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Angela M Thompson-Paul, Frank J Palella, Nabil Rayeed, Matthew D Ritchey, Kenneth A Lichtenstein, Deesha Patel, Quanhe Yang, Cathleen Gillespie, Fleetwood Loustalot, Pragna Patel, Kate Buchacz
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We used individual cardiovascular risk factor profiles to estimate heart age for PLWH in medical care in the U.S. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) data METHODS:: Included in this analysis were participants aged 30-74 years, without prior CVD, ≥ 2 HOPS clinic visits during 2010-2017, ≥1 year of follow-up, and available covariate data...
July 3, 2019: AIDS
Deborah Kacanek, Yanling Huo, Kathleen Malee, Claude A Mellins, Renee Smith, Patricia A Garvie, Katherine Tassiopoulos, Sonia Lee, Claire Berman, Mary Paul, Ana Puga, Susannah Allison
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with nonadherence and unsuppressed viral load across adolescence among youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV). DESIGN: Longitudinal study at 15 US clinical sites METHODS:: Self-reported antiretroviral medication nonadherence (any missed dose, past week) and unsuppressed VL (HIV RNA>400 copies/mL) were assessed annually. Individual, caregiver, social and structural factors associated with nonadherence and unsuppressed VL were identified by age (years): 8-11 ("pre-adolescence"), 12-14 ("early adolescence"), 15-17 ("middle adolescence"), and 18-22 ("late adolescence/young adulthood"), utilizing multivariable generalized linear mixed effects models...
July 3, 2019: AIDS
Mark J Siedner, Mwebesa Bosco Bwana, Stephen Asiimwe, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jose Castillo-Mancilla, Gideon Amanyire, Russell P Tracy, David R Bangsberg, Catherine Orrell, Jessica E Haberer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of biomarkers of immune activation, systemic inflammation, and coagulopathy prior to antiretroviral therapy to predict mortality during the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa DESIGN:: Prospective, observational cohort METHODS:: We measured soluble CD14, interleukin-6, and D-dimer in non-pregnant individuals initiating ART in South Africa and Uganda in the Measuring Early Treatment Adherence (META) Study. We used survival analysis methods to estimate their association with 12-month mortality, and fit receiver operator curves (ROC) to assess the prognostic value of each biomarker...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Deepak Poudyal, Jun Yang, Qian Chen, Suranjana Goswami, Joseph W Adelsberger, Sudipto Das, Andrew Herman, Ronald L Hornung, Thorkell Andresson, Tomozumi Imamichi
OBJECTIVES: IL-27 is known as an antiviral cytokine that inhibits HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other viruses. We have previously demonstrated that, IL-27 posttreatment after HIV-infection inhibits viral replication in primary CD4 T cells. DESIGN: Here, we evaluated the anti-HIV effect of IL-27 pretreatment in CD4 T cells from healthy donors prior to HIV infection with HIVNL4.3 or vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-luciferase virus (HIV-LUC-V)...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Jilian A Sacks, Youyi Fong, Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Mauro Andreotti, Shrikala Baliga, Nigel Garrett, Jeanne Jordan, Etienne Karita, Smita Kulkarni, Orna Mor, Fausta Mosha, Zibusiso Ndlovu, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Shanmugam Saravanan, Lesley Scott, Trevor Peter, Meg Doherty, Heather Alexander, Lara Vojnov
BACKGROUND: Coverage of viral load testing remains low with only half of the patients in need having adequate access. Alternative technologies to high throughput centralized machines can be used to support viral load scale-up; however, clinical performance data are lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 viral load plasma assay to traditional laboratory-based technologies. METHODS: Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 and comparator laboratory technology plasma viral load results were provided from 13 of the 19 eligible studies, which accounted for a total of 3790 paired data points...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Alana T Brennan, Kaitlyn M Berry, Sydney Rosen, Andrew Stokes, Nigel J Crowther, Jaya George, Frederick Raal, Naseem Cassim, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major long-term concern in HIV-positive patients due to the pathogenic link between obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD). We aim to characterize changes in body mass index (BMI) over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and investigate the association between weight gain and survival in South Africa. DESIGN & METHODS: Prospective cohort study among HIV-positive adults on first-line ART between April 2004-2015 in Johannesburg, South Africa...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Joga Chaganti, Karthik Marripudi, Lukas P Staub, Caroline D Rae, Thomas M Gates, Kirsten J Moffat, Bruce J Brew
