Collections Addiction


Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
John Strang, Nora D Volkow, Louisa Degenhardt, Matthew Hickman, Kimberly Johnson, George F Koob, Brandon D L Marshall, Mark Tyndall, Sharon L Walsh
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic relapsing disorder that, whilst initially driven by activation of brain reward neurocircuits, increasingly engages anti-reward neurocircuits that drive adverse emotional states and relapse. However, successful recovery is possible with appropriate treatment, although with a persisting propensity to relapse. The individual and public health burdens of OUD are immense; 26.8 million people were estimated to be living with OUD globally in 2016, with >100,000 opioid overdose deaths annually, including >47,000 in the USA in 2017...
January 9, 2020: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini, JoAnn LeQuang
With the rising concerns about long-term opioid use, particularly in patients with chronic noncancer pain, more and more patients are being considered for decreased doses or discontinuation of opioid therapy. This is a challenging clinical situation for both patient and clinician and should be presented in a shared decision-making model so that the patient understands the risks of opioid therapy and how the therapy will be discontinued. The patient should be aware of the long-range plan and its milestones. It is imperative that alternate pain control treatments be made available to the patient early, and that the patient never feels abandoned by the healthcare team...
December 2019: Pain and Therapy
Peter Hajek, Anna Phillips-Waller, Dunja Przulj, Francesca Pesola, Katie Myers Smith, Natalie Bisal, Jinshuo Li, Steve Parrott, Peter Sasieni, Lynne Dawkins, Louise Ross, Maciej Goniewicz, Qi Wu, Hayden J McRobbie
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are commonly used in attempts to stop smoking, but evidence is limited regarding their effectiveness as compared with that of nicotine products approved as smoking-cessation treatments. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults attending U.K. National Health Service stop-smoking services to either nicotine-replacement products of their choice, including product combinations, provided for up to 3 months, or an e-cigarette starter pack (a second-generation refillable e-cigarette with one bottle of nicotine e-liquid [18 mg per milliliter]), with a recommendation to purchase further e-liquids of the flavor and strength of their choice...
February 14, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Lindsay M Squeglia, Matthew C Fadus, Erin A McClure, Rachel L Tomko, Kevin M Gray
While the majority of youth who experiment with alcohol and drugs do not develop problematic levels of use, 5% of adolescents and 15% of young adults meet criteria for a substance use disorder (SUD). Pharmacotherapy, in combination with behavioral interventions, has the potential to increase the likelihood of successful treatment for youth struggling with SUD; however, the literature in this area is limited. To date, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for adolescent SUD, other than buprenorphine, which has been approved down to 16 years of age for opioid use disorder...
August 2019: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Carlos Blanco, Nora D Volkow
Opioid use disorder is characterised by the persistent use of opioids despite the adverse consequences of its use. The disorder is associated with a range of mental and general medical comorbid disorders, and with increased mortality. Although genetics are important in opioid use disorder, younger age, male sex, and lower educational attainment level and income, increase the risk of opioid use disorder, as do certain psychiatric disorders (eg, other substance use disorders and mood disorders). The medications for opioid use disorder, which include methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone, significantly improve opioid use disorder outcomes...
April 27, 2019: Lancet
E Chris Vincent, Arthur Zebelman, Cheryl Goodwin, Mary M Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2006: Journal of Family Practice
Timothy E Wilens, Lenard A Adler, Margaret D Weiss, David Michelson, Janet L Ramsey, Rodney J Moore, Didier Renard, Kathleen T Brady, Paula T Trzepacz, Leslie M Schuh, Lisa M Ahrbecker, Louise R Levine
OBJECTIVE: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders than adults without ADHD. The study aim was to determine if atomoxetine was superior to placebo in improving ADHD and alcohol use in recently abstinent adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorder. METHODS: Adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of ADHD and alcohol abuse and/or dependence were abstinent from alcohol at least 4 days (maximum 30 days) before study randomization...
