Michael Aboud, Chloe Orkin, Daniel Podzamczer, Johannes R Bogner, David Baker, Marie-Aude Khuong-Josses, David Parks, Konstantinos Angelis, Lesley P Kahl, Elizabeth A Blair, Kimberly Adkison, Mark Underwood, Jessica E Matthews, Brian Wynne, Kati Vandermeulen, Martin Gartland, Kimberly Smith
BACKGROUND: Primary analyses of the SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 trials at 48 weeks showed that switching to a two-drug regimen of dolutegravir plus rilpivirine was non-inferior to continuing a standard three-drug or four-drug antiretroviral regimen for maintenance of virological suppression in people with HIV-1. Here, we present efficacy and safety data from the 100-week analysis of the trials. METHODS: SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 are identically designed, randomised, open-label phase 3 studies at 65 centres in 13 countries and 60 centres in 11 countries, respectively...
September 2019: Lancet HIV
Christian A Devaux, Jean-Marc Rolain, Philippe Colson, Didier Raoult
Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease...
May 2020: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
S Dian, V Yunivita, A R Ganiem, T Pramaesya, L Chaidir, K Wahyudi, T H Achmad, A Colbers, L Te Brake, R van Crevel, R Ruslami, R Aarnoutse
High doses of rifampin may help patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) to survive. Pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic evaluations suggested that rifampin doses higher than 13 mg/kg given intravenously or 20 mg/kg given orally (as previously studied) are warranted to maximize treatment response. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial, we assigned 60 adult TBM patients in Bandung, Indonesia, to standard 450 mg, 900 mg, or 1,350 mg (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) oral rifampin combined with other TB drugs for 30 days...
December 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ravina Kullar, George Sakoulas, Stan Deresinski, Sebastiaan J van Hal
MRSA bacteraemia (MRSAB), including infective endocarditis, carries a high mortality rate, with up to 50% of patients failing initial therapy with vancomycin and requiring salvage therapy. Persistent MRSAB can be difficult to successfully eliminate, especially when source control is not possible due to an irremovable focus or the bacteraemia still persists despite surgical intervention. Although vancomycin and daptomycin are the only two antibiotics approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with MRSAB as monotherapy, the employment of novel strategies is required to effectively treat patients with persistent MRSAB and these may frequently involve combination drug therapy...
March 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mikko K Aalto, Temmy Sunyoto, Mohamed Ahmed Ali Yusuf, Abdiaziz Ahmed Mohamed, Gert Van der Auwera, Jean-Claude Dujardin
We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013-2019 in Bosaso, the region's commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.
January 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ilias Karaiskos, Lambrini Galani, Vissaria Sakka, Aikaterini Gkoufa, Odysseas Sopilidis, Dimitrios Chalikopoulos, Gerasimos Alivizatos, Eleni Giamarellou
BACKGROUND: Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is a difficult-to-treat infection as only a few antibiotics achieve therapeutic concentrations in the prostate. Data on the efficacy and safety of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of CBP are limited. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the efficacy and safety of fosfomycin in CBP due to MDR pathogens. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, an oral regimen of 3 g of fosfomycin q24h for 1 week followed by 3 g q48h for a treatment duration of 6-12 weeks was administered...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
William R Miller, Carlos Seas, Lina P Carvajal, Lorena Diaz, Aura M Echeverri, Carolina Ferro, Rafael Rios, Paola Porras, Carlos Luna, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Jose M Munita, Esteban Nannini, Cesar Carcamo, Jinnethe Reyes, Cesar A Arias
Background: Recent studies have favored the use of cefazolin over nafcillin for the treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. The clinical influence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (CzIE) in the effectiveness of cephalosporins for severe MSSA infections has not been evaluated. Methods: We prospectively included patients from 3 Argentinian hospitals with S. aureus bacteremia. Cefazolin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined at standard (105 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) and high (107 CFU/mL) inoculum...
June 1, 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Angela Huttner, Anna Kowalczyk, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Caroline Brossier, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Katarzyna Kosiek, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Xavier Roux, Shachaf Shiber, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Elodie von Dach, Dafna Yahav, Leonard Leibovici, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Johan W Mouton, Stephan Harbarth
Importance: The use of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin has increased since guidelines began recommending them as first-line therapy for lower urinary tract infection (UTI). Objective: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in women with uncomplicated cystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, open-label, analyst-blinded, randomized clinical trial including 513 nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older with symptoms of lower UTI (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic tenderness), a positive urine dipstick result (with detection of nitrites or leukocyte esterase), and no known colonization or previous infection with uropathogens resistant to the study antibiotics...
May 1, 2018: JAMA
Jean-Louis Vincent, David Brealey, Nicolas Libert, Nour Elhouda Abidi, Michael O'Dwyer, Kai Zacharowski, Malgorzata Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Jacques Schrenzel, François Simon, Mark Wilks, Marcus Picard-Maureau, Donald B Chalfin, David J Ecker, Rangarajan Sampath, Mervyn Singer
OBJECTIVE: Early identification of causative microorganism(s) in patients with severe infection is crucial to optimize antimicrobial use and patient survival. However, current culture-based pathogen identification is slow and unreliable such that broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to insure coverage of all potential organisms, carrying risks of overtreatment, toxicity, and selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. We compared the results obtained using a novel, culture-independent polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry technology with those obtained by standard microbiological testing and evaluated the potential clinical implications of this technique...
