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Jo Ellen Wilson, Matthew F Mart, Colm Cunningham, Yahya Shehabi, Timothy D Girard, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Arjen J C Slooter, E Wesley Ely
Delirium, a syndrome characterized by an acute change in attention, awareness and cognition, is caused by a medical condition that cannot be better explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. Multiple predisposing factors (for example, pre-existing cognitive impairment) and precipitating factors (for example, urinary tract infection) for delirium have been described, with most patients having both types. Because multiple factors are implicated in the aetiology of delirium, there are likely several neurobiological processes that contribute to delirium pathogenesis, including neuroinflammation, brain vascular dysfunction, altered brain metabolism, neurotransmitter imbalance and impaired neuronal network connectivity...
November 12, 2020: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Margo D M Faay, Iris E Sommer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
Roberta de Pádua Borges, Nathália Abi Habib Degobi, Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci
Statins are among the most widely prescribed medicines in the world and have proved their value in reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Many patients report adverse effects that lead to interruption of treatment. This review aims to individualize statin treatment, considering efficacy for reducing cardiovascular risk and safety, in the setting of specific diseases, to minimize the side effects and improve compliance. We gathered evidence that may help clinicians to choose specific statins in different clinical situations, such as the risk of new diabetes, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplant, heart failure and elderly people...
November 9, 2020: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Michael S Phipps, Carolyn A Cronin
Stroke is the leading cause of long term disability in developed countries and one of the top causes of mortality worldwide. The past decade has seen substantial advances in the diagnostic and treatment options available to minimize the impact of acute ischemic stroke. The key first step in stroke care is early identification of patients with stroke and triage to centers capable of delivering the appropriate treatment, as fast as possible. Here, we review the data supporting pre-hospital and emergency stroke care, including use of emergency medical services protocols for identification of patients with stroke, intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke including updates to recommended patient eligibility criteria and treatment time windows, and advanced imaging techniques with automated interpretation to identify patients with large areas of brain at risk but without large completed infarcts who are likely to benefit from endovascular thrombectomy in extended time windows from symptom onset...
February 13, 2020: BMJ: British Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2020: American Family Physician
O Joe Hines, Stephen J Pandol
The risks, measurements of severity, and management of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications have evolved rapidly over the past decade. Evidence suggests that initial goal directed therapy, nutritional support, and vigilance for pancreatic complications are best practice. Patients can develop pancreatic fluid collections including acute pancreatic fluid collections, pancreatic pseudocysts, acute necrotic collections, and walled-off necrosis. Several randomized controlled trials and cohort studies have recently highlighted the advantage of managing these conditions with a progressive approach, with initial draining for infection followed by less invasive techniques...
December 2, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Megan Jaynes, Avinash B Kumar
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications. Their use is likely even higher than estimated due to an increase in the number of PPIs available without a prescription. Appropriate indications for PPI use include Helicobacter pylori infection, erosive esophagitis, gastric ulcers, and stress ulcer prevention in high-risk critically ill patients. Unfortunately, PPIs are often used off-label for extended periods of time. This increase in PPI usage over the past two decades has called into question the long-term effects of these medications...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Yun Liu, Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen, Jonathan Krause, Lily Peng
In recent years, many new clinical diagnostic tools have been developed using complicated machine learning methods. Irrespective of how a diagnostic tool is derived, it must be evaluated using a 3-step process of deriving, validating, and establishing the clinical effectiveness of the tool. Machine learning-based tools should also be assessed for the type of machine learning model used and its appropriateness for the input data type and data set size. Machine learning models also generally have additional prespecified settings called hyperparameters, which must be tuned on a data set independent of the validation set...
November 12, 2019: JAMA
Bjørn Erik Neerland, Karin J Neufeld, Arjen J C Slooter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Nigel S Key, Alok A Khorana, Nicole M Kuderer, Kari Bohlke, Agnes Y Y Lee, Juan I Arcelus, Sandra L Wong, Edward P Balaban, Christopher R Flowers, Charles W Francis, Leigh E Gates, Ajay K Kakkar, Mark N Levine, Howard A Liebman, Margaret A Tempero, Gary H Lyman, Anna Falanga
PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment...