OBJECTIVE: We explored the role of Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the pathogenesis of HAND in the context of fully suppressive cART using Dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion (DCE-P) MRI. DCE-P is a new MRI technique that measures capillary permeability as an indicator for BBB integrity. We hypothesized that virally suppressed incident HAND would be associated with an impaired BBB as determined by DCE-P. DESIGN: METHODS:: K-trans, a metric derivative of DCE-Perfusion, was obtained from different regions of the brain in a cohort of 20 patients with HAND who were virally suppressed in both CSF and blood compared with CSF and blood markers of neuroinflammation as well as with neurometabolites derived from MR spectroscopy...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Siobhan Crichton, Erik Belfrage, Intira Jeannie Collins, Katja Doerholt, Ali Judd, Sophie Le Coeur, Vana Spoulou, Henriette Scherpbier, Colette Smit, Tessa Goetghebuer, Diana M Gibb, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Maria Luisa Navarro, Jose Tomas Ramos, Luisa Galli, Carlo Giaquinto, Claire Thorne, Santa Ansone, Magdalena Marczynska, Liubov Okhonskaia, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Gonzague Jourdain, Luc Decker, Luminita Ene, Ruth Goodall
OBJECTIVE: To describe growth during puberty in young people with vertically acquired HIV. DESIGN: Pooled data from 12 paediatric HIV cohorts in Europe and Thailand. METHODS: 1094 children initiating an NNRTI- or boosted PI-based regimen aged 1 to 10 years were included. Super Imposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) models described growth from age 8 years using 3 parameters (average height, timing and shape of the growth spurt), dependent on age and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) (World Health Organisation references) at ART initiation...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Aditya S Khanna, John A Schneider, Nicholson Collier, Jonathan Ozik, Rodal Issema, Angela di Paola, Abigail Skwara, Arthi Ramachandran, Jeannette Webb, Russell Brewer, William Cunningham, Charles Hilliard, Santhoshini Ramani, Kayo Fujimoto, Nina Harawa
OBJECTIVE(S): "Getting to Zero" (GTZ) initiatives aim to eliminate new HIV infections over a projected time frame. Increased PrEP uptake among populations with the highest HIV incidence, such as young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), is necessary to accomplish this aim. Agent-based network models (ABNMs) can help guide policymakers on strategies to increase PrEP uptake. DESIGN: Effective PrEP implementation requires a model that incorporates the dynamics of interventions and dynamic feedbacks across multiple levels including virus, host, behavior, networks and population...
July 2, 2019: AIDS
Davide De Francesco, Jonathan Underwood, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Jane Anderson, Ian Williams, Jaime H Vera, Frank A Post, Marta Boffito, Margaret Johnson, Patrick W G Mallon, Alan Winston, Caroline A Sabin
AIMS: To assess associations of comorbidity patterns observed in people living with HIV (PLWH) with risk factors and health outcomes. METHODS: Common patters of comorbidities in PLWH participating in the POPPY study were determined using principal component analysis and a severity score for each pattern was derived. Associations between each pattern's severity score and risk factors were assessed using median regression. The independent associations of patterns' severity scores with self-reported physical and mental health (SF-36 summary scores) were assessed using linear regression, with functional impairment (Lawton IADL < 8) and hospitalization in last year using logistic regression and with number of general practitioner (GP) visits using Poisson regression...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Matthew A Spinelli, Nancy A Hessol, Sandy Schwarcz, Ling Hsu, Maree-Kay Parisi, Sharon Pipkin, Susan Scheer, Diane Havlir, Susan P Buchbinder
OBJECTIVE: San Francisco (SF), California, has experienced a 44% reduction in new HIV diagnoses since 2013 supported by its "Getting to Zero" initiative; however, the age-adjusted mortality rate in people with HIV (PWH) has not decreased. We sought to identify factors associated with death among PWH in SF. DESIGN: Population-based incidence-density case-control study. METHODS: Among PWH in the SF HIV surveillance registry, a random sample of 48 decedents from July 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017 were each matched to 2-3 controls who were alive at the date of death (108 controls matched on age and time since diagnosis)...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Robert M Cabrera, Jaclyn P Souder, John W Steele, Lythou Yeo, Gabriel Tukeman, Daniel A Gorelick, Richard H Finnell
OBJECTIVE: Maternal folate (vitamin B9) status is the largest known modifier of neural tube defect (NTD) risk, so we evaluated folate-related mechanisms of action for dolutegravir (DTG) developmental toxicity. DESIGN: Folate receptor (FOLR1) was examined as a target for DTG developmental toxicity using protein and cellular interaction studies and an animal model. METHODS: FOLR1 competitive binding studies were used to test DTG for FOLR1 antagonism...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Thomas Senoner, Fabian Barbieri, Agne Adukauskaite, Mario Sarcletti, Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Gudrun M Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess coronary artery disease (CAD) characteristics by coronary CT-angiography (CCTA) in individuals with HIV-infection on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) DESIGN:: Retrospective case-controlled matched cohort study METHODS:: 69 HIV positive patients who underwent 128-slice dual source CCTA (mean age 54.9 years, 26.1% females) with mean 17.8 ± 9.4 years of HIV-infection and a mean duration on ART of 13 ± 7.3 years were propensity score matched (1:1) for age, gender, BMI, and 5 cardiovascular risk factors with 69 controls...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Jean-Philippe Spano, Marianne Veyri, Aurélien Gobert, Amélie Guihot, Philippe Perré, Mallorie Kerjouan, Solenn Brosseau, Nicolas Cloarec, Henri Montaudie, Carole Helissey, Thomas Flament, Valérie Gounant, Armelle Lavolé, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Christine Katlama
