Steven A Barker
As with all drugs, the route, form, and/or dose of a substance administered or applied can play a defining role in its overall pharmacology and use as a therapeutic. This review will focus on these factors as they relate to the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). It will examine the positive and negative aspects of different formulations and routes of administration of DMT and the observed effects from such administrations in the form of ayahuasca teas; oral "pharmahuasca"; injections by intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) routes; inhalation, insufflation; and other routes; and high-dose, low-dose, and "micro-dose" effects...
June 2022: Psychopharmacology
Sarah W Li, Matthew W Kemp, Susan J S Logan, Pooja Sharma Dimri, Navkaran Singh, Citra N Z Mattar, Pradip Dashraath, Harshaana Ramlal, Aniza P Mahyuddin, Suren Kanayan, Sean W D Carter, Serene P T Thain, Erin L Fee, Sebastian E Illanes, Mahesh A Choolani
BACKGROUND: Natural language processing is a form of artificial intelligence that allows human users to interface with a machine without using complex codes. The ability of natural language processing systems, such as ChatGPT, to successfully engage with healthcare systems requiring fluid reasoning, specialist data interpretation, and empathetic communication in an unfamiliar and evolving environment is poorly studied. This study investigated whether the ChatGPT interface could engage with and complete a mock objective structured clinical examination simulating assessment for membership of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists...
August 2023: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Brooke A Christensen, Erin S Calipari
Catecholaminergic systems are involved in a range of psychiatric disorders and are central mediators of the effects of stimulants on the brain and behavior. Advances in analytical detection methods paired with creative application of these approaches allow for recording noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in the brain in isolation with subsecond resolution. Pauly et al. ( ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2023, 10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00689) define the distinct and differential mechanisms of methamphetamine enantiomers on dopamine and norepinephrine release, giving critical insights into the pharmacodynamic properties of a stimulant that is both abused and used clinically...
May 3, 2023: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Liang Wang, Qingfan Wei, Rui Xu, Yaxing Chen, Shu Li, Qian Bu, Ying Zhao, Hongchun Li, Yue Zhao, Linhong Jiang, Yuanyuan Chen, Yanping Dai, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles with coordinated cycles of fission and fusion occurring continuously to satisfy the energy demands in the complex architecture of neurons. How mitochondria contribute to addicted drug-induced adaptable mitochondrial networks and neuroplasticity remains largely unknown. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, we first analyzed the alteration of the mitochondrial lipidome of three mouse brain areas in methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor activity and conditioned place preference...
May 3, 2023: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gao Tu, Binbin Xu, Ding Luo, Jin Liu, Zerong Liu, Gang Chen, Weiwei Xue
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a fundamental role in taking the synaptic cleft serotonin back to the presynaptic neuron. The discovery of allosteric SERT modulators represents the next-generation medication for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Here, based on the cryo-EM structures of ibogaine in complex with SERT in distinct conformations, the multiple functional structures of the transporter bound to serotonin, including outward-open (OOholo ), outward-occluded (OCholo ), and inward-open (IOholo and IOholo '), were carefully characterized by induced-fit docking Gaussian-accelerated molecular dynamics (IFD-GaMD) simulation and the free-energy landscape analysis...
April 17, 2023: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Parham Pooladgar, Mehdi Sakhabakhsh, Arsia Taghva, Saeed Soleiman-Meigooni
Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor studied and approved to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, this drug can have positive therapeutic potential in treating different conditions, including various neurodegenerative disorders such as other types of dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric and mood disorders, and even infectious diseases. Hence, this study reviewed the therapeutic potential of this drug in treating Alzheimer's and other diseases by reviewing the articles from databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct...
December 2022: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Mete Ercis, Aysegul Ozerdem, Balwinder Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2023: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Joji Suzuki, Bianca Martin, Frank Loguidice, David Smelson, Jane M Liebschutz, Jeffrey L Schnipper, Roger D Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are increasingly being hospitalized for acute medical illnesses. Despite initiation of medications for OUD (MOUDs), many discontinue treatment after discharge. To evaluate whether a psychosocial intervention can improve MOUD retention after hospitalization, we conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of a peer recovery coach intervention. METHODS: An existing peer recovery coach intervention was adapted for this trial...
March 31, 2023: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Shahana Ayub, Shanli Parnia, Karuna Poddar, Anil K Bachu, Amanda Sullivan, Ali M Khan, Saeed Ahmed, Lakshit Jain
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The opioid overdose epidemic is exacerbated by the emergence of Xylazine as an illicit drug adulterant. Xylazine, a veterinary sedative, can potentiate opioid effects while also causing toxic and potentially fatal side effects. This systematic review aims to assess the impact of Xylazine use and overdoses within the opioid epidemic context. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines to identify relevant case reports, and case series related to Xylazine use...
March 2023: Curēus
Majid Davidson, Niloufar Rashidi, Md Kamal Hossain, Ali Raza, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Addiction, the continuous misuse of addictive material, causes long-term dysfunction in the neurological system. It substantially affects the control strength of reward, memory, and motivation. Addictive substances (alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, heroin, methamphetamine (METH), and nicotine) are highly active central nervous stimulants. Addiction leads to severe health issues, including cardiovascular diseases, serious infections, and pulmonary/dental diseases. Drug dependence may result in unfavorable cognitive impairments that can continue during abstinence and negatively influence recovery performance...
