collection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31032632/understanding-mri-in-clinical-psychiatry-perspectives-from-neuroimaging-psychiatry-registrars
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pierre Wibawa, Thomas Rego, Dennis Velakoulis, Frank Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: Based on the experiences of neuroimaging psychiatry registrars, we describe several reflections on improving the understanding and integration of magnetic resonance imaging in clinical psychiatry. CONCLUSION: Better integration of magnetic resonance imaging into clinical psychiatry can be highly productive when our investments are focused on understanding the gaps in clinical knowledge and the systemic barriers involving the patient and relevant clinicians...
August 2019: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31060361/bipolar-ii-disorder-is-a-myth
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Lauren Irwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31190658/sodium-valproate-in-psychiatric-practice-time-for-a-change-in-perception
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
David Cunningham Owens
SummarySodium valproate and related preparations have recently undergone regulatory review following concern about effects on the unborn child and doctors' failure to communicate risk. The issues are wider. Valproate is overused in psychiatry based on the false perception that 'ease' of use equates to better safety than alternatives. Valproic acid can disrupt fundamental physiological processes, the consequences of which are poorly understood and little discussed in the psychiatric literature. Valproate may be useful in a small number of patients with bipolar disorder but current prescribing patterns are unjustified...
June 13, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621912/schizophrenia-dopamine-and-the-striatum-from-biology-to-symptoms
#4
REVIEW
Robert A McCutcheon, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Oliver D Howes
The mesolimbic hypothesis has been a central dogma of schizophrenia for decades, positing that aberrant functioning of midbrain dopamine projections to limbic regions causes psychotic symptoms. Recently, however, advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the unanticipated finding that dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is greatest within nigrostriatal pathways, implicating the dorsal striatum in the pathophysiology and calling into question the mesolimbic theory. At the same time our knowledge of striatal anatomy and function has progressed, suggesting new mechanisms via which striatal dysfunction may contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia...
March 2019: Trends in Neurosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31303314/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-32-oral-antipsychotics-for-the-acute-treatment-of-adults-with-multi-episode-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Maximilian Huhn, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Johannes Schneider-Thoma, Marc Krause, Myrto Samara, Natalie Peter, Thomas Arndt, Lio Bäckers, Philipp Rothe, Andrea Cipriani, John Davis, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric disorders in adults worldwide. Antipsychotic drugs are its treatment of choice, but there is controversy about which agent should be used. We aimed to compare and rank antipsychotics by quantifying information from randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We did a network meta-analysis of placebo-controlled and head-to-head randomised controlled trials and compared 32 antipsychotics...
September 14, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31474129/is-there-long-term-benefit-from-stimulant-treatment-for-adhd
#6
EDITORIAL
Steven R Pliszka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644552/the-neurobiology-of-addiction
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
George R Uhl, George F Koob, Jennifer Cable
Substance and alcohol use disorders impose large health and economic burdens on individuals, families, communities, and society. Neither prevention nor treatment efforts are effective in all individuals. Results are often modest. Advances in neuroscience and addiction research have helped to describe the neurobiological changes that occur when a person transitions from recreational substance use to a substance use disorder or addiction. Understanding both the drivers and consequences of substance use in vulnerable populations, including those whose brains are still maturing, has revealed behavioral and biological characteristics that can increase risks of addiction...
September 2019: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31596477/evidence-based-drug-treatment-of-acute-depression-in-bipolar-disorder
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bruce M Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900848/treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-a-brief-overview-of-treatment-options
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Justin Faden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810723/association-of-delirium-response-and-safety-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-the-management-and-prevention-of-delirium-a-network-meta-analysis
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yi-Cheng Wu, Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Kang Tu, Chung-Yao Hsu, Chih-Sung Liang, Ta-Chuan Yeh, Tien-Yu Chen, Che-Sheng Chu, Yutaka J Matsuoka, Brendon Stubbs, Andre F Carvalho, Saho Wada, Pao-Yen Lin, Yen-Wen Chen, Kuan-Pin Su
Importance: Although several pharmacological interventions for delirium have been investigated, their overall benefit and safety remain unclear. Objective: To evaluate evidence regarding pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment and prevention. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, ClinicalKey, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to May 17, 2018. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment and prevention...
