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PEDs/ supplements

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#1
REVIEW
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28702900/selected-in-season-nutritional-strategies-to-enhance-recovery-for-team-sport-athletes-a-practical-overview
#2
REVIEW
Lisa E Heaton, Jon K Davis, Eric S Rawson, Ryan P Nuccio, Oliver C Witard, Kimberly W Stein, Keith Baar, James M Carter, Lindsay B Baker
Team sport athletes face a variety of nutritional challenges related to recovery during the competitive season. The purpose of this article is to review nutrition strategies related to muscle regeneration, glycogen restoration, fatigue, physical and immune health, and preparation for subsequent training bouts and competitions. Given the limited opportunities to recover between training bouts and games throughout the competitive season, athletes must be deliberate in their recovery strategy. Foundational components of recovery related to protein, carbohydrates, and fluid have been extensively reviewed and accepted...
November 2017: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29784526/the-effect-of-glutamine-supplementation-on-athletic-performance-body-composition-and-immune-function-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#3
Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi, Elham Rayyani, Mehdi Bahreini, Anahita Mansoori
BACKGROUND & AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was conducted to obtain a conclusive result on the effects of glutamine supplementation on athletes. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data related to body mass, lean body mass, body fat percentage, Vo2 max, lymphocytes, leukocytes and neutrophil counts were extracted to determine the effects of GLN on performance outcomes. DATA SOURCES: The literature search was conducted across the databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, SID (Scientific Information Database) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, covering a period up to January 2017...
June 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27322318/dietary-recommendations-for-cyclists-during-altitude-training
#4
REVIEW
Małgorzata Michalczyk, Miłosz Czuba, Grzegorz Zydek, Adam Zając, Józef Langfort
The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment...
June 18, 2016: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24803271/redox-status-and-antioxidant-response-in-professional-cyclists-during-training
#5
Roberto Carlos Leonardo-Mendonça, Melquiades Concepción-Huertas, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Mikel Zabala, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
The aim of this study was to investigate whether different phases of training affect oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in professional cyclists. Ten professional cyclists, aged 21.8 ± 2.5 years, were enrolled in the study. They were classified into two groups of five athletes each one with similar nutritional intake excepting for the overload of vitamin C (1000 mg day(-1)) and E (400 mg day(-1)) supplementation in one of them. The cyclists of both groups performed the same exercise design, consisting of hard, tapering and recovery training periods...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25927096/probiotics-for-preventing-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
REVIEW
Qiukui Hao, Bi Rong Dong, Taixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs...
February 3, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27583821/drug-use-and-misuse-in-the-mountains-a-uiaa-medcom-consensus-guide-for-medical-professionals
#7
Enrico Donegani, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, David Hillebrandt
Donegani, Enrico, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, and David Hillebrandt. Drug use and misuse in the mountains: a UIAA MedCom consensus guide for medical professionals. High Alt Med Biol. 17:157-184, 2016.-Aims: The aim of this review is to inform mountaineers about drugs commonly used in mountains. For many years, drugs have been used to enhance performance in mountaineering. It is the UIAA (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation-Union International des Associations d'Alpinisme) Medcom's duty to protect mountaineers from possible harm caused by uninformed drug use...
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28009890/the-health-benefits-of-uv-radiation-exposure-through-vitamin-d-production-or-non-vitamin-d-pathways-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Richard B Weller
The detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation are well known. Skin cancer, photo-aging, and induction or exacerbation of photosensitive dermatoses have been the focus of most photobiological research since 1928 when Findlay confirmed the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet radiation using a murine model of skin cancer. The epidemiological, mechanistic and clinical trial data have enabled the classification by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of ultraviolet radiation as a Group 1 ('sufficient evidence') carcinogen for human skin...
