Eric A Meyerowitz, Arthur Y Kim, Kevin L Ard, Nesli Basgoz, Jacqueline T Chu, Rocio M Hurtado, Catherine K Lee, Wei He, Theresa Minukas, Sandra Nelson, Bisola O Ojikutu, Greg Robbins, Sarimer Sanchez, Virginia A Triant, Kimon Zachary, Rajesh T Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV (PLWH) have comorbidities which are risk factors for severe COVID-19 or have exposures that may lead to acquisition of SARS-CoV-2. There are few studies, however, on the demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation or outcomes of COVID-19 in people with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors, clinical manifestations and outcomes in a large cohort of PLWH with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically identified all PLWH who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at a large hospital from March 3 to April 26, 2020 during an outbreak in Massachusetts...
June 25, 2020: AIDS
Kayla Stankevitz, Hannah Grant, Josie Lloyd, Gabriela B Gomez, Katharine Kripke, Kristine Torjesen, Jason J Ong, Fern Terris-Prestholt
OBJECTIVE: To appropriately plan for rollout and monitor impact of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) it is important to understand PrEP continuation and come to a consensus on how best to measure PrEP continuation. This study reviews data on PrEP continuation to document how it is reported, and to compare continuation over time and across populations. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health and reviewed abstracts from HIV conferences from 2017-2018 for studies reporting primary data on PrEP continuation...
June 17, 2020: AIDS
Timothy D Mastro, Christopher Akolo, Steven Shoptaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2020: AIDS
Kate E L Bouzidi, Sophie Jose, Andrew N Phillips, Anton Pozniak, Andrew Ustianowski, Mark Gompels, Alan Winston, Ab Schaap, David T Dunn, Caroline A Sabin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of people who initiated different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens during the era of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). DESIGN: UK-based observational cohort study. METHODS: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study participants were included if they had started ART between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2017. Virological failure (VF) was defined as the first of two consecutive plasma HIV RNA > 50 copies/mL, at least six months after starting ART...
June 8, 2020: AIDS
Clare L van Halsema, Hajra Okhai, Teresa Hill, Caroline A Sabin
OBJECTIVE: The UK has a low tuberculosis incidence and earlier combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expected to have reduced incidence among people with HIV. Epidemiological patterns and risk factors for active tuberculosis were analysed over a 20 year period among people accessing HIV care at sites participating in the UK CHIC observational study. DESIGN: Cohort analysis. METHODS: Data were included for individuals over 15 years old attending for HIV care between 1996 and 2017 inclusive, with at least three months follow up recorded...
June 4, 2020: AIDS
Maja C Ziegler, Annika Nelde, Jeffrey K Weber, Christian Marius Schreitmüller, Glòria Martrus, Tien Huynh, Madeleine J Bunders, Sebastian Lunemann, Stefan Stevanovic, Ruhong Zhou, Marcus Altfeld
OBJECTIVE: Viral infections influence intracellular peptide repertoires available for presentation by HLA-I. Alterations in HLA-I/peptide complexes can modulate binding of KIRs and thereby the function of NK cells. While multiple studies have provided evidence that HLA-I/KIR interactions play a role in HIV-1 disease progression, the consequence of HIV-1 infection for HLA-I/KIR interactions remain largely unknown. DESIGN: We determined changes in HLA-I-presented peptides resulting from HIV-1 infection of primary human CD4 T-cells and assessed the impact of changes in peptide repertoires on HLA-I/KIR interactions...
June 4, 2020: AIDS
Irma Saulle, Salomè Valentina Ibba, Cecilia Vittori, Claudio Fenizia, Vincenzo Mercurio, Francesca Vichi, Sergio Lo Caputo, Daria Trabattoni, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
BACKGROUND: 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an Interferon stimulated gene (ISG), which catalyzes the synthesis of 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC intervenes in metabolic and infectious processes as controls cholesterol homeostasis and influences viral entry into host cells.We verified whether natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is at least partially mediated by particularities in sterol biosynthesis. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from 15 sexually-exposed HESN and 15 healthy controls (HC) were in vitro HIV-1-infected and analyzed for: 1) percentage of IFNα-producing plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs); 2) Cholesterol signaling and inflammatory response RNA expression; 3) resistance to HIV-1 infection...