February 10, 2020: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Wenjuan Zhang, Lei Xu, Tingting Luo, Feng Wu, Bin Zhao, Xianqi Li
Bell's palsy is the most common condition involving a rapid and unilateral onset of peripheral paresis/paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve. It affects 11.5-53.3 per 100,000 individuals a year across different populations. Bell's palsy is a health issue causing concern and has an extremely negative effect on both patients and their families. Therefore, diagnosis and prompt cause determination are key for early treatment. However, the etiology of Bell's palsy is unclear, and this affects its treatment. Thus, it is critical to determine the causes of Bell's palsy so that targeted treatment approaches can be developed and employed...
July 2020: Journal of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria® (AGS Beers Criteria®) for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) Use in Older Adults are widely used by clinicians, educators, researchers, healthcare administrators, and regulators. Since 2011, the AGS has been the steward of the criteria and has produced updates on a 3-year cycle. The AGS Beers Criteria® is an explicit list of PIMs that are typically best avoided by older adults in most circumstances or under specific situations, such as in certain diseases or conditions...
April 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Rhea Mehta, Krishna Chinthapalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lee Rodney Haselhuhn, Daniel J Brotman, Ilan Shor Wittstein
The 2017 focused update of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on heart failure contains new and important recommendations on prevention, novel biomarker uses, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and comorbidities such as hypertension, iron deficiency, and sleep-disordered breathing. Potential implications for management of acute decompensated heart failure will also be explored.
February 2019: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Lindsay E Nicolle, Kalpana Gupta, Suzanne F Bradley, Richard Colgan, Gregory P DeMuri, Dimitri Drekonja, Linda O Eckert, Suzanne E Geerlings, Béla Köves, Thomas M Hooton, Manisha Juthani-Mehta, Shandra L Knight, Sanjay Saint, Anthony J Schaeffer, Barbara Trautner, Bjorn Wullt, Reed Siemieniuk
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in many populations, including healthy women and persons with underlying urologic abnormalities. The 2005 guideline from the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommended that ASB should be screened for and treated only in pregnant women or in an individual prior to undergoing invasive urologic procedures. Treatment was not recommended for healthy women; older women or men; or persons with diabetes, indwelling catheters, or spinal cord injury. The guideline did not address children and some adult populations, including patients with neutropenia, solid organ transplants, and nonurologic surgery...
May 2, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
E Chris Vincent, Arthur Zebelman, Cheryl Goodwin, Mary M Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2006: Journal of Family Practice
Craig T January, L Samuel Wann, Hugh Calkins, Lin Y Chen, Joaquin E Cigarroa, Joseph C Cleveland, Patrick T Ellinor, Michael D Ezekowitz, Michael E Field, Karen L Furie, Paul A Heidenreich, Katherine T Murray, Julie B Shea, Cynthia M Tracy, Clyde W Yancy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2019: Circulation
Yi-Cheng Wu, Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Kang Tu, Chung-Yao Hsu, Chih-Sung Liang, Ta-Chuan Yeh, Tien-Yu Chen, Che-Sheng Chu, Yutaka J Matsuoka, Brendon Stubbs, Andre F Carvalho, Saho Wada, Pao-Yen Lin, Yen-Wen Chen, Kuan-Pin Su
IMPORTANCE: Although several pharmacological interventions for delirium have been investigated, their overall benefit and safety remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence regarding pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment and prevention. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, ClinicalKey, and from inception to May 17, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment and prevention...
May 1, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Christina Hermetter, Franz Fazekas, Sonja Hochmeister
In recent years, new antibodies have been discovered which mediate autoimmune encephalitis. This immunological response can be triggered by an infection or a tumor. Classical onconeuronal antibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal agents but recently, a novel group of antibodies to neuronal cell-surface and synaptic antigens associated with different CNS-syndromes, has been discovered. Interestingly, the syndromes in this group can be successfully treated with immunotherapy and frequently do not have underlying tumors...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Eline M P Poels, Hilmar H Bijma, Megan Galbally, Veerle Bergink
Lithium is an effective treatment in pregnancy and postpartum for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder. However, lithium has also been associated with risks during pregnancy for both the mother and the unborn child. Recent large studies have confirmed the association between first trimester lithium exposure and an increased risk of congenital malformations. Importantly, the risk estimates from these studies are lower than previously reported. Tapering of lithium during the first trimester could be considered but should be weighed against the risks of relapse...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
2019-01-15 01:53:53
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