March 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28202713/vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#9
REVIEW
Adrian R Martineau, David A Jolliffe, Richard L Hooper, Lauren Greenberg, John F Aloia, Peter Bergman, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Susanna Esposito, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Adit A Ginde, Emma C Goodall, Cameron C Grant, Christopher J Griffiths, Wim Janssens, Ilkka Laaksi, Semira Manaseki-Holland, David Mauger, David R Murdoch, Rachel Neale, Judy R Rees, Steve Simpson, Iwona Stelmach, Geeta Trilok Kumar, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Carlos A Camargo
Objectives  To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design  Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources  Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection  Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome...
February 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25050610/vitamin-d-supplementation-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-adolescent-swimmers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gal Dubnov-Raz, Barak Rinat, Harri Hemilä, Lauryn Choleva, Avner H Cohen, Naama W Constantini
Observational studies identified associations between vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 30ng·ml-1) and risk of upper respiratory infection (URI). Swimmers are highly prone to URIs, which might hinder their performance. The aim of this study was to examine if vitamin D3 supplementation reduces URI burden in vitamin D-insufficient swimmers. Fifty-five competitive adolescent swimmers with vitamin D insufficiency were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (2,000IU·d-1) or placebo for 12 winter weeks. A URI symptom questionnaire was completed weekly...
February 2015: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/23600891/effects-of-dietary-antioxidants-on-training-and-performance-in-female-runners
#11
Andrea J Braakhuis, Will G Hopkins, Tim E Lowe
Exercise-induced oxidative stress is implicated in muscle damage and fatigue which has led athletes to embark on antioxidant supplementation regimes to negate these effects. This study investigated the intake of vitamin C (VC) (1 g), blackcurrant (BC) juice (15 mg VC, 300 mg anthocyanins) and placebo in isocaloric drink form on training progression, incremental running test and 5-km time-trial performance. Twenty-three trained female runners (age, 31 ± 8 y; mean ± SD) completed three blocks of high-intensity training for 3 wks and 3 days, separated by a washout (~3...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/8185726/vitamin-c-supplementation-reduces-the-incidence-of-postrace-symptoms-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-ultramarathon-runners
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
E M Peters, J M Goetzsche, B Grobbelaar, T D Noakes
This study determined whether daily supplementation with 600 mg vitamin C would reduce the incidence of symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract (URT) infections after participation in a competitive ultramarathon race (> 42 km). Ultramarathon runners with age-matched controls were randomly divided into placebo and experimental (vitamin C-supplemented) groups. Symptoms of URT infections were monitored for 14 d after the race. Sixty-eight percent of the runners in the placebo group reported the development of symptoms of URT infection after the race; this was significantly more (P < 0...
February 1993: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/9139752/vitamin-c-neutrophil-function-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-risk-in-distance-runners-the-missing-link
#13
REVIEW
E M Peters-Futre
Moderate submaximal exercise results in neutrophilia and enhanced phagocytic and oxidative capacity of neutrophils. It has been hypothesized, however, that during intensive exercise and periods of intensive training this pro-oxidative effect becomes suppressive. Vitamin C is widely recognized for its antioxidant function in extracellular fluid, and it has been shown to neutralize O2-, HOCl, and .OH and to attenuate the suppression of phagocytic function. Clinical manifestation of reduced neutrophil function following participation in ultramarathon races has, however, not been observed...
1997: Exercise Immunology Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/18769906/molecular-detection-of-exercise-induced-free-radicals-following-ascorbate-prophylaxis-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
G W Davison, T Ashton, L George, I S Young, J McEneny, B Davies, S K Jackson, J R Peters, D M Bailey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are more susceptible than healthy individuals to exercise-induced oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction, which has important implications for the progression of disease. Thus, in the present study, we designed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the original hypothesis that oral prophylaxis with vitamin C attenuates rest and exercise-induced free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus...