February 1, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liam S Acheson, Nadine Ezard, Nicholas Lintzeris, Adrian Dunlop, Jonathan Brett, Craig Rodgers, Anthony Gill, Michael Christmass, Rebecca McKetin, Michael Farrell, Steve Shoptaw, Krista J Siefried
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine (MA) use disorder is an important public health concern. MA withdrawal is often the first step in ceasing or reducing use. There are no evidence-based withdrawal treatments, and no medication is approved for the treatment of MA withdrawal. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) dimesilate, used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and binge eating disorder has the potential as an agonist therapy to ameliorate withdrawal symptoms, and improve outcomes for patients...
2022: PloS One
Yu-Jung Cheng, Chieh-Hsin Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
Studies have demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of sarcosine, benzoate, and ketamine (including esketamine and arketamine) on depression. These drugs mainly act by modulating N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and reducing inflammation in the brain. Although ketamine, benzoate, and sarcosine act differently as the antagonists or coagonists of NMDARs, they all have demonstrated efficacy in animal models or human trials. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that sarcosine, benzoate, and ketamine exert their anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activity...
February 1, 2023: Neuropharmacology
Aleksandra Gliwińska, Justyna Czubilińska-Łada, Gniewko Więckiewicz, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Andrzej Badeński, Marta Dworak, Maria Szczepańska
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the family of neurotrophins, which are growth factors with trophic effects on neurons. BDNF is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Its distribution outside the CNS has also been demonstrated, but most studies have focused on its effects in neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the advances in medicine in recent decades, neurological and psychiatric diseases are still characterized by high drug resistance...
January 18, 2023: Brain Sciences
Thomas N Wise, Paul M Dellemonache, Maurice M Bachawati
The psychosomatic interview is a patient-focused dialogue between physician and patient. It differs from the traditional disease-focused encounter in that the psychosomatic approach includes the biological, psychological, and sociocultural domains irrespective of the patients initial complaint, whether somatic or psychological. The process of dyadic interaction and the techniques of open questions are reviewed. Specific issues such as the alexithymic patient and breaking bad news are challenges in such communications...
2012: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Gabrielle E Brown, Mona Malakouti, Eric Sorenson, Rishu Gupta, John Y M Koo
Psychodermatology is an underappreciated field that studies psychocutaneous disorders, which are conditions that have both dermatologic and psychiatric characteristics. Underlying psychiatric comorbidity is estimated to occur in up to one-third of dermatologic patients, and psychiatric illness may either be the cause or the consequence of dermatologic disease. Psychodermatologic patients lack insight and often do not recognize a psychiatric etiology for their symptoms and therefore comprise some of the most challenging cases to treat...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Chin-Chuen Lin, Tiao-Lai Huang
Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin 1 and 2, are excitory neuropeptides synthesized in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamic areas. Following their discovery in 1998, orexins are now known to be involved in feeding, sleep, stress response, and reward processing. Most importantly, orexin deficiency has been linked to narcolepsy, a neurological sleep-wake disorder. Patients with narcolepsy also present overlapping symptoms with psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depressed mood, and even hallucinations, which often lead to misdiagnosis in the initial assessment...
2022: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Roy R Gerona, Deborah French
Traditional clinical toxicology involves the analysis of patient urine samples by immunoassays designed to detect opiates/opioids, amphetamine/methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine metabolite and tetrahydrocannabinol. Expanded drug screens may also include assays for oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, 6-monoacetylmorphine, phencyclidine and fentanyl. Patient samples that are positive are commonly reflexed to be run on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory assay, as are samples that are negative for drugs that are prescribed to the patient...
2022: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Elizabeth Bowen, Andrew Irish, Charles LaBarre, Nicole Capozziello, Thomas Nochajski, Robert Granfield
BACKGROUND: Item specification is foundational to measurement development but rarely reported in depth. We address this gap by explicating our use of qualitative methods to ground and develop items for a new recovery capital measure, the Multidimensional Inventory of Recovery Capital. METHOD: We recruited a diverse sample of service providers ( n = 9) and people in recovery from alcohol problems ( n = 23) to provide feedback on an item pool assessing social, human, physical, community, and cultural capital...
2022: Addiction Research & Theory
Qinpeng Bu, Jingkai Zhang, Xiang Guo, Yifei Feng, Huan Yan, Weimin Cheng, Zhitao Feng, Meiqun Cao
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have shown potential antidepressant effects. This study evaluated the effect and probable mechanisms of bifid triple viable capsules (BTVCs) on a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into Normal, CUMS model, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX), BTVCs, and FLX+BTVCs groups. Depressive-like behaviours, pathological changes in the hippocampus, changes in serum metabolites and potential biomarkers, and metabolic pathways were detected via behavioural tests, haematoxylin-eosin staining, nissl staining, non-targetted metabolomics, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2022: Frontiers in Nutrition
Krishaa L, Ted Kheng Siang Ng, Hai Ning Wee, Jianhong Ching
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome (GM) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGB). Alterations in GM composition and diversity have been observed in both animal models and in human patients with AD. GM dysbiosis has been implicated in increased intestinal permeability, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, neuroinflammation and the development of hallmarks of AD...
April 2023: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
2023-02-15 08:31:01
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