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Respiratory Medicine Bulletin: Healthcare Library of Northern Ireland

https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209711/adherence-to-an-oxygen-weaning-protocol-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-the-medical-icu
#1
Kristina E Ramirez, Richard W Wettstein, Sylvia Cuevas, Donna D Gardner, Ruben D Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the ICU often receive supplemental oxygen. If not closely monitored, this may lead to hyperoxia. The use of an oxygen-weaning protocol may reduce this risk by pacing the titration of oxygen therapy to patient needs. ICU protocols are correlated with decreased mortality and length of stay and have great potential for cost savings. The goals of this study were to determine whether the oxygen-weaning protocol at a university-affiliated hospital was followed and to measure the length of time respiratory therapists took to wean patients once the oxygen-weaning parameters were met...
October 2020: Respiratory Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32993620/artificial-intelligence-accuracy-in-detecting-pathological-breath-sounds-in-children-using-digital-stethoscopes
#2
Ajay Kevat, Anaath Kalirajah, Robert Roseby
BACKGROUND: Manual auscultation to detect abnormal breath sounds has poor inter-observer reliability. Digital stethoscopes with artificial intelligence (AI) could improve reliable detection of these sounds. We aimed to independently test the abilities of AI developed for this purpose. METHODS: One hundred and ninety two auscultation recordings collected from children using two different digital stethoscopes (Clinicloud™ and Littman™) were each tagged as containing wheezes, crackles or neither by a pediatric respiratory physician, based on audio playback and careful spectrogram and waveform analysis, with a subset validated by a blinded second clinician...
September 29, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33040021/classification-of-aerosol-generating-procedures-a-rapid-systematic-review
#3
Tanya Jackson, Danika Deibert, Graeme Wyatt, Quentin Durand-Moreau, Anil Adisesh, Kamlesh Khunti, Sachin Khunti, Simon Smith, Xin Hui S Chan, Lawrence Ross, Nia Roberts, Elaine Toomey, Trisha Greenhalgh, Isheeta Arora, Susannah M Black, Jonathan Drake, Nandana Syam, Robert Temple, Sebastian Straube
In the context of covid-19, aerosol generating procedures have been highlighted as requiring a higher grade of personal protective equipment. We investigated how official guidance documents and academic publications have classified procedures in terms of whether or not they are aerosol-generating. We performed a rapid systematic review using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses standards. Guidelines, policy documents and academic papers published in english or french offering guidance on aerosol-generating procedures were eligible...
October 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33051218/clinical-and-financial-burden-of-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-selected-underlying-comorbidities-in-england
#4
James Campling, Dylan Jones, James Chalmers, Qin Jiang, Andrew Vyse, Harish Madhava, Gillian Ellsbury, Adrian Rabe, Mary Slack
BACKGROUND: Hospitalised pneumonia may have long-term clinical and financial impact in adult patients with underlying comorbidities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database to determine the clinical and financial burden over 3 years of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to England's National Health Service (NHS). Subjects were adults with six underlying comorbidities (chronic heart disease (CHD); chronic kidney disease (CKD); chronic liver disease (CLD); chronic respiratory disease (CRD); diabetes mellitus (DM) and post bone marrow transplant (post-BMT)) with an inpatient admission in 2012/2013...
October 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33036610/covid-19-multidisciplinary-high-dependency-unit-the-milan-model
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Aliberti, Francesco Amati, Maria Pappalettera, Marta Di Pasquale, Alice D'Adda, Marco Mantero, Andrea Gramegna, Edoardo Simonetta, Anna Maria Oneta, Emilia Privitera, Andrea Gori, Giorgio Bozzi, Flora Peyvandi, Francesca Minoia, Giovanni Filocamo, Chiara Abbruzzese, Marco Vicenzi, Paola Tagliabue, Salvatore Alongi, Francesco Blasi
COVID-19 is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The pathogenesis and the complications of the disease are not fully elucidated, and increasing evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 causes a systemic inflammatory disease rather than a pulmonary disease. The management of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 dedicated units is advisable for segregation purpose as well as for infection control. In this article we present the standard operating procedures of our COVID-19 high dependency unit of the Policlinico Hospital, in Milan...
October 9, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30475654/pattern-of-cardiovascular-comorbidity-in-copd-in-a-country-with-low-smoking-prevalence-results-from-two-population-based-cohorts-from-sweden
#6
Berne Eriksson, Helena Backman, Linda Ekerljung, Malin Axelsson, Anne Lindberg, Eva Rönmark, Bo Lundbäck
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common comorbidities in COPD, due to common risk factors such as smoking. The prevalence of current smokers in Sweden has decreased over four decades to around 10%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution and associations of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD by disease severity in two large areas of Sweden, both with low-smoking prevalence. Data from clinical examinations in 2009-2012, including spirometry and structured interview, from two large-scale population studies, the West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS) and the OLIN Studies in Northern Sweden, were pooled...