OBJECTIVE: To report efficacy and tolerance of nivolumab or pembrolizumab, PD-1 inhibitors, in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and cancer. DESIGN: Series of PLWHIV cancer patients treated with anti-PD1 agents in real life clinical practice. METHODS: From May 2014 to January 2019, 575 HIV infected patients have been discussed in the French CANCERVIH national multidisciplinary board and included in the network database. 23 patients were treated with ICI in daily practice...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Eileen M Martin, Raul Gonzalez, Jasmin Vassileva, Antoine Bechara
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among individuals infected with HIV, yet whether neurocognitive effects of HIV can be distinguished from more nonspecific effects of drug dependence and associated comorbidities is not known. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study of neurocognitive function among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals with and without substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS: We compared the performance of 458 (31% HIV-infected) substance dependent individuals (SDIs) and 90 individuals (23% HIV-infected) with no history of substance use disorders (SUDs) on measures of delay discounting and probability learning, tasks which are differentially sensitive to addictive processes and HIV serostatus, respectively...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Stéphanie Raymond, Nicolas Jeanne, Florence Nicot, Caroline Lefebvre, Romain Carcenac, Luce Minier, Julie Chiabrando, Michelle Cazabat, Pierre Delobel, Jacques Izopet
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term evolution of the transmitted CXCR4-using viruses. CCR5-using viruses (R5 viruses) predominate during primary HIV-1 infections (PHI) while CXCR4-using viruses are isolated in less than 10% of PHI. DESIGN: Six patients infected with an R5X4 virus, detected by a sensitive phenotypic assay during PHI, were matched with six patients infected with a pure R5 virus for sex, Fiebig stage, time of antiretroviral initiation and duration of follow-up...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Fernanda de Oliveira Feitosa de Castro, Jacyelle Medeiros Silva, Gilson Pires Dorneles, Jéssica Barletto de Sousa Barros, Camila Bastos Ribeiro, Isaú Noronha, Gabriela Rodrigues Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Silva Souza, Adriana Guilarde, Ana Joaquina Cohen Serique Pereira, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Sarah Eller Franco de Oliveira, Alessandra Peres, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann Pfrimer, Simone Gonçalves da Fonseca
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cannabis and/or cocaine use on inflammatory, oxidative stress status and circulating monocyte subsets in HIV-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidative stress markers were examined. The monocyte subsets and their activation and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1 infected individuals upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation were also investigated...
June 26, 2019: AIDS
Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Stéphanie Bibert, Patrick Taffé, Enos Bernasconi, Hansjakob Furrer, Huldrych F Günthard, Matthias Hoffmann, Michael Osthoff, Matthias Cavassini, Pierre-Yves Bochud
OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. Polymorphisms in immune genes are increasingly reported to influence susceptibility to fungal infections. We analysed the role of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 19 candidate genes on PJP development in patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included patients with a nadir CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/μl, divided into a discovery (N = 1645) and a replication (N = 1861) cohort...
June 18, 2019: AIDS
Linda Beer, Yunfeng Tie, Mabel Padilla, R Luke Shouse
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms among adults with diagnosed HIV (PWH) in the United States in order to inform effective HIV prevention and care efforts. DESIGN: The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a complex sample survey of adults with diagnosed HIV in the United States. METHODS: We used MMP data collected during 6/2015-5/2016 to calculate the weighted prevalence of GAD symptoms among PWH (N = 3654) and prevalence ratios with predicted marginal means to evaluate significant differences between groups...
June 17, 2019: AIDS
Matthew Radford, Daniel C Parks, Shannon Ferrante, Yogesh Punekar
OBJECTIVE: Compare the efficacy and safety of the 2-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen dolutegravir + lamivudine (DTG+3TC) with traditional 3-drug regimens in treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1. DESIGN: Data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥48 weeks' duration in treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 identified by systematic review were evaluated using a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) methodology. METHODS: The primary outcome was virologic suppression (VS) at Week 48 for 3-drug regimens versus DTG+3TC (also analyzed in patient subgroup with baseline viral load (VL) > 100,000 RNA copies/mL)...
June 7, 2019: AIDS
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