylvia Ojoo, Maquins Sewe, Paul Musingila, Victor Akelo, David Obor, Amek Nyaguara, Kevin M de Cock, Martien W Borgdorff
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated mortality rates in Africa decreased by 10%-20% annually in 2003-2011, after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to document HIV-associated mortality rates in the general population in Kenya after 2011 in an era of expanded access to ART. DESIGN: We obtained data on mortality rates and migration from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in Gem, western Kenya, and data for HDSS residents aged 15-64 years from home-based HIV-counseling and testing (HBCT) rounds in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2016...
September 3, 2019: AIDS
Cornelia Feiterna-Sperling, Renate Krüger, Alieu Amara, Saye Khoo, Catriona Waitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Fiona C Lampe, Alison J Rodger, William Burman, Andrew Grulich, Gerald Friedland, Wafaa El Sadr, James Neaton, Giulio M Corbelli, Sean Emery, Jean Michel Molina, Chloe Orkin, Jose Gatell, Jan Gerstoft, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Monica Barbosa de Souza, Andrew Phillips
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness, but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. METHODS: We assessed, within the START randomised trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4>500/mm, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: (i) condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); (ii) all condomless sex (CLS); (iii) HIV transmission-risk-sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART < 6 months ago or viral load(VL)>200c/mL or no VL in past 6 months), during two year follow-up...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Julie J Kim-Chang, Kevin Donovan, Matthew Shane Loop, Suzi Hong, Bernard Fischer, Guglielmo Venturi, Patricia A Garvie, Jordan Kohn, H Jonathon Rendina, Steven P Woods, Maureen M Goodenow, Sharon L Nichols, John W Sleasman
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist despite early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and optimal viral suppression. We examined the relationship between immunopathogenesis driven by various pathways of immune activation and discrete neurocognitive performance domains in youth with HIV (YWH). DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study METHODS:: YWH, ages 20 to 28, enrolled in Adolescent Medicine Trials Network 071/101 were assessed for biomarkers of macrophage, lymphocyte activation and vascular inflammation using ELISA/multiplex assays...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
James G Carlucci, Yu Liu, Kate Clouse, Sten H Vermund
INTRODUCTION: Identification and retention of HIV-positive children in HIV services is essential to ensure optimal health outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the magnitude of attrition (loss to follow-up [LTFU] and death) of HIV-positive children from HIV services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We performed a comprehensive multi-database search of original studies reporting retention/attrition data for HIV-positive children in LMICs through April 2016...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Julie A E Nelson, Kristina de Paris, Catalina Ramirez, Andrew Edmonds, Katie R Mollan, Camden P Bay, Kara Compliment, Betsy C Herold, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Minkoff, Seble Kassaye, Dominika L Seidman, Audrey L French, Elizabeth T Golub, Anandi N Sheth, Christina Ochsenbauer, Ronald Swanstrom, Joseph J Eron, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of genital HIV-1 shedding in a large cohort of women on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its association with mucosal inflammation. DESIGN: We measured levels of HIV-1 RNA and inflammation biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from HIV-seropositive women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: HIV-1 was quantified (Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay) from CVL samples of 332 WIHS participants with and without clinical evidence of genital inflammation at the time of CVL collection; participants had suppressed plasma viral load (PVL) (limit of quantitation <20-4000 copies/ml depending on year of collection) for a median of 7...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Atheendar Venkataramani, Ayesha Bm Kharsany, Sean Beckett, Kaymarlin Govender, Lara Lewis, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Gavin George
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional and cohort studies draw different conclusions on whether age-disparate partnerships increase HIV-acquisition risk for young women. We investigated whether age-disparities were associated with HIV-infection risk early in relationships. This could result in the exclusion of women who seroconverted during high-risk age-disparate partnerships from cohort studies of HIV-incidence - which exclude HIV-positive women - and explain null findings in these studies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS:: We used data on 15-24 year-old, HIV-negative women in heterosexual partnerships (N=830) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Julien Gras, Nadia Mahjoub, Isabelle Charreau, Laurent Cotte, Cécile Tremblay, Julie Chas, François Raffi, Eric Cua, Brigitte Guillon, Nicolas Guigue, Marie Laure Chaix, Laurence Meyer, Jean Michel Molina, Constance Delaugerre
BACKGROUND: A high incidence of acute HCV (AHCV) infection has been reported among at-risk HIV-negative Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). The optimal strategy for early diagnosis of AHCV in this population is not clearly defined. METHODS: In the ANRS IPERGAY PrEP trial among high risk HIV-negative MSM, HCV serology and serum ALT were used for screening at enrollment and during follow-up. Behavioral risk factors were compared at baseline between participants who were diagnosed with AHCV during the study compared to those who did not...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Talia Sainz, Sergio Serrano-Villar, Surinder Mann, Zhong-Min Ma, Netanya S Utay, Corbin G Thompson, Tae-Wook Chun, Angela D Kashuba, Basile Siewe, Anthony Albanese, Paolo Troia-Cancio, Elizabeth Sinclair, Anoma Somasunderam, Tammy Yotter, Santiago Moreno, Richard B Pollard, Alan Landay, Christopher J Miller, David M Asmuth
BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize the impact of ART initiation on GALT at various sites along the gastrointestinal site. METHODOLOGY: Peripheral blood and duodenal and rectal biopsies were obtained from 12 HIV and 33 treatment-naïve HIV subjects at baseline and after 9-months ART. Tissue was digested for immunophenotyping. Inflammatory, bacterial translocation and intestinal damage markers were measured in plasma. RESULTS: Twenty-six HIV subjects completed follow-up...