November 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Timothy R Aksamit, Julie V Philley, David E Griffith
This review will utilize essential questions about nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease to succinctly address important new developments in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTM lung disease with a focus on practical information and "bottom line" answers. 1) What do I tell my patients who ask, “where did I get this infection” and, “should I take showers”? 2) What is the connection between bronchiectasis and the acquisition of NTM lung infection? 3) What other factors are important in the pathogenesis of NTM lung disease? 4) Why does it seem that am I seeing more new NTM lung disease patients? 5) Why is the diagnosis of NTM lung disease so complicated and does the diagnosis of NTM lung infection obligate specific treatment? 6) Unlike traditional tuberculosis, what is behind the irrelevance of most in vitro susceptibility testing reports for NTM infections? 7) Is there anything new for the management of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease? How does the radiographic appearance influence treatment? 8) Is there anything new for the management of patients with Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease? 9) What about the management of other NTM respiratory pathogens? 10) Is there a role for the use of macrolide monotherapy for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis?...
March 2014: Respiratory Medicine
Mona Ali Mohamed, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Arwa Hassan Elaagip, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed Edris, Awad Ahmed Nasr
BACKGROUND: Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012...
March 11, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Abrar K Thabit, M Jahangir Alam, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Kevin W Garey, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of fidaxomicin and vancomycin on Clostridium difficile toxins and correlation with clinical and microbiologic outcomes. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection were randomly assigned a 10-day course of fidaxomicin or vancomycin. Stool samples collected at baseline (day 0), mid-therapy (days 3-5), end of therapy (days 10-13) and follow-up (days 19-38) were assessed for quantity of toxins A and B as well as spore and vegetative cells counts...
April 12, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
H S Mohamed, M E Ibrahim, E N Miller, C S Peacock, E A G Khalil, H J Cordell, J M M Howson, A M El Hassan, R E H Bereir, J M Blackwell
Longitudinal studies in Sudan show ethnic differences in incidence and clinical phenotypes associated with Leishmania donovani. Immunologically, bias in type 1 vs type 2 cytokine responses is important. To determine whether polymorphisms at IL4/IL9 or IFNGR1 contribute to susceptibility, we examined 59 multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with/without post Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Multipoint nonparametric analysis (Allegro) linked IL4/IL9 to VL per se (P=0.002). Transmission disequilibrium testing with robust variance estimates confirmed association in the presence of linkage between VL per se and IL4 (P=0...
July 2003: Genes and Immunity
Jennifer A Huntington, George Sakoulas, Obiamiwe Umeh, Daniel J Cloutier, Judith N Steenbergen, Caleb Bliss, Ellie J C Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Empirical fluoroquinolone therapy is widely used in treating complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), even in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance. While it is believed that high antibiotic concentrations in urine might be sufficient to overcome and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, clinical trial data validating this assumption are limited. This post hoc analysis evaluated the efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus levofloxacin in the subgroup of patients with cUTIs caused by levofloxacin-resistant pathogens in a randomized, controlled trial (NCT01345929/NCT01345955)...
July 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
T Roice Fulton, Varun K Phadke, Walter A Orenstein, Alan R Hinman, Wayne D Johnson, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: Acellular pertussis (aP) and whole-cell (wP) pertussis vaccines are presumed to have similar short-term (<3 years after completion of the primary series) efficacy. However, vaccine effect varies between individual pertussis vaccine formulations, and many originally studied formulations are now unavailable. An updated analysis of the short-term protective effect of pertussis vaccines limited to formulations currently on the market in developed countries is needed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that evaluated pertussis vaccine efficacy or effectiveness within 3 years after completion (>3 doses) of a primary series of a currently available aP or wP vaccine formulation...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Michael S Abers, Barcleigh P Sandvall, Rahul Sampath, Carlo Zuno, Natalie Uy, Victor L Yu, Charles E Stager, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Postobstructive community-acquired pneumonia (PO-CAP) is relatively common in clinical practice. The clinical syndrome is poorly defined, and the role of infection as a cause of the infiltrate is uncertain. We prospectively studied patients with PO-CAP and compared them to a cohort of patients with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (B-CAP). METHODS: We prospectively studied patients hospitalized for CAP; 5.4% had PO-CAP, defined as a pulmonary infiltrate occurring distal to an obstructed bronchus...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases
John E Mazuski, Leanne B Gasink, Jon Armstrong, Helen Broadhurst, Greg G Stone, Douglas Rank, Lily Llorens, Paul Newell, Jan Pachl
BACKGROUND: When combined with ceftazidime, the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam provides a carbapenem alternative against multidrug-resistant infections. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole were compared with meropenem in 1066 men and women with complicated intra-abdominal infections from 2 identical, randomized, double-blind phase 3 studies (NCT01499290 and NCT01500239). METHODS: The primary end point was clinical cure at test-of-cure visit 28-35 days after randomization, assessed by noninferiority of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem in the microbiologically modified intention-to-treat (mMITT) population (in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidance), and the modified intention-to-treat and clinically evaluable populations (European Medicines Agency guidance)...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Jason Chertoff, Michael Chisum, Bryan Garcia, Jorge Lascano
Over the last two decades, there have been vast improvements in sepsis-related outcomes, largely resulting from the widespread adoption of aggressive fluid resuscitation and infection control. With increased understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis, novel diagnostics and resuscitative interventions are being discovered. In recent years, few diagnostic tests like lactate have engendered more attention and research in the sepsis arena. Studies highlighting lactate's prognostic potential for mortality and other outcomes are ubiquitous and largely focus on the early stage of sepsis management, defined as the initial 6 h and widely referred to as the "golden hours...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
Jill Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2014: JAMA
2014-10-12 15:18:39
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