June 4, 2020: AIDS
Jane Kabami, Laura B Balzer, Hachem Saddiki, James Ayieko, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Mucunguzi Atukunda, Edwin D Charlebois, Tamara D Clark, Catherine A Koss, Theodore Ruel, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Phillipa Musoke, Maya L Petersen, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Gabriel Chamie
OBJECTIVE(S): We sought to determine whether universal 'test and treat' (UTT) can achieve gains in viral suppression beyond universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) eligibility during pregnancy and postpartum, among women living with HIV. DESIGN: A community cluster randomized trial. METHODS: The SEARCH UTT trial compared an intervention of annual population testing and universal ART with a control of baseline population testing with ART by country standard, including ART eligibility for all pregnant/postpartum women, in 32 communities in Kenya and Uganda...
May 28, 2020: AIDS
Annette H Sohn, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Nia Kurniati, Keswadee Lapphra, Matthew Law, Viet Chau Do, Lam Van Nguyen, Khanh Huu Truong, Dewi Kumara Wati, Pradthana Ounchanum, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Penh Sun Ly, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Sieu Moy Fong, Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Revathy Nallusamy, Nagalingaswaran Kumarasamy, Azar Kariminia
OBJECTIVE: To implement a standardized cause of death (CoDe) reporting and review process in order to systematically disaggregate causes of HIV-related deaths in a cohort of Asian children and adolescents. DESIGN: Death-related data were retrospectively and prospectively assessed in a longitudinal regional cohort study. METHODS: Children under routine HIV care at sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam between 2008-2017 were followed...
May 20, 2020: AIDS
Francis Bajunirwe, Daniel Semakula, Jonathan Izudi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between age-disparate relationships and risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15-24 years. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies until January 5, 2020 in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We searched several electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searched reference list of included studies to identify eligible studies for data abstraction...
May 20, 2020: AIDS
Seth C Inzaule, Michael R Jordan, George Bello, Nellie Wadonda-Kabondo, Salou Mounerou, Innocent A Mbulli, Sulaimon A Akanmu, Adolfo Vubil, Gillian Hunt, Pontiano Kaleebu, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleza, Janet Dzangare, Patrick Njukeng, Martina Penazzato, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Susan H Eshleman, Silvia Bertagnolio
: Exposure of infants to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission can induce resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Data from nine national surveys of pretreatment drug resistance in children newly diagnosed with HIV show high levels of resistance to NRTIs included in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (dual abacavir-lamivudine/emtricitabine resistance). Additional research is needed to determine the impact of NRTI resistance on treatment response and optimize infant ART...
May 20, 2020: AIDS
Clara Calvert, Milly Marston, Emma Slaymaker, Amelia C Crampin, Alison J Price, Nigel Klein, Kobus Herbst, Denna Michael, Mark Urassa, Samuel J Clark, Carine Ronsmans, Georges Reniers
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether HIV in associated with an increased risk of mortality from direct maternal complications. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using data from three demographic surveillance sites in Eastern and Southern Africa. METHODS: We use verbal autopsy data, with cause of death assigned using the InSilicoVA algorithm, to describe the association between HIV and direct maternal deaths amongst women aged 20-49. We report direct maternal mortality rates by HIV status, and crude and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) comparing HIV-infected and uninfected women, by study site and by ART availability...
May 8, 2020: AIDS
William C Goedel, S Bessey, Mark N Lurie, Katie B Biello, Patrick S Sullivan, Amy S Nunn, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: It is unknown what levels of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use are needed to reduce racial disparities in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using an agent-based model (ABM), we quantified the impact of achieving PrEP coverage targets grounded in equity on racial disparities in HIV incidence among MSM in an urban setting in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: An ABM was adapted to simulate HIV transmission in a network of Black/African American and White MSM aged 18 to 39 years in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell metropolitan area over ten years (2015-2024)...