May 1, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/22275848/pharmacotherapy-of-anxiety-disorders-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
Nastassja Koen, Dan J Stein
Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31669058/autoimmune-psychosis-an-international-consensus-on-an-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-psychosis-of-suspected-autoimmune-origin
#12
REVIEW
Thomas A Pollak, Belinda R Lennox, Sabine Müller, Michael E Benros, Harald Prüss, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Hans Klein, Johann Steiner, Thomas Frodl, Bernhard Bogerts, Li Tian, Laurent Groc, Alkomiet Hasan, Bernhard T Baune, Dominique Endres, Ebrahim Haroon, Robert Yolken, Francesco Benedetti, Angelos Halaris, Jeffrey H Meyer, Hans Stassen, Marion Leboyer, Dietmar Fuchs, Markus Otto, David A Brown, Angela Vincent, Souhel Najjar, Karl Bechter
There is increasing recognition in the neurological and psychiatric literature of patients with so-called isolated psychotic presentations (ie, with no, or minimal, neurological features) who have tested positive for neuronal autoantibodies (principally N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies) and who have responded to immunotherapies. Although these individuals are sometimes described as having atypical, mild, or attenuated forms of autoimmune encephalitis, some authors feel that that these cases are sufficiently different from typical autoimmune encephalitis to establish a new category of so-called autoimmune psychosis...
January 2020: Lancet Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30292731/sleep-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Milena K Pavlova, Véronique Latreille
Sleep disorders are frequent and can have serious consequences on patients' health and quality of life. While some sleep disorders are more challenging to treat, most can be easily managed with adequate interventions. We review the main diagnostic features of 6 major sleep disorders (insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, sleep-disordered breathing, hypersomnia/narcolepsy, parasomnias, and restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder) to aid medical practitioners in screening and treating sleep disorders as part of clinical practice...
March 2019: American Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31148538/why-we-need-to-take-personality-disorder-out-of-the-doghouse
#14
EDITORIAL
Peter Tyrer
The diagnosis of personality disorder is sometimes tolerated but often reviled as a label to attach to people we do not like. This is hardly surprising when we consider that problems in interpersonal relationships constitute the main feature of the disorder. But we cannot escape the fact that personality problems are extremely common and rejection on grounds of perceived undesirability is doltish. Both the DSM-5 (2013) alternative model and new ICD-11 classification of personality may help understanding as they are more in tune with science...
February 2020: British Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31213121/anosognosia-is-associated-with-greater-caregiver-burden-and-poorer-executive-function-in-huntington-disease
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
P Wibawa, R Zombor, M Dragovic, B Hayhow, J Lee, P K Panegyres, D Rock, S E Starkstein
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia, or unawareness of one's deficits, is estimated to occur in 25% to 50% of Huntington disease (HD). The relationship between anosognosia and increased caregiver burden found in other dementias has not been determined in HD. METHODS: Patient-caregiver dyads presenting to a statewide HD clinic were assessed using the Anosognosia Scale and grouped into "anosognosia" and "no anosognosia." Caregiver burden, measured by Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), demographic data, and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, including Mini-Mental State Examination, Stroop, Trail Making, Verbal Fluency, and Symbol Digit Modalities Tests, were compared between groups...
January 2020: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704281/smoking-cannabis-and-acquired-impairments-in-cognition-starting-early-seems-like-a-really-bad-idea
#16
EDITORIAL
Philip D Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/15337640/antidepressants-for-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Harm J Gijsman, John R Geddes, Jennifer M Rendell, Willem A Nolen, Guy M Goodwin
OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed the evidence from randomized, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the short-term treatment of bipolar depression. METHOD: The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. They searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety, and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register, incorporating results of searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, PSYNDEX, and LILACS...
September 2004: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31664453/schizophrenia-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Robert A McCutcheon, Tiago Reis Marques, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Schizophrenia is a common, severe mental illness that most clinicians will encounter regularly during their practice. This report provides an overview of the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, genetics, neuroscience, and psychopharmacology of schizophrenia to provide a basis to understand the disorder and its treatment. This educational review is integrated with a clinical case to highlight how recent research findings can inform clinical understanding. Observations: The first theme considered is the role of early-life environmental and genetic risk factors in altering neurodevelopmental trajectories to predispose an individual to the disorder and leading to the development of prodromal symptoms...
February 1, 2020: JAMA Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31474121/substance-induced-psychotic-disorders-and-schizophrenia-pathophysiological-insights-and-clinical-implications
#19
COMMENT
Rajiv Tandon, Sonia Motin Shariff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785608/association-of-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-vs-monotherapy-with-psychiatric-rehospitalization-among-adults-with-schizophrenia
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jari Tiihonen, Heidi Taipale, Juha Mehtälä, Pia Vattulainen, Christoph U Correll, Antti Tanskanen
Importance: The effectiveness of antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia relapse prevention is controversial, and use of multiple agents is generally believed to impair physical well-being. Objective: To study the association of specific antipsychotic combinations with psychiatric rehospitalization. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this nationwide cohort study, the risk of psychiatric rehospitalization was used as a marker for relapse among 62 250 patients with schizophrenia during the use of 29 different antipsychotic monotherapy and polypharmacy types between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2015, in a comprehensive, nationwide cohort in Finland...
May 1, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
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