October 2018: COPD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32978244/diagnostic-and-clinical-values-of-non-cardiac-ultrasound-in-copd-a-systematic-review
#7
Jaber S Alqahtani, Tope Oyelade, Jithin Sreedharan, Abdulelah M Aldhahir, Saeed M Alghamdi, Ahmed M Alrajeh, Abdullah S Alqahtani, Abdullah Alsulayyim, Yousef S Aldabayan, Nowaf Y Alobaidi, Mohammed D AlAhmari
BACKGROUND: Clinical and research utility of non-cardiac ultrasound (US) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely investigated. However, there is no systematic review assessing the clinical values of non-cardiac US techniques in COPD. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to 24 June 2020. Two independent reviewers in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines extracted data...
September 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32510764/effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Zhang Xuemei, Yin Changchun, Tian Wuguo, Lu Dongbing, Yang Xiumu
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms such as depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is still controversial in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients with COPD. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the effect of CBT on anxiety and depression in patients with COPD, with a view to providing some guidance for clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computer search Web of Science, EMbase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, search time limit from the establishment of the library to August 2019...
June 8, 2020: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32460414/the-effects-of-home-noninvasive-ventilation-on-the-quality-of-life-and-physiological-parameters-of-patients-with-chronic-respiratory-failure
#9
Aycan Yüksel, Fatma Çiftçi, Aydın Çiledağ, Akın Kaya
INTRODUCTION: Home noninvasive mechanical ventilation (HNIV) in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF) may improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and reduce hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of HNIV on HRQoL, sleep quality and hospitalization rates in restrictive thoracic diseases (RTD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with CHRF. METHODS: In this prospective, single center study patients divided into two groups; the COPD and the RTD groups...
September 2020: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33032592/epidemiological-characteristics-and-the-entire-evolution-of-coronavirus-disease-2019-in-wuhan-china
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Dongming Wang, Jing Cai, Tingming Shi, Yang Xiao, Xiaobing Feng, Meng Yang, Wenzhen Li, Wei Liu, Linling Yu, Zi Ye, Tao Xu, Jixuan Ma, Mingyan Li, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly around the world. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the entire evolution of COVID-19 in Wuhan, and to evaluate the effect of non-pharmaceutical intervention by the government. METHODS: The information of COVID-19 cases until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan were collected from the national infectious disease surveillance system in Hubei province. RESULTS: A total of 49,973 confirmed cases were reported until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan...
October 8, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32873607/ethnicity-and-risk-of-death-in-patients-hospitalised-for-covid-19-infection-in-the-uk-an-observational-cohort-study-in-an-urban-catchment-area
#11
Elizabeth Sapey, Suzy Gallier, Chris Mainey, Peter Nightingale, David McNulty, Hannah Crothers, Felicity Evison, Katharine Reeves, Domenico Pagano, Alastair K Denniston, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Peter Diggle, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that certain black and Asian minority ethnic groups experience poorer outcomes from COVID-19, but these studies have not provided insight into potential reasons for this. We hypothesised that outcomes would be poorer for those of South Asian ethnicity hospitalised from a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, once confounding factors, health-seeking behaviours and community demographics were considered, and that this might reflect a more aggressive disease course in these patients...
September 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32993656/expression-of-sars-cov-2-entry-receptors-in-the-respiratory-tract-of-healthy-individuals-smokers-and-asthmatics
#12
REVIEW
Magdalena Matusiak, Christian M Schürch
SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic with currently > 29 million confirmed cases and > 900,000 deaths worldwide. The locations and mechanisms of virus entry into the human respiratory tract are incompletely characterized. We analyzed publicly available RNA microarray datasets for SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and cofactors ACE2, TMPRSS2, BSG (CD147) and FURIN. We found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are upregulated in the airways of smokers. In asthmatics, ACE2 tended to be downregulated in nasal epithelium, and TMPRSS2 was upregulated in the bronchi...
September 29, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209705/importance-of-nebulizer-drying-for-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
John E Moore, Rachel E Moore, Jane Bell, B Cherie Millar
BACKGROUND: Nebulizer therapy is an important treatment component for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Nebulizer manufacturers' guidelines advocate thorough nebulizer drying after washing. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the microbiology associated with nebulizer drying, particularly related to Pseudomonas control, and to examine microbiologically non-adherence to the recommended drying procedures. METHODS: Four aspects of nebulizer drying were examined in 3 common nebulizers, including examination of the drying profile, improvement to the drying profile of assembled nebulizers, survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tap water and in tap water plus 0...