May 6, 2020: AIDS
Junwei Su, Xiaomin Shen, Qin Ni, Hong Zhao, Jieru Cai, Biao Zhu, Wenrui Wu, Guanjing Lang, Kaijin Xu, Jifang Sheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2020: AIDS
Jiaming Liang, Ekaterina Nosova, Hudson Reddon, Seonaid Nolan, Eugenia Socias, Rolando Barrios, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) experience elevated rates of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality compared with members of other key affected populations. Although suboptimal levels of access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are common among HIV-positive PWUD, there is a need for studies investigating the possible biological impacts of noninjection illicit drug use among people living with HIV in real-world settings. METHODS: We accessed data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing prospective cohort of illicit drug users with systematic HIV viral load monitoring in a setting with universal care and ART dispensation records...
April 16, 2020: AIDS
Sana-Kay Whyte-Allman, Md Tozammel Hoque, Julian Gilmore, Rupert Kaul, Jean-Pierre Routy, Reina Bendayan
OBJECTIVES: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters and drug metabolic enzymes could reduce antiretroviral (ARV) concentrations in HIV target cells. The testis has been demonstrated to be a sanctuary site, displaying suboptimal ARV concentrations and persistent HIV infection. Therefore, we compared the expression and function of ABC transporters and metabolic enzymes in CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from human testis and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and assessed their expression in circulating naïve and memory CD4 T-cell phenotypes...
April 16, 2020: AIDS
Michael J Peluso, Jessica Chen, Sadie Munter, Asia Reed, Justin Teraoka, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Timothy J Henrich, Peter V Chin-Hong
OBJECTIVES: Immunomodulatory drugs (IMDs) are crucial for treating autoimmune, inflammatory, and oncologic conditions. Data regarding the safety of IMDs in people living with HIV (PLWH) are limited. We describe outcomes in all PLWH prescribed these agents from 2000--2019 at two academic medical centers. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We systematically identified and reviewed charts of all PLWH receiving IMDs. We defined a treatment episode as an uninterrupted period on an IMD regimen...
April 16, 2020: AIDS
Claudia S Crowell, Paige L Williams, Cenk Yildirim, Russell B Van Dyke, Renee Smith, Ellen G Chadwick, George R Seage, Alexandria Diperna, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an increased risk of neurologic diagnoses in children who are HIV-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) exposed in utero to specific antiretroviral medications. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of CHEU enrolled from 2007 to 2017. METHODS: We evaluated children for neurologic case status, including microcephaly, febrile seizures, seizure disorders, ophthalmologic disorders, and other neurologic disorders. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) were estimated for the association between in-utero antiretroviral exposure and neurologic case using log-binomial regression, accounting for potential confounders...
April 16, 2020: AIDS
Aoife Lacey, Stefano Savinelli, Elena Alvarez Barco, Alan Macken, Aoife G Cotter, Gerard Sheehan, John S Lambert, Eavan Muldoon, Eoin Feeney, Patrick W Mallon, Willard Tinago
BACKGROUND: Whilst reporting improved renal and bone safety profiles, studies have noted changes in lipid profiles among people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) switching away from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). We aimed to characterize changes in lipids observed after switching to TAF-containing ART in a real-world setting. METHODS: A prospective study on PLWH enrolled in the UCD-ID Cohort study who switched to TAF-containing ART...
April 16, 2020: AIDS
Vishakha Sharma, Christopher Bryant, Maria Montero, Matthew Creegan, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Victor Valcour, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, Thep Chalermchai, Michael A Eller, Diane L Bolton
OBJECTIVE: Mechanisms underlying immune activation and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in untreated chronic infection remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify phenotypic and transcriptional changes in blood monocytes and CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals and elucidate processes associated with neurocognitive impairment. DESIGN: A group of chronically HIV-1-infected Thai individuals (n = 19) were selected for comparison with healthy donor controls (n = 10)...
July 15, 2020: AIDS
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