September 2, 2019: AIDS
Ana Milinkovic, Florian Berger, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Stefan Mauss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on lipids in patients switching from TDF to TAF and back. METHODS: Retrospective data collection on patients who were initially switched from TDF to TAF and switched back to TDF after generics of TDF became available. RESULTS: In total 385 patients were included. Median duration of TDF exposure before switch was 317 weeks (IQR 172-494)...
August 29, 2019: AIDS
Walter Mchembere, Janet Agaya, Courtney M Yuen, Douglas Okelloh, Millicent Achola, Joseph Opole, Jessica Cowden, Hellen Muttai, Charles M Heilig, Martien W Borgdorff, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of a broad and non-specific symptom screen for identifying people with undiagnosed HIV infection. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of operational data collected during implementation of a cluster-randomized trial for tuberculosis case detection. METHODS: As part of the trial, adults reporting cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, or difficulty breathing of any duration in the past month were identified in health facilities and community-based mobile screening units in western Kenya...
August 22, 2019: AIDS
Mira A Donaldson, Amber R Campbell, Arianne Y Albert, Mahtab Borhani, Ariel Nesbitt, Hélène C F Côté, Evelyn J Maan, Neora Pick, Melanie C M Murray
OBJECTIVE: To characterize comorbid disease and medication burden among women living with HIV (WLWH) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. DESIGN: We examined baseline data from 267 WLWH and 276 HIV-negative females, ≥19 years, enrolled in the Children and Women: Antiretrovirals and Markers of Aging (CARMA) cohort. METHODS: Self-reported demographic, medical condition, medication, vitamin, and substance exposure data were collected at baseline CARMA study visits...
August 22, 2019: AIDS
Rachel Kidman, Hans-Peter Kohler
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important determinants of sexual debut and HIV testing. DESIGN: Adolescents (age 10-16; N = 2,089) from rural Malawi were interviewed in 2017-2018 for the baseline wave of a longitudinal study of childhood adversity and HIV risk. METHODS: Respondents were interviewed in their local language. Surveys captured 13 lifetime childhood adversities (using the ACE - International Questionnaire); sexual debut; and previous HIV testing...
August 22, 2019: AIDS
Kyaw Thin, Koen Frederix, Stephen McCracken, Mosilinyane Letsie, Andrea Low, Hetal Patel, Bharat Parekh, Tsietso Motsoane, Nahima Ahmed, Jessica Justman, Larkin Callaghan, Susan Tembo, Amee Schwitters
OBJECTIVE: The Lesotho Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (LePHIA) survey was conducted nationally and designed to measure HIV prevalence, incidence, and viral load suppression (VLS). DESIGN: A nationally representative sample of 9,403 eligible households was surveyed between November 2016 and May 2017; analyses account for study design. Consenting participants provided blood samples, socio-demographic and behavioral information. METHODS: Blood samples were tested using the national rapid HIV testing algorithm...
August 22, 2019: AIDS
Frank J Palella, Rachel Hart, Carl Armon, Ellen Tedaldi, Bienvenido Yangco, Richard Novak, Linda Battalora, Douglas Ward, Jun Li, Kate Buchacz
OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemiology of non-AIDS-related chronic comorbidities (NACMs) among aging persons with HIV (PWH) DESIGN:: Prospective multicenter observational study to assess, in an age stratified fashion, number and types of NACMs by demographic and HIV factors. METHODS: Eligible participants were seen during 1/1/1997 - 6/30/2015, followed >5.0 years, received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and virally suppressed [HIV viral load (VL) < 200 copies/mL ≥75% of observation time]...
August 22, 2019: AIDS
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