November 2008: Diabetologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/20517894/oral-vitamin-c-and-e-combination-modulates-blood-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-vitamin-levels-in-maximal-exercising-basketball-players
#15
Mustafa Naziroğlu, Fatih Kilinç, Abdulhadi Cihangir Uğuz, Omer Celik, Ramazan Bal, Peter J Butterworth, Metin Lütfi Baydar
Oxidative stress occurs during maximal exercise, perhaps as a result of increased consumption of oxygen. Vitamins C and E can overcome the effects of antioxidants in exercise. We investigated the effects of supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and E (VCE) on blood lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidant levels following maximal training in basketball players.Blood samples were taken from 14 players (group A) and divided into two subgroups namely maximal training (group B) and maximal training plus VCE groups (group C)...
June 2010: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/12806217/nutritional-aspects-in-ultra-endurance-exercise
#16
REVIEW
Edith M Peters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite much current debate regarding central and peripheral neural mechanisms which may be responsible for the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise, maintenance of nutritional and hydration status remains critical for successful participation in ultra-endurance exercise. This review focuses on substrate and fluid homeostasis during ultra-endurance exercise and the use of nutritional supplementation both as ergogenic aid and to attenuate exercise-induced immunosuppression...
July 2003: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/11590482/vitamin-c-supplementation-attenuates-the-increases-in-circulating-cortisol-adrenaline-and-anti-inflammatory-polypeptides-following-ultramarathon-running
#17
E M Peters, R Anderson, D C Nieman, H Fickl, V Jogessar
The effects of vitamin C supplementation on the alterations in the circulating concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) which accompany ultramarathon running were measured using immuno-chemiluminescence, radioimmunoassay and ELISA procedures. Forty-five participants in the 1999 Comrades 90 km marathon were divided into equal groups (n = 15) receiving 500 mg/day Vit C (VC-500), 1500 mg/day Vit C (VC-1500) or placebo (P) for 7 days before the race, on the day of the race, and for 2 days following completion...
October 2001: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/11960947/influence-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-on-oxidative-and-immune-changes-after-an-ultramarathon
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David C Nieman, Dru A Henson, Steve R McAnulty, Lisa McAnulty, Nathaniel S Swick, Alan C Utter, Debra M Vinci, Shannon J Opiela, Jason D Morrow
The purpose of this randomized study was to measure the influence of vitamin C (n = 15 runners) compared with placebo (n = 13 runners) supplementation on oxidative and immune changes in runners competing in an ultramarathon race. During the 7-day period before the race and on race day, subjects ingested in randomized, double-blind fashion 1,500 mg/day vitamin C or placebo. On race day, blood samples were collected 1 h before race, after 32 km of running, and then again immediately after race. Subjects in both groups maintained an intensity of approximately 75% maximal heart rate throughout the ultramarathon race and ran a mean of 69 km (range: 48-80 km) in 9...
May 2002: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/17636648/vitamin-c-for-preventing-and-treating-the-common-cold
#19
REVIEW
R M Douglas, H Hemilä, E Chalker, B Treacy
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the prevention and treatment of the common cold has been a subject of controversy for 60 years, but is widely sold and used as both a preventive and therapeutic agent. OBJECTIVES: To discover whether oral doses of 0.2 g or more daily of vitamin C reduces the incidence, duration or severity of the common cold when used either as continuous prophylaxis or after the onset of symptoms. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2006); MEDLINE (1966 to December 2006); and EMBASE (1990 to December 2006)...
July 18, 2007: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31454046/effect-of-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-volumetric-bone-density-and-bone-strength-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lauren A Burt, Emma O Billington, Marianne S Rose, Duncan A Raymond, David A Hanley, Steven K Boyd
Importance: Few studies have assessed the effects of daily vitamin D doses at or above the tolerable upper intake level for 12 months or greater, yet 3% of US adults report vitamin D intakes of at least 4000 IU per day. Objective: To assess the dose-dependent effect of vitamin D supplementation on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three-year, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in a single center in Calgary, Canada, from August 2013 to December 2017, including 311 community-dwelling healthy adults without osteoporosis, aged 55 to 70 years, with baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) of 30 to 125 nmol/L...
August 27, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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