July 1, 2008: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Philip D Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Amy S B Bohnert, Mark A Ilgen
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 380, Issue 1, Page 71-79, January 2019.
January 3, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Rajita Sinha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Laura E Kwako, Melanie L Schwandt, Vijay A Ramchandani, Nancy Diazgranados, George F Koob, Nora D Volkow, Carlos Blanco, David Goldman
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated whether three neurofunctional domains proposed to be critical in the addiction cycle, namely, incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function, could be identified through factor analysis of a deeply phenotyped clinical sample. METHODS: Clinical, behavioral, and self-report measures of addiction, personality, cognition, behavior, and exposure to early-life stress were collected as part of a screening and natural history study of alcohol use disorders in 454 individuals representing the spectrum of alcohol use and use disorders...
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Henry R Kranzler, Michael Soyka
IMPORTANCE: Alcohol consumption is associated with 88 000 US deaths annually. Although routine screening for heavy alcohol use can identify patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and has been recommended, only 1 in 6 US adults report ever having been asked by a health professional about their drinking behavior. Alcohol use disorder, a problematic pattern of alcohol use accompanied by clinically significant impairment or distress, is present in up to 14% of US adults during a 1-year period, although only about 8% of affected individuals are treated in an alcohol treatment facility...
August 28, 2018: JAMA
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older...
September 22, 2018: Lancet
Deborah S Hasin, Bridget F Grant
PURPOSE: The NESARC, a "third-generation" psychiatric epidemiologic survey that integrated detailed measures of alcohol and drug use and problems has been the data source for over >850 publications. A comprehensive review of NESARC findings and their implications is lacking. METHOD: NESARC was a survey of 43,093 participants that covered alcohol, drug and psychiatric disorders, risk factors, and consequences. Wave 1 of the NESARC was conducted in 2001-2002...
November 2015: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Wilson M Compton, Yonette F Thomas, Frederick S Stinson, Bridget F Grant
BACKGROUND: Current and comprehensive information on the epidemiology of DSM-IV 12-month and lifetime drug use disorders in the United States has not been available. OBJECTIVES: To present detailed information on drug abuse and dependence prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity with other Axis I and II disorders. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in a large representative sample of US adults (N=43093)...
May 2007: Archives of General Psychiatry
William W Eaton, Kimberly B Roth, Martha Bruce, Linda Cottler, Litzy Wu, Gerald Nestadt, Dan Ford, O Joseph Bienvenu, Rosa M Crum, George Rebok, James C Anthony, Alvaro Muñoz
Subjects from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program, interviewed during 1979-1983, were linked to data in the National Death Index through 2007 to estimate the association of mental and behavioral disorders with death. There were more than 25 years of follow-up for 15,440 individuals, with 6,924 deaths amounting to 307,881 person-years of observation. Data were analyzed by using age as the time scale and parametric approaches to quantify the years of life lost due to disorders. Alcohol, drug use, and antisocial personality disorders were associated with increased risk of death, but there was no strong association with mood and anxiety disorders...
November 1, 2013: American Journal of Epidemiology
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Richard Saitz, Debbie M Cheng, Donald Allensworth-Davies, Michael R Winter, Peter C Smith
OBJECTIVE: Single screening questions (SSQs) are recommended for the evaluation of unhealthy alcohol use and other drug use (risky use through dependence). In addition, SSQs could provide information on severity that is necessary for brief intervention, information thought to be available only from longer questionnaires. We assessed SSQ accuracy for identifying dependence. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study, 286 primary care patients were administered SSQs for alcohol and for other drugs (each asks how many times they were used in the past year), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), and a diagnostic interview reference standard for dependence...
January 2014: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Malka Stohl, Sandro Galea, Melanie M Wall
IMPORTANCE: Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. OBJECTIVE: To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING: Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013)...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Marc A Schuckit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
2017-08-18 01:47:14
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