October 2020: Respiratory Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32962703/inflammatory-phenotyping-predicts-clinical-outcome-in-covid-19
#14
H Burke, A Freeman, D C Cellura, B L Stuart, N J Brendish, S Poole, F Borca, H T T Phan, N Sheard, S Williams, C M Spalluto, K J Staples, T W Clark, T M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to more than 760,000 deaths worldwide (correct as of 16th August 2020). Studies suggest a hyperinflammatory response is a major cause of disease severity and death. Identitfying COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation may identify subgroups who could benefit from targeted immunomodulatory treatments. Analysis of cytokine levels at the point of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection can identify patients at risk of deterioration. METHODS: We used a multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-1β, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-33 and IFN-γ in 100 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 at admission to University Hospital Southampton (UK)...
September 22, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32913005/last-resort-strategies-during-mask-shortages-optimal-design-features-of-cloth-masks-and-decontamination-of-disposable-masks-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
#15
REVIEW
Shovon Bhattacharjee, Prateek Bahl, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, C Raina MacIntyre
Face masks and respirators are the most widely used intervention measures for respiratory protection. In the wake of COVID-19, in response to shortages and lack of availability of surgical masks and respirators, the use of cloth masks has become a research focus. Various fabrics have been promoted with little evidence-based foundation and without guidelines on design principles for optimal performance. In these circumstances, it is essential to understand the properties, key performance factors, filter mechanisms and evidence on cloth masks materials...
September 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32938445/pneumothorax-in-covid-19-disease-incidence-and-clinical-characteristics
#16
Massa Zantah, Eduardo Dominguez Castillo, Ryan Townsend, Fusun Dikengil, Gerard J Criner
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 3000 patients admitted to our institution for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of COVID-19 cases admitted to our hospital. Patients who were diagnosed with a spontaneous pneumothorax were identified to calculate the incidence of this event...
September 16, 2020: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33023899/portable-negative-pressure-environment-to-protect-staff-during-aerosol-generating-procedures-in-patients-with-covid-19
#17
REVIEW
James Nilson, Nikolay Bugaev, Pavan Sekhar, Haracio Hojman, Luis Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Sadeq A Quraishi
Patients with COVID-19 often need therapeutic interventions that are considered high aerosol-generating procedures. These are either being performed by healthcare providers with potentially inadequate personal protective equipment or the procedures are being delayed until patients clear their viral load. Both scenarios are suboptimal. We present a simple, cost-effective method of creating a portable negative pressure environment using equipment that is found in most hospitals to better protect healthcare providers and to facilitate more timely care for patients with COVID-19...
October 2020: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32568446/red-cell-distribution-width-for-prognosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Xiqian Xing, Yishu Deng, Yun Zhu, Shuangyan Xu, Jie Liu, Chunfang Zhang, Shuanglan Xu, Jiao Yang
OBJECTIVES: Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have a higher red cell distribution width (RDW), which may complicate the interpretation of the prognosis of PE. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the RDW in patients with PE. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE from inception to December 23, 2018. The data were pooled using Stata 12 to evaluate the prognostic value. The sources of heterogeneity were detected. RESULTS: For the analysis of prognosis, 7 studies with 2146 patients were included, with median RDW values ranging from 13...
June 22, 2020: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209703/the-relevance-of-targeting-treatment-to-small-airways-in-asthma-and-copd
#19
REVIEW
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Matteo Pecchiari, Matteo Ferrando, Francesco Tursi, Vincenzo Patella, Fulvio Braido
COPD and asthma have different risk factors and pathogenesis, but they share a pathophysiologic hallmark characterized by small airways disease. Although difficult to explore and measure, modifications of distal airways' pathophysiology and biology represent an early sign of obstructive disease and should be researched and assessed in everyday clinical practice. In the last 15 years, computed microtomography scans have shed light on the anatomy and physiology of the so-called silent zone, and research devoted to investigate the effect of inhaled treatments on small airway pathophysiology has been increasing...
September 2020: Respiratory Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33087114/risk-factors-for-the-critical-illness-in-sars-cov-2-infection-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Sijing Cheng, Dingfeng Wu, Jie Li, Yifeng Zou, Yunle Wan, Lihan Shen, Lixin Zhu, Mang Shi, Linlin Hou, Tao Xu, Na Jiao, Yichen Li, Yibo Huang, Zhipeng Tang, Mingwei Xu, Shusong Jiang, Maokun Li, Guangjun Yan, Ping Lan, Ruixin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Prior studies reported that 5 ~ 32% COVID-19 patients were critically ill, a situation that poses great challenge for the management of the patients and ICU resources. We aim to identify independent risk factors to serve as prediction markers for critical illness of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Fifty-two critical and 200 non-critical SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive patients hospitalized in 15 hospitals outside Wuhan from January 19 to March 6, 2020 were enrolled in this study...
October 21, 2020: Respiratory Research
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